Makirasi ezvinyorwa zvinyorwa

Makirasi ezvinyorwa zvinyorwa.

Makirasi ezvinyorwa zvinyorwa.

Kune mhando dzakasiyana dzemanyowani, pamwe nenzira dzakasiyana dzekuzvimisikidza. Imwe yedzakakura nzira dzekutsanangudza mhando dzezvakanyorwa zvakasikwa zvinoenderana nemusika kwazvinotungamirwa. Saizvozvowo, zvinyorwa zvinogona kupatsanurwa kuita mapoka makuru maviri: iwo anoitirwa kuburitsa mari (vekutengesa) uye neaya eunyanzvi hunyanzvi (zvinyorwa).

Nekudaro, iyo yekumisikidza yekumisikidza inoenderana neicho chekutengeserana chinhu zvakajairika, nekuti inoverengeka inogona kuve yekunyora uye yekutengesa panguva imwe chete. Chaizvoizvo, iyo yakakosha chikamu mumabhuku ekunyora enganonyorwa ndiwo maitiro echirongwa chavo. Ndokunge, kana yakavakirwa pazviitiko zvechokwadi kana zvese chikamu chemafungidziro emunyori (kana mubatanidzwa wezvose zviri zviviri).

Mutauro unoshandiswa unotara chikamu chengano yekunyora

Zvishandiso zvinoshandiswa nemunyori ndiwo makiyi akakosha pakuronga zvinyorwa zvekunyora. Naizvozvo, mafomu ekutaura anomiririra "siginicha yega" yemunyori wega kuti asvike muverengi, vanoona kutendeseka kwavo. Mutauro unoshandiswa unofanirwa kuve unoshanda mukuburitsa chinangwa kana manzwiro emunyori.

Zvikasadaro, kuferefetwa kwakaitwa (kana kuripo) kwakatenderedza chidzidzo chiripo kwakarasika pakati pekuverenga. Semuenzaniso: yakanyatso nyorwa nhoroondo yenhoroondo inogona kurasikirwa nechinangwa kana kuwana kukosha chete nekuda kwerondedzero yakagadzirwa. Saizvozvo, zvisikwa zana zvekunyepedzera zvinogona kuratidzika kuva zvakavimbika chose kana munyori achikwanisa kusvika mundangariro dzevaverengi vake.

Nhau dzechokwadi

Chinangwa chemanyowani enhau anoratidza zviitiko zvinorondedzerwa nenzira yakafanana chaizvo nezviri kuitika. Kazhinji, inotsanangura mavara ehunhu kana hunhu hwakasimba pakati pezviitiko zvezuva nezuva munzvimbo yezvinetso zvemagariro chaiwo. Naizvozvo, nharaunda yemagariro inowedzeredzwa nenzira yakatendeka kwazvo inogoneka.

Aya maficha anowoneka zvachose mumabasa senge Uraya Mockingbird (1960) naHarper Lee. Mune ino classic yeAnglo-Saxon zvinyorwa, munyori akafuridzirwa nemhuri yake, vavakidzani, uye chiitiko chakaitika munharaunda yake aine makore gumi. Mamwe mazita anozivikanwa eiyi subgenre ndeaya:

  • Madame Bovary (1856) kubva Gustave Flaubert.
  • Anna Karenina (1877) naLeo Tolstoy.
  • Guta nembwa (1963) naMario Vargas Llosa.
Madame Bouvary.

Madame Bouvary.

Epistolary inoverengeka

Sezvinoratidzwa nezita rayo, murudzi urwu rwenyaya rondedzero yacho inorondedzerwa kuburikidza nemeseji dzakanyorwa dzehunhu. Ndokunge, kuburikidza netsamba, materegiramu kana madhiri epedyo, nekudaro, kutora chikamu kwemunyori kunoteedzera muverengi manzwiro ehupenyu. Pakati pezvinyorwa zvichangoburwa, Zvakanakira kusaonekwa (1999) naStephen Chbosky anomiririra zvikuru subgenre iyi.

Iwo maPerks Ekuva iwo Wallflower (Chekutanga zita muChirungu) ane makore gumi nemashanu Charlie, ave kuda kutanga gore rake nyowani rekusekondari pachikoro chitsva. Kushushikana kwake kwakakura nekuda kwekuzviuraya kweshamwari yake yepamwoyo (Michael) mwedzi wapfuura uye natete vake Helen paakanga aine makore manomwe ekuberekwa. Naizvozvo, anotanga kunyora tsamba (asina mutumwa) nechinangwa chekuyedza kunzwisisa zvirinani nezvake.

Mamwe mabhuku epasi rose epistolary mabhuku ndeaya:

  • Ushamwari hune ngozi (1782) naChoderlos de Laclos
  • Baba Vakareba Makumbo (1912) naJean Webster.

Nhoroondo dzezvakaitika kare

Nhoroondo dzekare zvinyorwa zvekunyora izvo zvivakwa zvinotenderera pane chaicho chiitiko chekare chezvemagariro uye / kana kukosha kwezvematongerwo enyika. Nekudaro, iyi subgenre yakakamurwa kuita yekufungidzira nhoroondo yenhoroondo uye anti-illusionist nhoroondo yenhau Muchikamu chekutanga chikamu munyori anosanganisira akagadzira mavara pakati pechiitiko chechokwadi. Aya maitiro anoonekwa mumabhuku akafanana Zita rerosi (1980) naU. Eco.

Iri bhuku rinorondedzera kuferefetwa kwakaitwa naGuillermo de Baskerville uye (mudzidzi wake) Adso de Melk kuita nhevedzano yekuponda mumonastery kuchamhembe kweItaly munguva yeXNUMXth century. Muchiitiko chechipiri, munyori ane chinzvimbo chakanyanya kuzviisa pasi nekugadzirisa (mukufunga kwake) hupenyu hwevanhu chaivo mukati merondedzero yake. Mamwe mabasa anozivikanwa enhoroondo enhoroondo ndeaya:

  • Sinuhé, muIjipita (1945) naMika Waltari.
  • Abhusaromu! Abhusaromu! (1926) naWilliam Faulkner.
Sinuhé, muIjipita.

Sinuhé, muIjipita.

Autobiographical novel

Ndeavo vane nyaya dzine hukama nenguva dzakasiyana muhupenyu hwemunyori, senge kubudirira, kuora mwoyo, kutambura, kushungurudzika, kuda ... Nechikonzero ichi, murondedzeri anoreva chinongedzo chekufungidzira. Rimwe remabasa anozivikanwa eiyi subgenre iri Tariro huru (1860) naCharles Dickens. Mariri, munyori anosanganisa nharaunda yenoverengeka nezvakawanda zvezviitiko zvake.

Dzidziso dzekudzidzisa

Iwo akanyorwa mabasa anotarisisa pamanzwiro uye / kana kusimudzira kwepfungwa kweavo protagonist (s). Kazhinji, zvinyorwa zvekudzidzisa zvinoumbwa ne: kutanga, kuenda kunonamata uye shanduko. Ivo vanogona zvakare kurondedzera chaiyo nhanho kana hupenyu hwese hwe protagonist. Maviri mazita ekuremekedza echikamu chino Maitiro Ekuita Musikana (2014) naCainlin Moran uye Mubati mune rye (1956) naJD Salinger.

Sayenzi ngano zvinyorwa

Iwo ari enganonyorwa ayo akavakirwa pane tekinoroji kusimudzira kupa dzimwe nzira dzezviitiko kune chokwadi chenyika iripo. Nekudaro, maitiro avo ekufanofungidzira anofanirwa kugara achiruramiswa kubva pakuona kwenzira yesainzi. Iyo yakanyanya kutaurwa dingindira musainzi fungidziro kukanganisa kwevanhu uye mhedzisiro inounzwa nekutadza kwakadaro.

Rudzi urwu rwekurangana rwakajeka mumabasa senge Rwendo kuenda kuCentre yePasi (1864) naJules Verne kana Mukadzi murume (1975) naJoanna Russ. Ukuwo, Hondo Yenyika (1898) naHG Wells vakaunza mune akakurumbira evatorwa-iwo maficha engano. Zvimwechetezvo, urwu rudzi rwezvinyorwa pamusoro pekupinda kwepasi nepasi zvinotungamira chikamu chekuongorora kwavo pamatambudziko erudzi rwevanhu.

Nhau dzeDystopi

Nhau dzeDystopian dzinoonekwawo sebazi resaenzi ngano. Vanopa nzanga yakatarisika yenguva yemberi ... asi kushomeka kukuru, kuchikonzera kusagutsikana - kupindirana - pakati pevamwe vagari vayo. Pakati peyazvino mienzaniso uye yakakurumbira mienzaniso yeiyi genre ndeye trilogy ye Iyo Nzara Mitambo rakanyorwa naSuzanne Collins.

A classic yeiyi subgenre iri 1984 (1949) naGeorge Orwell. Iyo inotsanangura nzanga yeLondon kubva mune ramangwana riri padyo payakaburitswa. Iko vagari vayo vakaparadzaniswa vaizorongeka mumatanho maviri: vamwe vanoraira mitemo uye vamwe vanoteerera nekuda kwehuni hwavo husina kupanduka. Rimwe rinozivikanwa zita redystopi renhau nhasi ndere Nyaya yaMhandara (1985) naMargaret Atwood.

Nhau dzeUtopian

Nhau dzeUtopian dzinopa hupfumi hwakakwana. Izwi rekuti "utopia" rakagadzirwa naThomas Moore kubva kumazwi echiGiriki "u" uye "topos", ayo anoshandurwa kuti "hapana". Rimwe remazita ekare eutopian novel ndeaya Nyowani Atlantis (1626) naFrancis Bacon. Inorondedzera kusvika kwemunhu mukuru kuna Bensalem, ndima yekunyepedzera uko vagari vayo vakanakisa vakazvipira kunatsiridza nzanga.

Kubudikidza ne "Baconian nzira yekumisikidzwa", ava "varume vakachenjera" vanotsvaga kunzwisisa nekukunda zvakasikwa zvinhu kuti vagadzirise hupenyu hwevose. Vamwe dzekare mienzaniso yetopian enganonyorwa ari Chitsuwa (1962) naAldous Huxley uye Ecotopia (1975) naErnest Callenbach.

Nhau dzinoyevedza

Iwo akanyorwa mabasa akavakirwa pane fungidziro yemashiripiti nyika, saka, varoyi vanogara, fairies uye zvinogona kusanganisira zvekupokana kutora ngano zviverengero. Iwo makuru sagas ekupararira kwepasirese pasikirini hombe ndeeiyi subgenre, pakati pavo:

  • Harry Potter naJK Rowling.
  • Ishe wezvindori naJR Tolkien.
  • Narnia na CS Lewis.

Ishe wemhete. Detective zvinyorwa

Iwo mabhuku engano umo mutambi mukuru ari (kana aive) nhengo yemapurisa nechinangwa chakanangana nekuferefetwa kwemhosva. Chokwadi, hazvibviri kutaura pamusoro mutikitivha enganonyorwa pasina kutaura iconic Inspector Poirot yakagadzirwa naAgatha Christie kune mazhinji emabhuku ake. Mamwe epasirese akateedzana eiyo subgenre ndeaya:

  • Mabhuku e Perry mason rakanyorwa naErle Stanley Gardner.
  • Iyo ngano dzaSir Arthur Conan Doyle achitarisa Sherlock Holmes naJohn Watson.

Pulp ngano zvinyorwa

Ivo vanoonekwa sechigadzirwa chekushambadzira (chakagadzirirwa kudyiwa kwemazhinji kwemavara) pakati pevatsoropodzi nesainzi fungidziro A classic of pulp fiction novels iri Tarzan uye apes (1912) naEdgar Rice Burroughs; imwe yenhau dzekutanga-kutengesa-kutengesa munhoroondo. Rimwe basa rakafanana rakaitika Kutukwa kwaCapistrano (1919) naJohnston McCulley (nyeredzi El Zorro).

Horror novels

Nhoroondo dzinotyisa dzinorondedzera zviitiko zvinokanganisa zvinoitirwa kuunza kutya muvaverengi. Stephen King ane Kupenya (1977) yakaratidza chinhanho mune ino chikamu. Zvinoenderana nemunyori iye, zita racho rakafemerwa nendima "Tese tinovhenekera pa ..." yenziyo Pakarepo Karma naJohn Lennon. Raive bhuku rekutanga rakaoma-kutengesa zvakanyanya kutengesa munhoroondo.

Mistery zvinyorwa

Iyo subgenre iri padhuze nehukama hwenyanzvi. Izvo zvakakosha kuisa zvinotevera mumaonero: ese matikitivha enganonyorwa ndeechakavanzika chikamu, asi haazi ese eakavanzika enganonyorwa ane nyeredzi nevatikitivha. Aya maficha akajeka mumabasa senge Zita rerosi naUmberto Eco (zvakare iri nhoroondo yenhoroondo) uye Musikana ari muchitima (2015) naPaula Hawkins.

Zvinyorwa zveGothic

Zvinyorwa zveGothic mabasa anosanganisira zvemweya, zvinotyisa, uye / kana zvinhu zvisinganzwisisike. Dingindira rinowanzo tenderera kurufu, chinoora uye kusadzivirika kwenhamo. Chinhu chinowanzoitika mumamiriro ezvinhu dzimba dzekare, zvivakwa zvakasakara (makereke akaparadzwa kana tembere) nedzimba dzinogarwa.

Pakati pemazita anozivikanwa kwazvo mune ino chikamu, zvinotevera zvinomira:

  • Mumongi (1796) naMateu G. Lewis.
  • Frankenstein kana iye ano Prometheus (1818) naMary Shelley.
  • Dracula (1897) naBram Stoker.

Nhoroondo dzeCowboy

ari kumadokero ndiwo mabasa akaiswa kumadokero kwakadzika kweUnited States (munguva yepashure-yevagari vemo). Kunze kwekukakavadzana kwevanowanzoita cowboy, vanowanzo sanganisira Native American nyaya mukurwa kwavo nevagari. Kukakavara nezvehutongi hwenzvimbo uye kuoma kunowanikwa pamarangi eacowboy mukupera kwemaXNUMX zvakajairika.

Pakati pe makuru echinyakare e cowboy novels, vanogona kutumidzwa mazita:

  • Mhandara (1902) naOwen Wister.
  • Moyo wekumadokero (1907) uye ngano dze Arizona husiku rakanyorwa naStewart Edward White.

Picaresque zvinyorwa

Iyi kirasi yemanoveli ine zvisingaenderane protagonists (anti-gamba kana anti-gamba), histrionic, inokanganisa kutyora mitemo yehunhu hunhu. Saizvozvowo, vatambi vake vanenge vangango nyengera kana hutsinye, achipindira zviri nyore mutsika dzakaipa. Iyo picaresque inoverengeka inomuka panguva yeinonzi Spanish Golden Age, iri Nhungamiro yeTormes (1564) yakafunga yekutanga yerudzi rwayo.

Zvisinei, mabasa aMateo Alemán ndiwo akaparadzira rudzi rwacho, runoratidzwa nekumira kwake kwakashata kune zvakajairika zvenguva yake (zana ramakore rechiXNUMX). Kunyangwe picaresque inoverengeka inogona kukonzeresa imwe mhando yekuratidzira kwetsika, ichi hachisi icho chinangwa chikuru. Pamwe inozivikanwa picaresque inoverengeka yekare yenguva dzese iri Akangwara Gentleman Don Quijote weLa Mancha (1605), naCervantes.

Zvinyorwa zveSatirical

Iwo mabhuku enganonyorwa nevanyori vanoshandisa kusekwa senge neuralgic sosi kutsamwisa muverengi kuratidzira kana zvirinani, kuburitsa kusahadzika. Rudzi urwu rwekuita runotsvaga kutsvaga imwe mhinduro yakatenderedza yakatarisana (nedambudziko kana inokanganisa) mamiriro. Mimwe mienzaniso yeiyi subgenus ndeiyi Kumukira papurazi rakanyorwa naGeorge Orwell, uye Iyo Adventures yeHuckleberry Finn naMark Twain.

Zvinyorwa zvitsva

Sezvinoreva zita iri, zvinyorwa zvekufananidzira zvine zano rakagadzirwa kureva chimwe chiitiko (chingave chaicho) kana mamiriro ezvinhu. Naizvozvo, mutauro unoshandiswa wakazara nemucherechedzo uyo unotarisira kuburitsa hunhu, zvechitendero, zvematongerwo enyika uye / kana zvemagariro mibvunzo. Pakati pemabasa ezvinyorwa zvekufananidzira, tinogona kutaura Ishe weNhunzi (1954) naWilliam Golding.

Bhuku raGolding rine meseji yakasimba yekushoropodzwa munharaunda. Panomirirwa huipi hwevanhu naBherizebhubhu, MuFiristia mungano nhamba (yakazogamuchirwa neChristian iconography). Mumwe muenzaniso weruzivo rwekufungidzira ndeye akateedzana e Makoronike eNarnia na CS Lewis (nekuda kwekufungidzira kwake kwechitendero). Naizvozvowo Kumukira papurazi yeOrwell yekuratidzira kwake pamusoro pezvematongerwo enyika kumukira).


Izvo zviri muchinyorwa zvinoomerera pamisimboti yedu ye tsika dzekunyora. Kuti utaure chikanganiso tinya pano.

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Siya yako yekutaura

Your kero e havazobvumirwi ichibudiswa.

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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako

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