Hupenyu nebasa raMiguel Hernández

Miguel Hernandez.

Miguel Hernandez.

Inofungidzirwa seimwe remanzwi ane mukurumbira mune zana ramakumi maviri mabhuku echiSpanish, Miguel Hernández Gilabert (1910 - 1942) aive mudetembi wechiSpanish uye mutambi wemitambo akatenderedzwa kune Chizvarwa che36. Kunyangwe mune mamwe mareferenzi munyori uyu akapihwa kuGeneration yemakumi maviri neshanu nekuda kwekuchinjana kwevazivi kwaakaita nenhengo dzayo dzinoverengeka, kunyanya naMaruja Mallo kana Vicente Aleixandre, kungodoma vashoma.

Anorangarirwa semufira kufa akafira pasi peudzvanyiriri hweFrancoism.zvakanaka aingova nemakore makumi matatu nerimwe chete paakafa nekuda kwechirwere cherurindi mutirongo muAlicante. Izvi zvakaitika mushure mekunge asungwa uye akatongerwa rufu (gare gare mutongo wake wakachinjirwa kumakore makumi matatu mutirongo). Hernández aive nehupenyu hupfupi, asi akasiya nhaka yakakura yemabasa ane mukurumbira, pakati pawo anoonekera Mwedzi nyanzvi, Mheni isingamiri y Mhepo inovandira.

Udiki, hudiki uye zvinofurira

Miguel Hernández akaberekerwa muOrihuela, Spain, musi waGumiguru 30, 1910. Aive wechitatu pavanun'una vanomwe vakabuda mumubatanidzwa pakati paMiguel Hernández Sánchez naConcepción Gilabert. Yaive mhuri ine hushoma yakatsaurirwa kurera mbudzi. Nekudaro, Miguel akatanga achiri mudiki kuita basa iri, pasina chishuwo chakakura chekudzidziswa kwedzidzo pane zvidzidzo zvepuraimari.

Zvisinei, kubva pamakore gumi nemashanu vechidiki Hernández akatsigira mabasa ake ekuchengeta mombe pamwe nekuverenga kwakanyanya kwevanyori vezvinyorwa zvekare.ku —Gabriel Miró, Garcilaso de la Vega, Calderón de la Barca kana Luis de Góngora, pakati pevamwe- kusvika ave munhu chaiye-anozvidzidzisa. Munguva iyoyo akatanga kunyora nhetembo dzake dzekutanga.

Saizvozvowo, Aive nhengo yeboka rakagadziriswa remisangano yekunyora pamwe chete nevakakurumbira vehungwaru. Pakati pevanhu vaakagovana navo, Ramón Sijé, Manuel Molina nehama Carlos naEfraín Fenol vanobuda. Gare gare, pazera ramakumi maviri (muna 20) akagamuchira Mubairo weArtistic Society yeOrfeón Ilicitano Imba kuna Valencia, nhetembo ine mitsara inokwana zana nemakumi matatu nematatu pamusoro pevanhu nenzvimbo yegungwa reLevantine.

Quote naMiguel Hernández.

Quote naMiguel Hernández.

Kufamba kuenda kuMadrid

Kutanga rwendo

Musi waZvita 31, 1931 akaenda kuMadrid kekutanga kunotsvaga kuratidzira kukuru. Asi Hernández haana kutora basa rakakosha kunyangwe aine mukurumbira, mareferenzi akanaka uye mazano. Nekudaro, aifanira kudzokera kuOrihuela mushure memwedzi mishanu. Nekudaro, yaive nguva ine zvibereko kwazvo kubva kune yekuona nzvimbo, nekuti akasangana zvakananga nebasa reGeneration ye27.

Saizvozvo, kugara kwake muMadrid kwakamupa dzidziso uye kurudziro inodiwa kunyora Mwedzi nyanzvi, bhuku rake rekutanga, rakaburitswa muna 1933. Gore rimwe chetero akadzokera kuguta guru reSpain paakagadzwa mushandirwi - akazotevera munyori nemupepeti - muPedagogical Missions, pasi pekudzivirirwa naJosé María Cossío. Saizvozvovo, aigara achipa kuRevista de Occidente. Ikoko akapedza mitambo yake Ndiani akakuona uye anokuona iwe uye mumvuri wezvawakanga uri (1933), Mhare yakashinga (1934) uye Vana vematombo (1935).

Rwendo rwechipiri

Kugara kwake kwechipiri muMadrid kwakawana Hernández muhukama hwepabonde nemupendi Maruja Mallo. Ndiye iye akamukurudzira kunyora akawanda ma sonnets e Mheni isingamiri (1936).

Nyanduri akazovawo shamwari naVicente Aleixandre naPablo Neruda, nevekupedzisira uyu akatanga hushamwari hwakadzama. Nemunyori weChilean akatanga magazini Bhiza Dzvuku reNhetembo ndokutanga kusendamira kumaMarxist mazano. Zvino, simba raNeruda pana Hernández rakave nekuratidzwa nekufamba kwake kupfupi kuburikidza ne surrealism, pamwe nemeseji yake achiwedzera kuzvipira kumatambudziko ezvematongerwo enyika neezvematongerwo enyika enguva idzodzo.

Ramón Sijé akafa muna 1935, kufa kweshamwari yake yepedyo yeupenyu hwese kwakakurudzira Miguel Hernández kuumba mukurumbira wake. Elegy. Sijé (ane zita chairo ainzi José Marín Gutiérrez), akange amuzivisa kune aizove mudzimai wake, Josefina Manresa. Aive museki wake kune zhinji nhetembo dzake, pamwe naamai vevana vake vaviri: Manuel Ramón (1937 - 1938) naManuel Miguel (1939 - 1984).

Josefina Manresa, aive mudzimai waMiguel Hernández.

Josefina Manresa, aive mudzimai waMiguel Hernández.

Hondo Yenyika, kusungwa uye kufa

Muna Chikunguru 1936 Hondo yeVanhu veSpain yakatanga. Mushure mekutanga kwechiitiko chehondo, Miguel Hernández akazvipira kupinda muchiuto cheRepublican ndokutanga kuita kwake zvematongerwo enyika kwakabatana neCommunist Party yekuSpain (chikonzero chekwakazotevera mutongo werufu). Yakanga iri nguva iyo mabhuku enhetembo akatanga kana kupera Village mhepo (1937), Munhu anoteya (1937 - 1938), Rwiyo rwiyo uye mabharadhi ekusavapo (1938 - 1941) uye Onion nanas (1939).

Pamusoro pezvo, akagadzira mitambo Murimi ane mweya wakawanda y Imitambo muhondo (zvese kubva muna 1937). Munguva yehondo, aishingairira kupinda muhondo muTeruel neJaen. Aivewo chikamu che II International Congress yeVanyori veDziviriro yeChinyakare muMadrid uye akapfupika achienda kuSoviet Union akamirira hurumende yeRepublic.

Pakupera kwehondo muna Kubvumbi 1939, Miguel Hernández akadzokera kuOrihuela. Akasungwa achiedza kuyambuka muganhu kuenda kuPortugal muHuelva. Akafamba nemumajeri akasiyana siyana kusvika Akafira mutirongo muAlicante musi waMarch 28, 1942, akabatwa bronchitis iyo yakatungamira kune typhus uye, pakupedzisira, tibhii.

Mashoko aNeruda mushure mekufa kwaMiguel Hernández

Iyo nexus iyo Pablo Neruda yakagadziriswa naMiguel Hernández yaive padyo chaizvo. Vaviri vakasvika pakufungidzira pasina chinhu chakaenzana nenguva yavakagovana. Zvinogona kutaurwa pasina equivocation kuti rudo rwavo rwakarongedzwa nenzira iyo ivo vaviri vakakwanisa kuferefeta mushoko. Mushure mekufa kwanyanduri, Neruda akanzwa kurwadziwa kwakasimba. Pakati pezvinhu zvakanyorwa uye kutaurwa nanyanduri weChilean pamusoro paHernández, izvi zvinomira pachena:

«Kuyeuka Miguel Hernández uyo akanyangarika murima uye kumurangarira zvizere chiedza ibasa reSpain, basa rerudo. Vashoma vadetembi vane rupo uye vanojeka semukomana anobva kuOrihuela ane chifananidzo icho rimwe zuva chichamuka pakati pemaruva eorenji epasi pake akarara. Miguel anga asina mwenje wezenith weSouth senge vadetembi vanoteedzera veAndalusia, asi panzvimbo pacho mwenje wepasi, matombo mangwanani, mukobvu wezinga reuchi rinomuka. Nenyaya iyi yakaoma segoridhe, mupenyu seropa, akadhonza nhetembo yake inogara. Uye uyu ndiye aive murume iyo nguva kubva kuSpain yakadzingirwa kumumvuri! Inguva yedu izvozvi uye nguva dzose kumuburitsa mutirongo rake rekufa, kumujekesa nehushingi uye kufira, kumudzidzisa semuenzaniso wemoyo wakachena kwazvo! Ipa chiedza! Mupei iye nekurova kwekurangarira, nemashizha ekujekesa anomuratidza, ngirozi huru yekubwinya kwepasi akawira husiku akashonga nemunondo wechiedza! ».

Pablo Neruda

Nhetembo dzaMiguel Hernández

Chronologically, basa rake rinoenderana neinonzi "chizvarwa chemakumi matatu neshanu". Kunyange zvakadaro, Dámaso Alonso akataura kuna Miguel Hernández se "mukuru epigone" we "chizvarwa che27". Izvi zvinokonzerwa nekushanduka kunoshamisa kwezvakaburitswa, kubva kumaitiro echiKaturike eruoko rwaRamón Sijé mumagazini Dambudziko Rejongwe kune dzimwe pfungwa dzekuchinja uye kunyora kwakakanganiswa nekukanganiswa naPablo Neruda.

Miguel Hernández anonongedzerwa nenyanzvi dzezvinyorwa semudzidzi mukuru we "nhetembo dzehondo". Heano mamwe enhetembo dzake dzinonyanya kuzivikanwa (maererano nesangano reEuropa Press, 2018):

Mhepo dzemumusha dzinonditakura

«Kana ndikafa, rega ndife

nemusoro wakanyanya mudenga.

Vakafa uye makumi maviri vakafa,

muromo uchipesana nehuswa,

Ndinenge ndakarumanisa mazino angu

ndokutsunga ndebvu.

Kuimba ndinomirira rufu,

kuti kune mahusiku anoimba anoimba

pamusoro pepfuti

uye pakati pehondo ».

Mheni isingamiri

«Haingaregi ichi ray chinogara mandiri

moyo wemhuka dzakatsamwa

nezvipenga zvehasha nevapfuri

apo simbi inotonhorera ichiwoma?

Iyi stalactite yakasindimara haigumi here

kurima bvudzi ravo rakaoma

seminondo uye moto wakaoma

kunanga pamoyo wangu unochema nekupopota? ».

Maoko

«Mhando mbiri dzemaoko dzinotarisana muhupenyu,

kutumbuka kubva pamoyo, kuputika nemaoko,

vanosvetuka, voyerera muchiedza chakakuvadzwa

nekurohwa, nenzara.

Ruoko chishandiso chemweya, meseji yacho,

uye muviri une davi rayo rekurwa mairi.

Simudza, simudza maoko ako mukuzvimba kukuru,

varume vembeu yangu ».

Quote naMiguel Hernández.

Quote naMiguel Hernández.

Vashandi vezuva

«Vashandi vezuva vakabhadhara mukutungamira

kutambura, mabasa nemari.

Kuzviisa pasi uye kwakakwirira chiuno miviri:

vashandi vezuva.

VaSpanish vakunda Spain

kuveza pakati pemvura uye pakati pezuva.

Rabadanes yenzara uye gejo:

Spanish vanhu.

Iyi Spain iyo, haina kumbogutsikana

kushatisa ruva remasora,

kubva pane rimwe goho kuenda kune rimwe.

Spain iyi ».

Hondo dzinosuruvarisa

«Hondo dzinosuruvarisa

kana iyo kambani isiri rudo.

Zvinosuruvarisa, zvinosuruvarisa.

Zvombo zvinosuruvarisa

kana asiri mazwi acho.

Zvinosuruvarisa, zvinosuruvarisa.

Varume vakasuruvara

kana vasina kufa nerudo.

Zvinosuruvarisa, zvinosuruvarisa.

Ndinodana vechidiki

«Ropa risingafashukire,

wechidiki asingatyi,

harisi ropa, kana iri jaya,

hazvipenye kana kutumbuka.

Miviri inozvarwa yakundwa,

kukundwa uye machena kufa:

huya nezera rezana,

zvino vakwegura pavanouya.

Rwiyo rwiyo uye mabharadhi ekusavapo

«Kupfuura nemumigwagwa ndiri kuenda

chimwe chinhu chandiri kuunganidza:

zvidimbu zvehupenyu hwangu

bva kure kure

Ini mapapiro kupinda marwadzo

kukambaira ndinozviona ini

pachikumbaridzo, papurazi

latent yekuzvarwa ».

Rwiyo rwekupedzisira

«Yakapendwa, kwete isina chinhu:

yakapendwa imba yangu

ruvara rweakakura

zvishuwo uye nhamo.

Ndichadzoka kubva mukuchema

yakaendeswa kupi

netafura yake isina vanhu,

nemubhedha wake wakaparara.

Kutsvoda kuchatumbuka

pamapiro.

Uye kutenderedza miviri

ndichasimudza jira

yakanyanyisa creeper

husiku, hwema.

Ruvengo rwakanamwa

kuseri kwehwindo.

Icho chichava nyoro nyoro.

Ndipei tariro.


Izvo zviri muchinyorwa zvinoomerera pamisimboti yedu ye tsika dzekunyora. Kuti utaure chikanganiso tinya pano.

Makomendi gumi, siya zvako

Siya yako yekutaura

Your kero e havazobvumirwi ichibudiswa. Raida minda anozivikanwa ne *

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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako

  1.   Miguel akadaro

    Kune mudzidzisi wangu MIGUEL HERNÁNDEZ, kururamisira hakusati kwave kuroyiwa nerufu rwake rusina kururama. Kururamisira kwevarume nevakadzi hakuzombovi kwakakwana, asi kutonga kwaMwari kwakamupa mubairo wekudzokera kuhupenyu hwehupenyu, ndokuti Miguel HERNÁNDEZ, ndine hurombo, panzvimbo pacho, simba remweya wanyanduri, rakazvarwa patsva kupedza hupenyu hwehupenyu. hondo nevaya vakaiuraya vakaigura nedemo rakaipisisa.

  2.   GILBERTO CARDONA COLOMBIA akadaro

    Nyanduri wedu Miguel Hernandez haazombozikanwa nekuremekedzwa zvakakwana. Hapana mumwe munhu. Kufira kodzero dzevanhu pamusoro pefashistist barbarism.