Mabhuku aMiguel de Unamuno

Mabhuku naMiguel de Unamuno.

Mabhuku naMiguel de Unamuno.

Muhupenyu hwake hwese hukuru hwekunyora, Miguel de Unamuno y Jugo (1864-1936) akaongorora mhando dzakasiyana siyana, senge inoverengeka, rondedzero, theatre uye nhetembo. Kunyora kwake kwaive kwakabatana zvakanyanya nehunyanzvi hwefilosofi yenguva uye kuzivikanwa kwake kweBasque, kuve nhengo yakakosha yechizvarwa chemakore makumi masere nemapfumbamwe. Fog, rake rinonyanya kukosha, rakaratidza chimiro chaifungidzira kushandiswa kwemeta-fungidziro kuburikidza nehunhu husiri hwechokwadi.

Ichokwadi kune yake republican uye socialist mazano ezvematongerwo enyika, Unamuno akabviswa kanoverengeka kubva kumatunhu ake eUniversity yeSalamanca uye akadzingwa (nekuzvidira) nekuda kwekugara achishoropodza Mambo Alfonso XIII. uye mudzvanyiriri Primo de Rivera mukati ma1920s.Chokwadi, mwedzi miviri kufa kwevazivi veBilbao, Franco akamubvisa nemutemo kubva mutemu yake yekupedzisira semutungamiriri muna Gumiguru 1936.

Dzakanyanya kukosha nguva muhupenyu hwaMiguel de Unamuno

Kuberekwa uye mhuri

Miguel de Unamuno y Jugo akazvarwa musi waSeptember 29, 1864 muBilbao, Spain. Aive wechitatu pavana vatanhatu uye mukomana wekutanga wemuchato usingabvumidzwe (weukama) pakati pemushambadzi Félix María de Unamuno nemuzukuru wake wemakore gumi nemanomwe, María Salomé Crispina Jugo Unamuno. Aya makakatanwa emhuri mamiriro akamiririra iyo embryo yekugara kuripo kupokana kuri mumabasa ake.

Kufa kwababa vake nehondo

Paaive nemakore matanhatu, baba vake vakafa. Nguva pfupi apedza kudzidza kwake kwekutanga kuColegio de San Nicolás, wechidiki Miguel akaona kukombwa kweguta rake panguva yeTatu Carlist Hondo muna 1873, chiitiko chakazoratidzwa munhoroondo yake yekutanga, Runyararo muhondo. Kubva muna 1875 akadzidza chikoro chepamusoro paBilbao Institute, kwaanotaridza mamakisi ake epamusoro.

Zvidzidzo zveYunivhesiti

Munguva yematsutso a1880 akatamira kuguta reSpain kunodzidza Philosophy neTsamba paYunivhesiti yeMadrid. Ikoko, anopindirana nenhengo dzesangano reKraus. Makore mana gare gare, akazadzisa dhipatimendi rake rezvechiremba uye akadzokera kuBilbao aine chinangwa chekupinda muchivanhu cheBasque nekunyora zvinyorwa, kupa misangano uye kutora chikamu mumaforamu ezvematongerwo enyika.

Unamuno, basa uye rudo

Kusvikira 1891 Unamuno aizove "anopokana nerombo", iro gore raakawana sachigaro wechiGreek kuYunivhesiti yeSalamanca uye akaroora mudiwa wake wechidiki, Concha Lizárraga, waaive naye vana vapfumbamwe: Fernando Esteban Saturnino (1872-1978), Pablo Gumersindo (1894-1955), Raimundo (1896-), Salomé (1897-1934), Felisa (1897-1980), José (1900-1974), María (1902-1983) ), Rafael (1905-1981) naRamon (1910-1969).

Kufa kwemwanakomana wake uye kuzorora

Muna 1894 akagadza kupinda kwake muPSOE, kunyangwe akaisiya makore matatu mushure medambudziko rakadzama remweya rakakonzerwa nerufu rwemwana wake wechitatu.kana, Raimundo, muna 1896 nekuda kwehutachiona. Rini Runyararo muhondo yakaburitswa muna 1897, Unamuno aive munyatwa huru yechitendero uye yekuvapo.

Nechekare panguva iyoyo pakanga paine maonero asingagumi ekusava nechokwadi kunokonzerwa neshanduko pakupera kwezana ramakore., inoratidzwa mune basa Kugadziriswa uye kuEuropean kweSpain (1898) naJoaquín Costa. Pakati peichi chiitiko, "boka revatatu" (Azorín, Baroja naUnamuno) nechinonzi chizvarwa chemakumi masere nevapfumbamwe vakaonekwa nehunhu hwavo hwehunyanzvi hwekurondedzera kudzikira kwenyika uye kumutsiridzwa patsva.

Chinzvimbo chaRector uye kudzingwa kwake nezvikonzero zvematongerwo enyika

Mumunda wezvedzidzo, Miguel de Unamuno Akaenderera mberi achichinja kusvika paakagadzwa rector weYunivhesiti yeSalamanca mu1900. Makore gumi nemashanu akatevera akaratidzira nguva yake yakawanda semunyori, sezvakaratidzwa na Rudo uye dzidziso (1902), Hupenyu hwaDon Quixote naSancho (1905), Kubudikidza nenyika dzeSpain nePortugal (1911), Iyo inosuruvarisa pfungwa yehupenyu (1912) uye Fog (1914), pakati pevamwe vazhinji.

Muna 1914 Ministry of Public Instruction yakamubvisa pachinzvimbo chake saRector nezvikonzero zvematongerwo enyika., sezvo aigara ari murume ane hanya nenzvimbo yake yetsika nemagariro. Zvino, muna 1918 akasarudzwa kanzura weSalamanca City Council. Gore asati aburitsa Abel Sánchez. Nyaya yekuda.

Muna 1920 akasarudzwa kuve wedhipatimendi reFacult of Philosophy uye Tsamba uye muna 1921 akagadzwa kuve mutevedzeri-rector. Kurwisa kwake nguva dzose kuna Mambo Alfonso XIII uye mudzvanyiriri Miguel Primo de Rivera kwakaburitsa kudzingwa kutsva, pamwe nemuchuchisi nemutongo (izvo zvisina kumbobvira zvaurayiwa) makore gumi nematanhatu mutirongo nekutuka mambo.

Kuzvipira kutapwa

Kubva 1924 kusvika 1930 akadzingwa muFrance nekuzvidira. Makore mashanu ekupedzisira ekutapwa kwake akapedzerwa muHendaye (guta iro parizvino riri chikamu cheFrench Basque Nyika). Mushure mekudonha kwaPrimo de Rivera, Unamuno akarumbidzwa paakadzoka uye akabatana nezvakadaidzwa kuti Alfonso XIII abviswe.

Dzokera kune iyo positi rector

Mushure mekuzivisa Republic muna 1931, Unamuno akagadzwa zvakare rector weYunivhesiti yeSalamanca, Mutungamiri weDare rePublic Instruction uye mutevedzeri weMatare eDunhu. Chekupedzisira akazivikanwa semutariri wehupenyu mushure mekurega basa muna 1934 uye chigaro chakagadzirwa chine zita rake

Rufu rwemukadzi wake nemwanasikana

Zvisinei, kufa kwemukadzi wake (pamwe neiya yemwanasikana wake Salome kwakaitika muna 1933) kwakamuendesa kuti abve muhupenyu hweveruzhinji. Muna Chikunguru 1936 Hondo Yenyika yakatanga, kunyangwe akazvizivisa kuva republican pakutanga, akakurumidza kuratidza kuvenga kwake hutongi uye kwakatungamira mukumukira kwemauto. Munguva idzodzo dzakaomarara, munyori wekare haana kuzvibvumira kushandiswa, kunyangwe akadzingwa uye achidzoserwa kubva pachinzvimbo chake.

Unamuno achipesana naMillán Astray

Musi waGumiguru 12, 1936, pachiitiko chemhemberero ye "mabiko emujaho", Miguel de Unamuno akaita hunhu hwake hwekupedzisira paakasangana naGeneral Millán Astray nekuda kwe "kuvenga ungwaru". Kupindirana chete kwaCarmen Polo - mukadzi waFranco - kwakatadzisa vazhinji vevanyanyisi veFranco kurova vakangwara vanonzwisisa. Asi asati abva panzvimbo iyi, Unamuno akapa mhinduro inova chikamu chedzidziso yenhoroondo yeSpain:

“Uchakunda, asi haugutsikane. Uchakunda nekuti une simba rakawandisa, asi haugutsikane nekuti kugutsa zvinoreva kunyengetedza. Uye kunyengetedza iwe unoda chimwe chinhu chaunoshaya mukurwa uku, kufunga uye kurudyi. Zvinoita kunge zvisina basa kwandiri kuti ndikubvunze kuti ufunge nezveSpain ”.

Miguel de Unamuno.

Miguel de Unamuno.

Rufu

Miguel de Unamuno akararama mazuva ake ekupedzisira ari musungwa pamba, kumba kwake. Ikoko akafa kamwe kamwe musi waDecember 31, 1936.

Mabhuku aMiguel de Unamuno

Pfungwa uye uzivi mitsara yebasa rake

Unamuno uye chinamato

Izvo zvinopesana pakati pechitendero, sainzi uye nesimba rezvisikwa zvisikwa inogara iri misoro mubasa rake. Panyaya iyi, munyori weBasque akataura:

"Kuedza kwangu kwave, uye kuchazove kwekuti avo vanondiverenga vafunge uye vafungisise zvinhu zvakakosha, uye hazvina kumbove kuvapa pfungwa dzechokwadi. Ndakagara ndichitsvaga kushungurudza, uye, kunyanya, kupa zano pane kuraira ”.

Mupfungwa iyi, Andrés Escobar V. akatsanangura mune yake zvinyorwa ongororo (2013) izvo Miguel de Unamuno “inoratidza kuti muzvinyorwa uye mufilosofi hupenyu nerufu zvinosanganiswa sei kune avo vese vanotora chikamu mazviri (munyori, vatambi uye muverengi), sekupokana kwekurarama uchiita rwendo rwakakomba-rwekufungisisa rwakavakirwa pamifungo mitatu iri zvinyorwa, huzivi nehupenyu ”.

Hunhu uhu hwaive pachena mu Runyararo muhondo (1897), zita rayo rava kutokonzera - pasina sumo - kupesana mumupinduri. Mufilosofi weBasque akanyora mune imwe yemavara ake:

"Mukufunga kwehupenyu hwake Pedro Antonio akanakidzwa neruzivo rwe miniti yega yega, mufaro wekuita zvinhu zvakafanana mazuva ese uye kuzara kwekuganhurirwa kwake.

Akazvirasa mumumvuri, akaenda asina kucherechedzwa, achifarira, mukati meganda rake sehove iri mumvura, kusimba kwehupenyu hwebasa, rakasviba uye rakanyarara, muchokwadi chake, uye kwete pakuonekwa kwevamwe. Kuvapo kwake kwakayerera senzizi nyoro yerwizi, nerunyerekupe rusina kunzwikwa uye kuti aisazozviziva kusvikira zvazovhiringidzwa ”.

Unamuno sekureva kwaLuis Jiménez Moreno

Sekureva kwaLuis Jiménez Moreno weComplutense University yeMadrid, "Unamuno anokurudzira huzivi hunokosha uye hunosuruvarisa.a paruzivo rwekongiri murume mukusagona kwekunzwisisa murume nekuda kwekurwisa kwakaomarara kwehupenyu nechikonzero, nekuti chokwadi ndicho chinoita kuti tirarame, tsvaga chokwadi muhupenyu nehupenyu muchokwadi ”.

Nekudaro, hupenyu, kufa uye chikonzero zvinodzora pfungwa muhondo yakaipa. uye zvinogara zvichiratidzira zvemunyori dambudziko remweya. Saizvozvo, kuzivikanwa uye kudarika kunoratidza kuve nenzvimbo yakakosha mumazwi aUnamuno. Aya maficha ari pachena mune yake yehunyanzvi Fog (1914), uko asingagamuchire chishuwo che "kuda kuve mumwe kuda kurega kumira kuva iye aripo".

Unamuno maererano naKatrine Helene Andersen

Sekureva kwaKatrine Helene Andersen anobva kuMariae Curie-Skłodowska University muPoland (2011), “… kubvira pakatanga kubudiswa mabhuku, Unamuno anoita kunge anozvibvunza iye mibvunzo achitsvaga mhinduro mune yekusimbisa kweinogona kupesanaAround casticism "(1895) inosanganisa zvinyorwa zvinofumura mamwe matambudziko akakosha anozotambudza mufunge."

Mune ino chinyorwa Unamuno anoyambira kuti anotsamira munzira ye “… imwe tsigiro yezvinopesana; zvinosarudzwa kuratidza kusimba kwekunyanyisa mumweya wemuverengi kuitira kuti nharaunda itore hupenyu, chinova ndicho chikonzero chekurwa ". Munyori anodana dambudziko rekusingaperi iri "mutinhimira wehupenyu."

Saizvozvo, kubatanidzwa kwemifungo kunosvikwa kubva kune kwakanyanya kuona mukati Iyo inosuruvarisa pfungwa yehupenyu (1912). Ipapo, Unamuno anotsigira "murume, ivo vanoti, imhuka ine pfungwa. Handizive kuti sei zvisati zvataurwa kuti imhuka inonzwa kana kuti ine rudo ”. Nekudaro, munyori anojekesa izvo zvisiri zvekunanga pakati pechinhu chine musoro uye kugona kuita huzivi, kuva hunhu hwakanyanya hune chekuita nekuda.

Iri ibhuku redzidziso rine pfungwa dzinopikisana dzinogara pamwe chete muzvinyorwa, sezvinoratidzwa nendima inotevera: “kutenda mukusafa hakuna musoro. Uye zvakadaro, kutenda, hupenyu, uye kufunga zvinoda mumwe nemumwe. Ichi chishuwo chakakosha hachisi dambudziko, hachigone kutora mamiriro ezvinhu, hachigadziriswe zvine hungwaru, asi zvinopihwa kwatiri, sezvinoita nzara ”.

Unamuno, Rudo uye Kudzidzisa

Ukuwo, Unamuno akaratidzira munharaunda Rudo uye Kudzidzisa (1902) chivimbo icho sainzi inomupa paanoisa dzidziso dzake mukuita kuburikidza "nedzidzo yezvematongerwo enyika." Kunyangwe hunhu hwevarume nevakadzi huchigona kuderedzwa kuburikidza ne "muchato wekubvisa", rudo rwuripo sechinhu chisingafungidzirwe icho chinotungamira mukukunda kwesimba repfungwa pamusoro pemitemo yesainzi.

Quote naMiguel de Unamuno.

Quote naMiguel de Unamuno.

Unamuno, Abel Sánchez. Nyaya yekuda

Chimwe chezvinyorwa zvake maanotarisa maSpanish magariro nemagariro Abel Sánchez. Nyaya yekuda (1917). Iyo inoverengeka ine zano rinotenderera ne "cainism" (shanje), inokwanisa kupfuuridza chero hunhu hwakanaka kwazvo hwevamiriri kusvikira hwatungamira kune husina njodzi uye hunouraya.

Nhetembo uye mabhuku ekufamba

Kana zviri nhetembo, Unamuno akazviona seunyanzvi hunokwanisa kuratidza kunetseka kwake pamweya. Akagadzira misoro yakafanana mune zvinyorwa zvake: kushushikana uye kurwadziwa kunokonzerwa nekushaikwa kwaMwari, kufamba kwenguva uye chokwadi cherufu. Iyi tsika inoratidzwa mumabhuku akadai se Rosary yemitambo yemhanzi (1911), Iye Kristu weVelzquez (1920), Rhymes kubva mukati (1923) uye Rwiyo Rwekutapwa (1928), pakati pevamwe.

Pakupedzisira, chimwe chikamu chisina kuzivikanwa chaMiguel de Unamuno aive mabhuku ake ekufamba. Uye hazviwanzo, nekuti akaburitsa anopfuura hafu yegumi nemaviri magwaro (vaviri vavo, post-mortem). Pakati peavo, zvinotevera zvinomira pachena: Zvinyorwa kubva parwendo kuenda kuFrance, Italy neSwitzerland (1889, yakadhindwa muna 2017), Nyika (1902), Kubudikidza nenyika dzePortugal neSpain (1911) uye Madrid, Castile (rakabudiswa muna 2001).


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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako