Mabhuku aBenito Pérez Galdos

Benito Pérez Galdos.

Benito Pérez Galdos.

Kana mushandisi wepaInternet achitsvaga "mabhuku aBenito Pérez Galdós" mhedzisiro yacho inoverengeka emabasa anomiririra eSpanish Realism. Uye zvakare, nekuda kwayo Zvikamu zvenyika yakadzika munhoroondo nekusiyaniswa kwe "Chronicler weSpain". Naizvozvo, Benito Pérez Galdós nderimwe remazita asingadzivisike munhoroondo yezvinyorwa zveSpanish.

Nhaka yake iri pakakwirira kwe "magamba" emaCastilian tsamba akadai saMiguel de Cervantes, Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos kana Pedro Calderón de la Barca, pakati pevamwe. Kunze kwezvenhoroondo, Galdós aigadzira uye akabudirira mugadziri wenhau, mukurumbira wemutambo, uye munyori wezvikamu zvinoverengeka zvemakomiki.

Hupenyu hwaBenito Pérez Galdós

Kuzvarwa uye hudiki

Akabhabhatidzwa pasi pezita raBenito María de los Dolores, akazvarwa musi waMay 10, 1843, muLas Palmas de Gran Canaria. Aive mwana wechigumi wemuchato pakati paSebastián Pérez Macías (colonel wemauto eSpain) naDolores Galdós Medina. Akafunda chikoro chepuraimari kuColegio de San Agustín, chinzvimbo chine chirongwa chemberi chekudzidzisa panguva yacho.

Vechidiki

Munguva yehudiki hwake akatanga kubatana nekupa nhetembo dzake dzinotyisa, zvinyorwa uye nyaya kupepanhau remuno. Akawana dhigirii rake rehunyanzvi degree muna 1862, akazviwana kuLa Laguna Institute muTenerife. Nguva pfupi yapfuura, akatumirwa kuMadrid kunodzidza zvemutemo. Kunyangwe, Aive asina kudzidza mudzidzi wepayunivhesiti, aine tsika yekusavapo kubva kumakirasi.

Uyezve, vechidiki Galdós aifarira kushanyira tsika yemabhiribhodhi eguta guru uye aigara achiunganidza kuungana kwevamwe vemunyika yake. Saizvozvo, kuyunivhesiti akashamwaridzana naFrancisco Giner de los Ríos, muvambi weInstitución Libre de Enseñanza, uyo akamufurira neKrausism yake. Saizvozvo, akaita hushamwari hwepedyo naye Leopoldo Maiwe, Clarín.

Kutanga kushanda uye kutanga kwebasa rake rakakura rekunyora

Kubva 1865, Galdós akashanda semutori wenhau wa La Nación, Nharo and the Zvinyorwa zveIntellectual Movement muEurope. Makore maviri gare gare aive munyori kuUniversal Exhibition muParis. Akadzoka kubva kuFrance muna1868 nemabasa aBalzac naDickens (waakadudzira). Mukufananidza, akaburitsa zvinyorwa zvekunyora pamusoro pekunyorwa kwebumbiro idzva mushure mekugadzwa pachigaro kwaIsabel II.

Muna 1870 akaburitsa Tsime Regoridhe, bhuku rake rekutanga; akautangira Trafalgar (1873), yekutanga ye Zvikamu National. Asati afa - zvakaitika muna Ndira 4, 1920 - akaita basa rezvematongerwo enyika uye akasarudzwa muNobel Prize yeMabhuku. Asi kwake anticlericalism kwakatungamira kuramwa kwake kukwikwidza nemapoka anochengetedza eSpanish nzanga.

«Benito Pérez Galdos mabhuku», iyo yakamirirwa kwenguva refu kutsvaga

Vadzidzi vanowanzo batanidza zvinyorwa zveBenito Pérez Galdós kuita macircule. Chimwe nechimwe chazvo chinoratidza kushanduka kwehungwaru uye kuisirwa zviwanikwa kwemunyori weCanarian. Mabhuku anomiririra zvakanyanya akatsanangurwa muchidimbu pazasi uye mazita anoenderana nedanho rega rega anotaurwa.

Kutenderera kwenyaya dzenyaya

Akakwana mukadzi (1876)

Akakwana mukadzi

Akakwana mukadzi.

Unogona kutenga bhuku pano: Akakwana mukadzi

Galdós anotsoropodza kutsoropodza zviitwa, zvekupenga uye nehunyengeri hwenharaunda yekupedzisira yezana ramakore rechiXNUMX nemutambi wayo: Doña Perfecta. Iye chirikadzi inogara muOrbajosa, imba inoratidzira inoratidza iyo "yakadzika Spain", yekumaruwa. Zvakare, Mukadzi uyu anoda kuchengetedza mhuri mhuri kuburikidza nemuchato pakati pemuzukuru wake Pepe Rey nemwanasikana wake Rosario.

Kusawirirana pakati pePepe nevagari veOrbajosa kuri pachena, kunyanya natete vake pamwe naDon Inocencio, mupristi wemusha. Sezvo akarererwa mune yepamusoro mamiriro (Katurike, asi inofambira mberi kwenguva yake). Zvisinei nemamiriro ezvinhu aya, kukwezva kwakasimba kunomuka pakati paPepe naRosario ... izvo zvinopera mukutambudzika.

Chinyorwa chaGaldós cheiyo thesis novels:

  • Tsime Regoridhe (1870).
  • Mumvuri (1870).
  • Vakashinga (1871).
  • Gloria (1876-77).
  • Marianela (1878).
  • Mhuri yaLeon Roch (1878).

Ciclo de la materia (ano manyorero echiSpanish)

Fortunata naJacinta (1886-87)

Fortunata naJacinta.

Fortunata naJacinta.

Unogona kutenga bhuku pano: Fortunata naJacinta

Fortunata naJacinta Yakabudiswa mumavhoriyamu mana pakati paNdira naJune 1887. Inoonekwa seimwe yenyaya dzekufananidzira - pamwe ne Iyo Regent, kubva kuna Clarín— wechokwadi mukunyora uye wezana ramakore regumi nemapfumbamwe muSpain. Zano rayo rakavakirwa padhuze nehukama hwerudo-ruvengo hukama pakati pevaviri vanopokana. Iyo tambo yekurondedzera inosarudzwa nemanzwiro.

Kune rimwe divi, kune Fortunata, musikana akanaka akanaka anozivikanwa mutaundi rake. Iye ane hunyanzvi uye akasimba-anoshuvira, zvisinei, iro rinoonekwa simba rinoguma kutamba pamusoro pake. Mumwe wake ndiJacinta, mukadzi ane hunyanzvi hwakanyanya, uyo ane hunhu hwaamai huchiva kadhi rake reruponeso kubva mukusarura kwenzanga.

Rondedzero yemanoveli kubva kutenderera kwechinhu naGaldós

  • Vakatorerwa nhaka (1881).
  • Shamwari yakapfava (1882).
  • Chiremba Centeno (1883).
  • Kurwadziswa (1884).
  • Bringas's (1884).
  • Izvo zvakarambidzwa (1884-85).
  • Celín, Tropiquillos uye Theros (1887).
  • Meow (1888).
  • Izvo hazvizivikanwe (1889).
  • Torquemada padanda (1889).
  • Chokwadi (1889).

Spiritualist kutenderera

Ngoni (1897)

Ngoni

Ngoni

Unogona kutenga bhuku pano: Ngoni

Ngoni Ndiyo yenhau yepfumbamwe yevanegumi neumwe vanoumba iwo mweya wezvemweya weCanarian munyori. Kunyangwe zita iri riri rimwe remanyoro akatanhamara eGaldós, haina kuita zvakawanda mushure mekuburitswa kwayo muzvikamu zviviri mu Kusasarura y Vakasununguka. Yakanga isiri nguva yekupedzisira 1920s apo bhuku iri rakagashira yechipiri edition uye rakatanga kugashira rakakodzera kukosheswa.

Mune ino novel, Galdós ano pinda mu "imwe Madrid". Chikamu icho cheMadrid pasi pevhu chizere nevanhu vasina pekugara, zvirwere uye kusuwa. Ikoko, Benina, musikana anoyeredza nyaya - anofungidzirwa - ndiye chimiro chetsitsi dzaMwari netsitsi. Zvisinei, iyo rondedzero ine zvakadzama zvakapetwa kaviri zvinoreva (uye zvine nharo panguva iyoyo) kubva kumusoro wenyaya.

Chinyorwa chemanovels ezvemweya mweya kutenderera kweGaldós

  • Ngirozi Hondo (1890-91).
  • Tristana (1892).
  • Mukadzi anopenga wemba (1892).
  • Torquemada pamuchinjikwa (1893).
  • Torquemada mupurigatori (1894).
  • Torquemada neSan Pedro (1895).
  • Nazarin (1895).
  • halma (1895).
  • Sekuru (1897).
  • Cassandra (1905).

Kutenderera kwemanoveli engano

Uku kutenderera kweGaldós kunosanganisira mazita maviri: Iyo enchanted knight (1909) uye Chikonzero cheicho chisina musoro (1915). Mune ese ari maviri anofamba achienda kure kubva kumatimu uye kurongeka kwezana remakore regumi nemapfumbamwe ezvenguva yake yapfuura. Panzvimbo pezvo, munyori wechiSpanish anoratidzira aesthetic inosanganisa zvinhu zveMazuvano nendima dzizere nezviroto nezviroto.

Zvikamu zvenyika

Zvikamu zvenyika.

Zvikamu zvenyika.

Unogona kutenga bhuku pano: Zvikamu zvenyika

The collection of Zvikamu zvenyika inovhara makumi mana nematanhatu nhoroondo dzenhoroondo, rakagadzirwa pakati pa1872 na1912. Aya magwaro akarongwa mumatanho mashanu anosanganisira nhoroondo yeSpain kubva kuSpanish Hondo yeRusununguko kuenda kuBourbon Kudzoreredza. Nekuda kweiyi huru nhevedzano, vaGaldos vakafanirwa kuwana mutsauko waChronicler weSpain.

Sezvineiwo, Galdós akadzidza ruzivo rwehondo dzaNapoleon kubva kuna baba vake (uyo aive chikamu cheuto reSpain). Nenzira imwecheteyo, munyori anga ari wekutanga-chapupu kupupurira kuBourbon Kudzoreredzwa, pamwe nezviitiko zvakaita seFernern Night yeSan Daniel (1865) uye kumukira kwemajeni e San Gil barracks (1866).

Kutanga nhevedzano

  • Trafalgar (1873).
  • Dare raCharles IV (1873),
  • Kurume 19 naMay 2 (1873).
  • Bailen (1873).
  • Napoleon muChamartin (1874).
  • Zaragoza (1874).
  • Girona (1874).
  • Cádiz (1874).
  • Juan Martin akaoma musoro (1874).
  • Hondo yevaArapiri (1875).

Yechipiri nhevedzano

  • Mukwende waMambo Joseph (1875).
  • Ndangariro zvechivanze kubva muna 1815 (1875).
  • Jasi repiri (1876).
  • Iko Kumabvazuva (1876).
  • 7 yeJuly (1876).
  • Mazana Zviuru zveVanakomana veSaint Louis (1877).
  • Iko kutya kwe1824 (1877).
  • Kuzvipira chaiko (1878).
  • VaApostora (1879).
  • Imwezve ane chokwadi uye mamwe mashoma mafraya (1879).

Yetatu nhevedzano

  • Zumalacarregui (1898).
  • Mendizabal (1898).
  • Kubva kuOñate kuenda kuPurazi (1898).
  • wrestler (1899).
  • Mushandirapamwe weMaestrazgo (1899).
  • Iyo yerudo courier (1899).
  • vergara (1899).
  • Makomo eOca (1900).
  • Ayacuchos (1900).
  • Michato yehumambo (1900).
Quote naBenito Pérez Galdós.

Quote naBenito Pérez Galdós.

Yechina nhevedzano

  • Madutu e'48 (1902).
  • Narvaez (1902).
  • Iwo goblins eiyo clique (1903).
  • Iyo july chimurenga (1903 - 1904).
  • O'Donnell (1904).
  • Aita Tettauen (1904 - 1905).
  • Carlos VI mune iyo Rapita (1905).
  • Kutenderedza pasirese muNumancia (1906).
  • Prim (1906).
  • Uyo ane anosuwa magumo (1907).

Chechishanu dzakateerana

  • Spain isina mambo (1907 - 1908).
  • Inotyisa Spain (1909).
  • Amadeo ini (1910).
  • Yekutanga Republic (1911).
  • Kubva kuCartago kuenda kuSagunto (1911).
  • Canovas (1912).

Izvo zviri muchinyorwa zvinoomerera pamisimboti yedu ye tsika dzekunyora. Kuti utaure chikanganiso tinya pano.

Mhinduro, siya zvako

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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako

  1.   Gustavo Woltman akadaro

    Tsananguro huru yeupenyu hweumwe wevanyori vakakurumbira veCastilian. Yakanaka chinyorwa.
    -Gustavo Woltmann.