Marianela

Marianela.

Marianela.

Marianela (1878) nderimwe remabasa akakosha emunyori wechiSpanish Benito Pérez Galdós (1843 - 1920). Chidimbu chinomiririra kugona kwemunyori uyu mukugadzira mavara echikadzi, hunhu hunorumbidzwa nevanyori venhoroondo nevadzidzi vakazvipira pakumufunda. Kudzika kwepfungwa kwebhuku protagonist kunoshevedzera hunhu hwemunyori. Iri zita raive rimwe remabhuku ake ekupedzisira eteresis, vafanotungamira ezvemazuva ano zvemunyori wechiSpanish.

Nguva dzose tungamira, chaicho, chinoshamisa, chinofungisisa uye neyakaganhurirwa madhaurirano, Marianela inoratidza mitsara yese yemunyori nenhaka isingaenzaniswi. Kwete zvisina maturo, Galdós aive nhengo yeRoyal Academy kubva 1898 uye mukwikwidzi weNobel Prize yeMabhuku muna 1912. Parizvino, anozivikanwa semunyori mukurusa mumutauro wechiSpanish, achitevera Cervantes.

Munyori

Akabhabhatidzwa pasi pezita raBenito María de los Dolores Pérez Galdós, akazvarwa musi waMay 10, 1843, muLas Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain. Kunyangwe pamatanho akasiyana ehupenyu hwake akaratidzika kuve wezvematongerwo enyika, mutambi wemitambo uye munyori wenhoroondo, kunyora kwaive chinhu chaainyatso kukoshesa. Kune rake basa rakava chiratidzo chezana ramakore rechiXNUMX Spanish realist novel.

Udiki uye kuyaruka

Benito aive chikamu chemhuri yakakura kwazvo. Aive mwana wechigumi wemuchato pakati paColonel Sebastián Pérez Macías naDolores Galdós Medina. Kubva achiri mudiki baba vake vakamuita kuti afarire nhoroondo uye akarondedzera nhoroondo dzemauto dzisingaperi dzaakange arwira iye.

Akafunda zvidzidzo zvekutanga kuColegio San Agustín mutaundi rekumusha kwake, chinzvimbo chine dzidziso yekupayona munguva yayo. Munguva yehudiki hwake akashanda (kuburikidza nezvinyorwa, nhetembo dzinosekesa uye nyaya) nepepanhau remuno, Bhazi. Muna 1862 akapedza kudzidza neBachelor of Arts kuLa Laguna Institute, muTenerife.

Zvinyorwa zvinyorwa, kutanga mabhuku

MunaGunyana 1862 akatamira kuMadrid uye akanyoresa kuyunivhesiti kuti adzidze zvemutemo. Kunyangwe, mumashoko aGaldós iye mukati Ndangariro dzekukanganwa (1915), aive akapararira mudzidzi, akajairwa kusavapo. Muguta guru Aive akajairwa ku "Canarian kuungana" uye kuhurukuro kuAtenaeum, kwaakasangana neshamwari yake yakareba, Leopoldo Alas, Clarín.

Saizvozvowo, muFornos neSuizo cafes iyo vechidiki veGaldós akachinjana mazano nevakadzidza uye maartist enguva iyoyo. Pakati pavo, Francisco Giner de los Ríos -Muvambi weInstitución de Libre Enseñanza- akamukurudzira kunyora nekumuzivisa chiKrausism, maitiro aripo mumabhuku ake akatevera.

Zvekunyora mabasa, anoenda kunze kwenyika uye kwekutanga zvinyorwa

Kubva muna 1865 akatanga kunyorera midhiya senge La Nación, Nharo y Iyo Nhoroondo yeEuropean Intellectual Movement. Makore maviri gare gare akaita rwendo rwake rwekutanga kuParis semunyori kuWorld's Fair. Pakudzoka kwake akaongorora mabasa naBalzac naDickens, kubva kune yekupedzisira iyo yaakadudzira Iwo Mapepa Ekupedzisira ePinwick Club (rakabudiswa muna La Nación).

Benito Pérez Galdos.

Benito Pérez Galdos.

Paakadzoka kubva parwendo rwake rwechipiri kunze kwenyika muna 1868, akashanda pazvinyorwa zvine chekuita nekugadzwa kweMutemo mutsva mushure mekubviswa kwaElizabeth II. Nhoroondo yake yekutanga, Tsime Regoridhe (1870), ndiyo ichava yekutanga ku Trafalgar (1873) bhuku rekutanga ra Zvikamu National. Nedzino nhevedzano, akadzika pasi munhoroondo yemavara echiSpanish sa "munyori wezveSpain."

Nyaya inoenderana:
Aripiko Benito Pérez Galdós?

Basa raGaldós

Galdós ndomumwe wevanyori vane mukurumbira munhoroondo mumutauro wechiSpanish. Chete iyo Zvikamu National (1873 - 1912) inovhara makumi mana nenomwe, rakaburitswa muzvikamu zvishanu zvakateedzana zvemavhoriyamu gumi rimwe nerimwe Pakazara, akachenjera eCanarian akapedza angangoita zana enganonyorwa, akapfuura makumi maviri emitambo mabasa, pamwe nerondedzero, nyaya uye akasiyana mabasa.

Pakati payo yose trajectory iyo yakachinja kuburikidza akasiyana masekonzi kana zvinyorwa zvinyorwa-zvemhando dzakasiyana (mune yega yega zvaro rakasiya mazita makuru), iri nezve:

  • Dzidziso yenhau (1870 - 1878). 7 enganonyorwa; pakati pevakakurumbira pane Akakwana Mukadzi (1876) uye Marianela.
  • Nhau dzemazuva ano - kutenderera kwenyaya (1881 - 1889). 11 enganonyorwa; ndakamira pakati pavo Chiremba Centeno y Fortunata naJacinta (1886-87).
  • Mazuva ano zvinyorwa - zvemweya kutenderera (1890 - 1905). 11 enganonyorwa; kuva Ngoni (1987) anozivikanwa kwazvo pakati peavo.
  • Nhoroondo dzengano (1909 na1915). 2 enganonyorwa.

Zviratidzo

Mubasa raGaldós, iyo chaiyo yekushongedza postulates inotorwa kubva yakananga uye yakasikwa maitiro ari pachena, zvichinyanya muhurukuro dzechinyakare kufemerwa. Zvakaenzana, wake (kunyanya) mutauro unowirirana unobvuma zvimwe zvikamu nemitsara ine tsika, pakati penyaya dzinosiya nzvimbo yekuseka uye kuseka.

Ukuwo, chimiro chakasimba pakurwisa vafundisi chinoratidzika zvakanyanya kana zvishoma mukati mezvinyorwa zveGaldós. Muchokwadi, iyi pfungwa yekufunga yakamupa ruvengo rwevateveri veCatholic vanochengetedza, avo vakakwanisa kubudirira kudzora kusarudzwa kwake mubairo weNobel.

Marianela  uye kudzika kwemavara

Iye wechitatu-munhu murondedzero anosimbisa kufarira kwepfungwa kutenderedza imwe neimwe yenhengo dzebasa. Zvikuru sei, Vakadzi vaGaldós vanoratidza kunaka uye kuomarara kwenyika, mumamiriro ezvinhu anogara achiisa kuvimbika uye kuvimbika kwemunhu wega wega pamuedzo. Panyaya iyi, protagonist we Marianela inomiririra rudo uye zvakasikwa (mune musikana asingafadzi asi ane moyo muhombe).

Uyewo, chinangwa rapporteur chakakodzera kuratidza kufunga kwemunyori nezve mutsauko uripo pakati pemakirasi enharaunda nemaitiro anogamuchirwa enguva. Saizvozvo, pane yakakwana mukwanisi pakati pehunhu hwevatambi vake vane mucherechedzo wekumiririra enharaunda nenzvimbo.

Analysis of Marianela

Unogona kutenga inoverengeka apa: Marianela

Iyo inoverengeka inoumbwa nezvitsauko makumi maviri nemaviri, ayo mazita anoreva Galdós 'picaresque maitiro (ayo akaita kuti nyaya dzake dzifarirwe kwazvo). Semuenzaniso, "VII: Zvimwe zvisina maturo"; "VII: Izvo zvisina maturo zvinopfuurira" ... Pamwe chete, chimiro chetsananguro yacho chakakamurwa kuita nhanganyaya, pakati, resolution uye epilogue.

Zvinyorwa

Iyo inoverengeka inotanga nerondedzero yemamiriro ezvinhu munzira inoenda kunocherwa kwaSocrates, padyo neAldercoba, kuchamhembe kweSpain. Ikoko, Teodoro Golfín - chiremba anoshanda mumaziso- akatenderera nzvimbo iyi achitsvaga munin'ina wake Carlos, aiona nezvemigodhi. Akasvika asina kurasika nekutenda kuna Pablo, mutungamiri uyo, kunyangwe aive bofu, akarondedzera mamiriro ezvese

Quote naBenito Pérez Galdós.

Quote naBenito Pérez Galdós.

Pablo aiziva nzvimbo iyi kwazvo nekuda kwemutungamiriri wake, Nela, nherera yemakore gumi nematanhatu Nechitarisiko chevacheche chemhando ine hunhu. Akanga ave nehupenyu hunosiririsa uye akange asina kudya kwakapfuura kare. Panguva iyoyo akatorwa nemhuri yekwaCenteno. Kunyangwe zvakadaro, mukati memwedzi yekupedzisira aifara kwazvo nemudiwa wake Pablo, waaifamba naye ndima masikati ega ega.

Development

Don Francisco Penaguilas, Baba vaPablo vagara vachitsvaga nyaradzo uye dzidzo yakanakisa yemwanakomana wavo, uyo aidzokorora nemanzwiro aMarianela (Nela). Zvisinei, akatya paakadzidza nezve (kure) tariro yekuti maziso aPablo anogona kupora mushure mekupindira kwaDr. Golfín. Ipapo, Francisco akamuudza izvo nhau mukoma wake Don Manuel Penáguilas.

Wekupedzisira akavimbisa kuti kana oparesheni ikabudirira, aizoroora mwanasikana wake Florentyna kumuzukuru wake. Panguva imwe, Kuda kuziva kwaPablo kwakaita kuti afarire pfungwa yerunako. Aive nechokwadi chekuti Nela ndiye aive runako, zvinopesana nekufunga kwevamwe. Zvakanaka, hapana akakahadzika moyo wakanaka waNela, asi havana chokwadi nekuonekwa kwake kusisina kusimba.

Kushungurudzika kwaNela

Nguva pfupi pamberi pekuvhiya, Don Manuel nemwanasikana wake Florentina, musikana akanaka uye ane moyo munyoro, vakasvika mutaundi. Zvisinei, Pablo akaramba achida kuroora Nela. Zvisinei, daro pakati pavo rakanga risingadzivisiki nekuti mushure mekuvhiyiwa, mhuri yaDon Francisco ndiyo yaive nebasa rekuchengeta Pablo.

Mazuva akafamba, munhu wese mudhorobha akataura nezvekubudirira kweopareshini. Pablo aigona kuona uye kukoshesa kwake kukuru kwaive kusiyanisa runako rwaNela. Asi musikana murombo akatya kurambwa uye akasiya dhorobha naCelipín, mwanakomana wekupedzisira wemhuri yekwaCenteno. Nekudaro, Florentina akapa Nela imba chaiyo nemhuri yekwaPenánguilas ndokutaurira Pablo zvishuwo kwaari.

Mhedzisiro

Nela akaramba mhando yaFlorentyna. Aora mwoyo, mukadzi wechidiki akatanga kupedza mazuva ake ari musango kusvikira Teodoro amuwana mune zvakashata zvakanyanya uye akamumanikidza kuti amuudze nyaya yake yese. Mushure memazuva mashoma, Florentina aive achichengeta Nela akaneta uye akavhiringika pamba paPenánguilas.

Masikati, Pablo akauya asingatarisiri kushanya apo Florentina aisonera Nela dhirezi. Mujaya akashamiswa nerunako rwehama yake ndokutanga kumurumbidza. Kunyangwe Pablo - achiregeredza kuvapo kwachiremba uye "mumwe musikana" mukamuri - akataura kuti akasiya moyo wake werudo kuna Nela uye akange ave kufarira zveramangwana naFlorentina.

Kuvhara

Akapedzwa nemarwadzo, hupenyu husingafadzi uye kusagadzikana, Nela akanyangarika mumaminetsi mashoma kusvika afa. Nguva pfupi yapfuura, Pablo akakwanisa kumuziva paakakwanisa kumubata ruoko ndokumutarisa mumaziso ake. "Akafa nerudo," akadaro chiremba. Pakupedzisira, Florentina akafunga kumupa mariro akanaka kwazvo kuti aratidze kuonga kwake kusingaperi kuna Nela.

Vamwe vanhu vemuraini vakatoti, "she looks beautiful as now" (kuti akafa). Zvisinei, mushure memwedzi mishoma, munhu wese aive munzvimbo akanganwa nezva Marianela. Vakaroorana vekunze chete vakauya vachikumbira guva remukadzi akanaka uye akanaka, Doña Mariquita Manuela Téllez (Nela).


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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako

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