Iyo nharo yeThe Satanic Mavhesi aSalman Rushdie

Ndima dzaSatani.

Ndima dzaSatani.

Ndima dzaSatani ibhuku rinoyevedza rezvemashiripiti rakanyorwa nemunyori weBritish wemuIndia munyori, Salman Rushdie. Pakuburitswa kwayo muna 1988, yakava rimwe remabhuku anopokana kwazvo munhoroondo yadarika nekuda kwekushandisa kwayo kwechiIslam. Chaizvoizvo, munyori akaedza kuita kupindirana kweKurani kuburitswa muhupenyu hwomuporofita Muhammad hwakajekeswa naHunayn Ibn Isḥāq (809 - 873).

Nezve munyori, Salman Rushdie

Ahmed Salman Rushdie akaberekerwa mumhuri yakapfuma yeKashmiri muBombay, India, muna Chikumi 19, 1947. Mushure mekusvitsa makore gumi nematatu akatumirwa kuUK kunodzidza pachikoro chakakurumbira cheRugby School boarding. Muna 13 akawana dhigirii raTenzi (kunyanya muzvidzidzo zveIslam) munhoroondo kuKing's College, kuCambridge University.

Asati atanga kunyora, Rushdie akashanda mukushambadzira. Nhoroondo yake yekutanga, Grimus (1975), yakaratidza kutanga kwebasa sekunaka sezvo yaive nenharo. Nhoroondo yake yechipiri, Vana vepakati pehusiku (1980) akamukonzera kubudirira mune zvekunyora uye akamupa mubairo wakakurumbira. Parizvino, Rushdie akaburitsa zvinyorwa gumi nerimwe, mabhuku maviri evana, a nyaya uye zvinyorwa zvina zvisiri zvekufungidzira.

Kunobva Ndima dzaSatani

Miguel Vila Dios (2016) anotsanangura muna Iwo maSatanic Mavhesi uye nyaya yavanamwarikadzi vatatu vanotaurwa muQurʾān, kwakabva zita racho. "Izwi iri rakaburitswa naWilliam Muir pakati pezana regumi nemapfumbamwe century kudoma ndima mbiri dzinofungidzirwa kuti dzakasanganiswa naMuhammad sura 53 kana of Kuendeswa… Asi, akazotsiviwa neMuporofita kusati kwatsiurwa naGabrieri, Mutumwa waZvakazarurwa ”.

Ichi chiitiko chinozivikanwa muIslam Tsika se qiṣṣat al-garānīq, ane dudziro inogamuchirwa "inyaya yemakranes". Vila anozvitsanangudza se "nyaya yemasairini", nekuti shiri dzine misoro yevakadzi. Vazhinji vezvakaitika kare vanonongedzera kuna Ibn Hišām (akafa 799) naAl-Tabarī (839 - 923) semanyuko makuru aIbn Isḥāq munhoroondo yake mukati mehupenyu hweMuporofita Muhammad.

Iyo nharo yevanokanganisa chiitiko

Hupenyu hweMuporofita Muhammad naIbn Isḥāq hwakangopfuudzwa nemuromo, sezvo pasina chinyorwa chakachengetedzwa. Nekudaro, mamiriro emumuromo ekupfuura kwayo kubva kune chimwe chizvarwa kuenda kune chinotevera kunowedzera kuoma kwevaongorori kuteedzera kurongeka kweakaundi. Zvakawanda zvakashandurwa sei kubva murondedzero yekutanga? Zvinenge zvisingaite kuziva.

Chiitiko ichi chakarambwa nevadzidzi vese vechiMuslim pakati pezana ramakore rechina nerechigumi nematatu; chinzvimbo chakachengetwa nanhasi. Nhaurwa inowanzoitika mukuzvidza ndeyechokwadi chiMuslim musimboti wekusagona kwemifananidzo yebhaibheri mukutapurirana kweZvakazarurwa zvaZvakazarurwa. Nekudaro, chiitiko ichi chaive chave kunyangarika zvachose kusvika Rushdie adzorerazve dambudziko neruzivo rwake.

Gakava re Ndima dzaSatani

Patricia Bauer, Carola Campbell naGabrielle Mander vanotsanangura mune yavo chinyorwa (Britannica, 2015) kuteedzana kwezviitiko zvakaburitswa mushure mekuburitswa kwenyaya. Nekuti nhoroondo yekunyepedzera yakafumurwa naRushdie yakatsamwisa mamirioni evaMuslim pasirese, avo vakadana basa iri kuti rinomhura. Kusvika padanho rekuti Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini weIran akakurudzira vateveri vake kuti vauraye munyori nevashandisi vake.

Kurwiswa kwemagandanga uye kuparara kwehukama hwehukama

Kuratidzira kwechisimba kwakaitika munyika dzakaita sePakistan. Kopi dzenhoroondo dzakapiswa munyika zhinji dzeIslam - kusanganisira United Kingdom - uye basa rakarambidzwa munyika zhinji. Paitove nekurwiswa nemagandanga kuchitoro chemabhuku, vaparidzi nevashanduri munyika dzakaita seJapan, England, United States, Italy, Turkey neNorway.

Nekudaro, vamiriri veEuropean Economic Community vakabvisa mamishinari avo kubva kuIran (uye zvinopesana). Mhirizhonga yakadzikama chete muna 1998 mushure mekunge Iran yamisa iyo fatwa pakati pechirongwa chekugadzirisa hukama hwehukama neUnited Kingdom. Kunyangwe izvi, kusvika parinhasi Rushdie akadzivisa kuenda kune dzimwe nyika uko bhuku rake raive rakarambidzwa uye mamiriro ake ega haana kumbobvira akajairika.

Salman Rushdie.

Salman Rushdie.

Nzvimbo yaSalman Rushdie pakati pemhepo

Muhurukuro ne New York Times (yakaburitswa Zvita 28, 1990), munyori weIndia akati:

“Kwemakore maviri apfuura ndanga ndichiedza kutsanangura kuti basa ra Ndima dzaSatani zvaisambotuka. Nyaya yaGabriel inoenderana nekuti murume anogona kuparadzwa sei nekurasikirwa nekutenda.

Rushdie anowedzera,

"... zviroto izvo zvine mutsindo < > zvinoitika, iwo mifananidzo yekuparara kwavo. Ivo vanonongedzerwa zvinonongedzerwa kwavari munoverengeka sezvirango nemubairo. Uye kuti mifananidzo yezviroto inoshungurudza protagonist nekurwisa kwavo zvitendero inomiririra maitiro ake ekutanga. Haasi iwo mamiririro nemaonero emunyori ”.

Iyo hurukuro inogadzirwa ne Ndima dzaSatani, Zvinoruramiswa here?

Zvakaoma kwazvo kuwana zvirevo zvizere mukutsvaga pamwe nechitendero. Muchinyorwa chako Chii chinogumbura maMuslim nezve The Satanic Verses, Waqas Khwaja (2004) anotsanangura kusanzwisisika uye kuomarara kwenyaya iyi. Sekureva kwa Khwaja, “… zvakakosha kuti ubvunze kuti sei maMuslim mazhinji asingakwanise kuona Ndima dzaSatani sebasa renyaya yesainzi ”.

Zvichida hazvigoneke kuti maMuslim vaone mutsetse uripakati penyaya yaRushdie yekunyepedzera nekushungurudzwa. Chero zvazvingaitika, mibvunzo inomuka iyo mhinduro dzinosiyana zvichienderana nedzidzo uye / kana zvekuumbwa kwemweya kwemuverengi. Iri bhuku raani? Musiyano wetsika ndiwo chikonzero chekomiki uye yekunyepedzera kuona mune rimwe boka revaverengi, nepo kune vamwe kuri kuseka uye kwekupokana?

Mhinduro dzakasiyana muvanhu vane tsika dzakasiyana

Chinyorwa Kuverenga kugamuchirwa kwakasanganiswa: nyaya yeiyo maSataniic Mavhesi naAlan Durant naLaura Izarra (2001) vanonongedzera mapoinzi akakosha enyaya. Nyanzvi dzinopokana: “… makakatanwa emagariro pamusoro pezvinoreva izvo zvinomuka semhedzisiro yemhinduro dzakasiyana dzinoitwa nemapoka etsika dzakasiyana munharaunda ine tsika dzakasiyana. Kana nemaitiro akasiyana ekuverenga mune mamiriro enhau inowedzera yepasi rose ”.

Maitiro ebhuku rekushambadzira anogona kunge akabatsira kumutsa kukakavara pamusoro Ndima dzaSatani. Kune dzimba dzekutsikisa dzinoedza kuisa zvigadzirwa zvavo pasi rose sechikamu chekutenderera kwepasirese kwezvinhu zvetsika. Nekudaro, sainzi yekunyepedzera ichagara iine zvirevo zvakasiyana kuvaverengi zvinoenderana nemagariro avo, pamwe neanotevera marongero nemaitiro

Pfupiso uye kuongororwa kwe Ndima dzaSatani

Iyo yakaoma uye yakapetwa zano inotarisa kune vaviri vechiMuslim maIndia protagonists vanogara muLondon, Gibreel Farishta naSaladin Chamcha. Gibrieel mutambi wemuvhi akabudirira uyo akarwiswa nguva pfupi yadarika kubva pakurwara nepfungwa uye anodanana naAlleluia Cone, anokwira Chirungu. Saladin mutambi wenhepfenyuro anozivikanwa se "murume ane chiuru manzwi", aine hukama hwakanetsekana nababa vake.

Farishta naChamcha vanosangana panguva yeBombay - London ndege. Asi ndege inopfurwa nekurwiswa nemagandanga eSikh. Gare gare, zvinoonekwa kuti magandanga netsaona akaputika bhomba rakakonzera ndege. Pakutanga kwebhuku, Gibreel naSaladin vanoita kunge ivo chete vakapona pakuwa kwendege pakati peChirungu Channel.

Nzira mbiri dzakasiyana

Gibreel naSaladin vanosvika kumahombekombe eChirungu. Vanobva vaparadzana kana wechipiri aiswa muchitokisi (kunyangwe hazvo achizviti mugari weChirungu uye akapona paendege), achipomerwa kuva mutorwa zvisiri pamutemo. Murombo Chamcha akakura matutu anotyisa pahuma yake uye ndicho chinongedzo chevanotuka kubva kuvakuru. Inoonekwa sekuonekwa kwehuipi uye kubatwa kunge tsvina.

Mukupesana, Gibreel - akafukidzwa mune aura yengirozi - haina kana kumbobvunzwa. Saladin haakanganwe kuti Gibreel haana kumureverera, anobva atora mukana wekupunyuka paakange ari muchipatara. Nehurombo, rombo rakaipa rinoratidzika kunge rinomutambudza, sezvo achidzingwa pabasa rake. Zvese zvinhu zvinoita kunge zviri kufamba zvisirizvo kusvikira kupindira kwaGibreel kwadzoreredza chimiro chake chemunhu.

Kurota kwaGibreel

Sezvo Gibreel paakadzika, anoshandurwa kuita ngirozi Gabriel uye ane akateedzana ezviroto. Yekutanga ndeye yekudzokorora nhoroondo yekutangwa kweIslam; iwo iwo madudzirwo echikamu chino ayo asingagamuchirwe zvakanyanya kuvaMuslim vazhinji. Imwe yedzakanyanya nhoroondo dzezviono dzinotaura nezvekufambira mberi kweboka revanamati vechiMuslim kubva kuIndia kuenda kuMecca.

Gabriel aifanirwa kupatsanura mvura kuti vanamati vaAllah vaenderere mberi nerwendo, pachinzvimbo, ivo vese vakanyura. Mukumwe kurota, hunhu hunonzi Mahound - hwakavakirwa pana Muhammad - anoedza kutsvaga chinamato chemumwechete pakati peguta rinonamata vakawanda, Jahilia.

Nhoroondo yeapokirifa yeMahound

Mahound ane chiono umo anotenderwa kunamata vanamwarikadzi vatatu. Asi, mushure mekusimbisa (mushure mekukakavadzana neMutumwa mukuru Gabrieri) kuti chizaruro ichi chakatumirwa nadhiyabhorosi, anodzokorora Kota yezana ramakore gare gare, mumwe wevadzidzi anomira kutenda muchitendero cheMahound.

Salman Rushdie akatorwa.

Salman Rushdie akatorwa.

Kunyangwe, parizvino, vanhu veJahilia (chaizvo, ichi fananidzo yeMecca) vatendeuka zvachose. Pamusoro pezvo, pfambi mune yechipfambi dzinotora mazita evakadzi vaMahound vasati vavharwa. Gare gare, apo Mahound anorwara ndokufa chiratidzo chake chekupedzisira chiri kuva mumwe wevamwarikadzi vatatu. Zviripachena, ichi chimwe chikamu chinogumbura zvikuru chevaMuslim.

Makakatanwa nekuyananisa

Pakupedzisira, Gibreel anosanganazve naAlleluia. Zvisinei, ngirozi inomuraira kuti asiye mudiwa wake uye aparidze shoko raMwari muLondon. Zvino, kana Farishta ave kuda kutanga basa rake, anomhanyiswa nemotokari yemugadziri wefirimu weIndia, uyo anoda kumubatira kuti atore chinzvimbo chinotaridzika semutumwa mukuru. Gare gare, Gibreel naSaladin vanosangana zvakare kumafaro uye vanotanga kuronga pamwe chete.

Makakatanwa anozogadziriswa apo, aine mukana wekuti afe, Gibreel afunga kununura Saladin kubva muchivako chiri kutsva. Pakutanga, Saladin akange arambawo mikana yakasiyana siyana yekuuraya Farishta. Mushure mekukakavadzana, Chamcha anodzokera kuBombay kunoyanana nababa vake vari kufa.

Karma?

Baba vaSaladin vanomupa mari yakawanda kwazvo. Nekudaro, Chamcha anosarudza kutsvaga musikana wake wekare kuti ayanane naye. Nenzira iyi, iye anochinjana rake rekupenga kutenderera kuita denderedzwa rekuregerera uye rudo. Mukufanana, Gibreel naAlleluia vanoendawo kuBombay. Ikoko, pakati pegodo rakaringana, iye anomuuraya uye pakupedzisira anozviuraya.


Izvo zviri muchinyorwa zvinoomerera pamisimboti yedu ye tsika dzekunyora. Kuti utaure chikanganiso tinya pano.

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