Leopoldo Maiwe, Clarín

Mutsara naLeopoldo Maiwe.

Mutsara naLeopoldo Maiwe.

Leopoldo Maiwe, anonyatso kuzivikanwa nemazita ake, Clarín, aive munyori wechiSpanish aine basa rakakura uye rakapfuma. Vazhinji vadzidzi vanowirirana mukuisa kwavo zvinyorwa zvinyorwa pakukwirira kweanoshamisa Benito Pérez Galdós. Saizvozvo, Iyo Regent (1885), inoonekwa seimwe yenhau dzakakosha kwazvo dzezvinyorwa zveSpanish zvezana ramakore rechiXNUMX.

Pamusoro pezvo, Clarín aive mutori wenhau ane mukurumbira, mutongi uye mutsoropodzi pazvinhu zvine chekuita nezvematongerwo enyika, chitendero uye dzidziso yekunyora. Pakati pezvinyorwa zvake uye zvinyorwa, anoonesa kuzvipira kwake kune zvematongerwo enyika nezvenguva yake uye simba reKrausist fungidziro papfungwa yake yeuzivi. Naizvozvo, kuti unzwisise ukuru hwepfungwa iyi, nzira yakazara inodikanwa.

Biography

Kuzvarwa uye hudiki

Leopoldo Enrique García-Alas y Ureña akaberekerwa muZamora, Spain, musi waApril 25, 1852. Panguva yekuzvarwa kwake, baba vake -Genaro García-Alas- vakashanda segavhuna weguta. Kunyange zvakadaro, iyo midzi yeAsturian yemadzitateguru ake (kunyanya iya yaamai vake, Leonora) yakachinja zvakanyanya zvisikwa zvake zveramangwana.

Pazera ramakore manomwe akanyoresa muJesuit Koreji yeSan Marcos Convent muLeón. Ikoko, mudiki Leopoldo akamira kunze kwemakero ake akanaka, kuranga uye kubatirana pakutenda, kusvika padanho rekutorwa semudzidzi wemuenzaniso. Zvichakadaro, akatanga rudo rwake rwetsamba panguva yaaigara mumhuri yemhuri muOviedo.

Mukomana wekutanga

Leopoldo achiri-asati ayaruka aive atokwanisa kuverenga vanyori vehukuru hwe Cervantes kana Fray Luis de León. Iyo degree of precocity yaive yakadaro zvekuti ane makore gumi nerimwe chete akabvumirwa muzvigaro zvekugadzirira zveYunivhesiti yeOviedo. Kwaakagamuchira kurairirwa mune masvomhu, dzidziso yechiKristu, maitiro, huzivi, chiLatin, uye nesainzi sainzi.

Saizvozvo, muimba iyoyo yezvidzidzo akaita hushamwari nevanyori venguva yemberi saTomás Tuero, Pío Rubín naArmando Palacio Valdés. Muna 1869 akagamuchira bachelor's degree. Makore maviri gare gare akatamira kuMadrid kuti awane doctorate semutongi. Muguta guru akasangana zvakare neshamwari dzake kubva kuOviedo uye akatanga kugara achiunganidza Bilis Club.

Maitiro eKrausism

Garcia-Maiwe akadzidza zvirevo zveKrausism uye rusununguko rwekunyika paakapedza degree rake rezvechiremba nekuda kwezvigaro zvaNicolás Salmerón naAdolfo Camus. Nekudaro, vekupedzisira vaive vakakurumbira vechiKrausist uye vadzidzi vemuzivi Julián Sanz del Río, akaisa hwaro hwepfungwa dzekugadzira Institución Libre de Enseñanza.

Kutanga mabasa enhau

Pamwe pamwe nezvisungo zvake zvedzidzo, mudiki Leopoldo akashanda semubatsiri mupepanhau Solfeggio, yakavambwa uye inotungamirwa naAntonio Pérez Sánchez. Pepanhau iri, rakavambwa muna 1875, rakabuda zvine hungwaru semutauriri weRepublicanism. Gore rapfuura, iyo yekutanga Republic yeSpain yakanga yadonha mushure mekupidigura kwaManuel Pavía, uko kwakatangisa kudzoreredzwa kweMonarchical.

Mutungamiriri we Solfeggio akakurudzira vapepeti vake vese kushandisa zita rechiridzwa. Neichi chikonzero, Leopoldo García-Alas akatanga kusaina pasi pezita rekunyepedzera "Clarín" chikamu chake chakanzi "El Azotacalles de Madrid". Mariri, akanyora nhetembo pamwe nekushoropodzwa kwezvematongerwo enyika kwakazoita gakava, nekuti haana tsitsi akarwisa vatongi vatsva.

Chiremba muCivil uye Canon Mutemo

Muna 1876, Clarín akanyora nyaya dzake dzekutanga ku Magazini yeAsturias, akatungamirwa neimwe yeshamwari dzake dzepedyo, Félix Aramburu. Makore maviri gare gare bhuku roga rine zita rake chairo rakabuda: chirevo chake chechiremba chakanzi Mutemo nehunhu. Zvisinei, hunhu hwake hwedzidzo hwakanga husina kukwana kuti ave mubati wechigaro paYunivhesiti yeSalamanca.

Mhinganidzo huru kuzvido zvake zvekudzidzisa yakaverengerwa neCount of Toreno, yaimbova chinangwa chekushoropodzwa kwakanyanya kubva kuna Clarín uye Gurukota rePublic Instruction panguva iyoyo. Zvisinei, iyo University yeZaragoza yakamugadza iye Muzvinafundo wezvematongerwo enyika Ehupfumi uye Statistics muna 1882. Gore rimwe chetero - Nyamavhuvhu 29 - akaroora Onofre García-Argüelles.

Muzvinafundo

Muna 1883, Clarín akagashirwa neRoyal Order sachigaro weMutemo weRoma paYunivhesiti yeOviedo. Mubasa rake rekudzidzisa akazvisiyanisa nehunyanzvi hwekuongorora nzira uye nzira dzekudzidzisa idzo basa guru raive rekukonzeresa kuongorora kwete kubata nemusoro. Kunyangwe akaomesesa, akasimudzira kuyemurwa pakati pevadzidzi vake nevamwe vaaishanda navo.

Kubatanidzwa semutsoropodzi mukurusa wenguva yake

Panguva ino, anga atove anoremekedzwa semuongorori wezvematongerwo enyika uye mutsoropodzi wezvekunyora. Zvinyorwa zvaClarín zvaizivikanwa nekupinza kwavo, izvo zvakaita kuti vafarirwe (panguva imwechete iyo yaakawedzera runyorwa rwevavengi). Anenge zvese zvinyorwa zvake zvakaburitswa munhau senge Kusasarura, Comic Madrid y Mufananidzo, pakati pevamwe.

Zvichakadaro, muna 1884 vhoriyamu yekutanga ye Iyo Regent, hunyanzvi hwake (vhoriyamu yechipiri yakaburitswa gore rakatevera). Nekuda kwesimba rake rakakura rebasa, akakwanisa kusanganisa basa rake rekudzidzisa pamwe nezvinyorwa zvake zvepepanhau. pamwe nekuwedzeredzwa kwenyaya nemanoveli. Pakazara, Clarín akaburitsa anopfuura zviuru zviviri zvekufunga zvidimbu kusvika kumagumo ehupenyu hwake.

Makore apfuura

Munguva ye1890s, Clarín akachinja pakunamata uye pahunhu. Uyezve, haana kuzvinyatso kuzvizivisa nechero ipi yemagariro mapoka muSpain panguva iyoyo. Ehezve, mamiriro ezvinhu aya haana kumisa basa rake, iro raakaenderera mberi nekunyora zvinyorwa kuburikidza nenyaya dzakasiyana uye kunyangwe basa remitambo, Teresa (Izvo zvakakonzera kukundikana kukuru).

Nekuuya kwezana ramakore rechiXNUMX, Clarín akabvuma kuita dudziro yakamutorera mwedzi -ShandanaEmile Zola - kunyangwe hazvo zviratidzo zvekurwara kwake zvaiwedzera. Pakupedzisira, kuongororwa kwacho kwaisakurudzira: ura hwemudumbu mudumbu repamberi (isingarapike panguva iyoyo). In consecuense, Leopoldo Alas akafira muOviedo musi waJune 13, 1901; aive nemakore makumi mana nemapfumbamwe.

Nzvimbo yekuvaka

Novelas

Iyo Regent.

Iyo Regent.

Unogona kutenga inoverengeka apa: Hapana zvigadzirwa zvakawanikwa.

La Regent (1884-1885)

Basa rakakurumbira raClarín rakakura kwazvo, rakazadzwa nendege dzakasiyana siyana uye mavara anowedzerana. Iyo ine rondedzero inoenderana nekuyerera kwendangariro dze protagonist, uko hupombwe iri dingindira repakati. Naizvozvo, inofananidzwa nemabasa senge Madame Bovary, naFlaubert, Anna Karenina, kubva kuTolstoï, Kana muzukuru Basilio, naEça de Queiroz kana Kukundwa kwePlassansnaZola.

Kune rimwe divi, iko kurondedzerwa kwenzvimbo dzematunhu kwakanyatsotsanangurwa, iine zvinoonekwa maficha ezvechisikirwo uye yekuzviziva inoverengeka Pamusoro pe, Clarín akakwanisa kuratidza kufarira kwake mune zvehunhu nyaya (krausistas). Panguva imwecheteyo, vaverengi vanonzwisisa zvakakwana manzwiro evatambi uye hunhu hwenzanga yenguva iyoyo.

Mamwe mabhuku naClarín

  • Kudzika pasi (1890-1891).
  • Pelayo kukumbundira (1889).
  • Mwanakomana wake mumwechete (1890). Yaiva bhuku rake rakarebesa.

Muunganidzwa wezvematongerwo enyika, hunyanzvi uye kushoropodza kwekunyora

  • Clarín Solos (1881).
  • Mabhuku muna 1881 (1882).
  • Mharidzo yakarasika (1885).
  • Mushandirapamwe mutsva (1887).
  • Mitsara nemagazini (1892).
  • Kanyaya kadiki (1894).

Ngano

Panashe nasara inyaya.

Panashe nasara inyaya.

Unogona kutenga bhuku pano: Panashe nasara inyaya

  • Zvakanaka, Gwayana!; Wonekana, Cordera!.
  • Love'è furbo.
  • Burgundy.
  • Tsika.
  • Cuervo.
  • Kubva kuKomisheni.
  • Kaviri kuburikidza.
  • Chiremba Angelicus.
  • Don Paco kubva mupakeji.
  • Mai Berta.
  • Varume vaviri vakachenjera.
  • Kukosora vaviri.
  • Jongwe raSocrates.
  • Panashe nasara inyaya.
  • Dr. Pértinax.
  • Bhuku uye chirikadzi.
  • Bere rakura.
  • Nguwani yemupristi.
  • Pachitima.
  • Kuchitoro chemishonga.
  • Menduru… imbwa diki.
  • Pipe.
  • Unyengeri.
  • Drum nemapombi.
  • Teresa.
  • Mumiriri.
  • Anodzoka.
  • Vhoti.

Izvo zviri muchinyorwa zvinoomerera pamisimboti yedu ye tsika dzekunyora. Kuti utaure chikanganiso tinya pano.

Mhinduro, siya zvako

Siya yako yekutaura

Your kero e havazobvumirwi ichibudiswa.

*

*

  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako

  1.   Gustavo Woltman akadaro

    Tsananguro ine nyasha, chinyorwa chepamusoro. Basa guru rekutsvaga nekunyora peji rino rinodiwa.
    -Gustavo Woltmann.

bool (chokwadi)