Kufamba kwaGulliver

Kufamba kwaGulliver

Kufamba kwaGulliver

Kufamba kwaGulliver inyaya yekufungidzira, inoonekwa seyakanyanya basa rakanyorwa neIrishman Jonathan Swift. Yakabudiswa muna Gumiguru 1726 uye kubva ipapo mukurumbira wayo wakaitungamira kuti ive yechinyakare yezvinyorwa zvepasirese. Munyori akagadzira chinyorwa sekuseka kwe "nyaya dzekufamba", achiwedzera kushoropodza kwakasimba kwetsika, nzira dzezvematongerwo enyika, pamwe nehunhu hwevanhu.

La novel ndizvo izere nefungidziro nekubata kwekuseka uye nekufungidzira, nekuda kweichi chikonzero, vazhinji vanofunga kuti ibasa revana. Iyo protagonist yenyaya iyi ndeye Lemueri gulliver, chiremba uyo, nekuda kwemamwe mamiriro ezvinhu, anosarudza kuenda parwendo. Pese panzendo dzake achararama mafaro makuru uye uchasangana nemagariro mana akasarudzika, ese akasiyana zvakanyanya neako.

Pfupiso ye Kufamba kwaGulliver (1726)

Iyo inhau yekunyepedzera umo marwendo mana echiremba anovhiya anorondedzerwa, uyo akaneta neyakajairwa akafunga kutanga zviitiko zvinoverengeka zvegungwa. Iri basa iyo ndeyekare yezvinyorwa uye yakagadziridzwa pazviitiko zvakawanda, zvese zvemufirimu, terevhizheni, redhiyo uye nemitambo. Zvakare, vanyori vakasiyana vakaita sequels kune iyo nyaya, nerwendo rutsva naLemueri Gulliver ane mukurumbira.

Zvinyorwa

Lemueri Gulliver chiremba akaroora chiremba ane vana, Nottinghamshire wekuzvarwa. Iye achaita nzendo ina dzaanogara zvisingaite e zvinonakidza zviitiko. Mune imwe neimwe yadzo iwe unozopedzisira wave pane chimwe chitsuwa, kwauchasangana nemamwe mabudiriro. Izvi zvinokuita kuti uratidze nguva dzese paunodzokera kuEngland uye wobvunza zvese nezve hupenyu hwako.

Kutanga rwendo

Muna May 1699, Gulliver anotanga rwendo rwake rwekutanga, izvo zvazviri kwira Antelope. Mushure memhepo ine simba, ngarava inonyura uye Remueri anofanira kushambira asinganeti kusvika atsvaga ivhu rakasimba. Mushure mekufamba nemumvura ine mhirizhonga, anokwanisa kusvika kumahombekombe, uko kwaanobatwa nehope nekuda kwekuyedza kukuru kwakaitwa. Iyo protagonist inomuka yakasungirirwa uye yakakomberedzwa nevanhu vadiki: vagari veLilliput.

Zuva rakatevera, Gulliver anosangana namambo wechitsuwa, uyo waanonzwira tsitsi uye uwane chivimbo. Zviri nyore kuti achinje; kurumidza kudzidza mutauro mutsva netsika. Chiremba akasvika pakuda mambo zvekuti anosarudza kumuregedza, asi mutungamiriri (waasina kukoshesa) sabotage zvese, saka kuti kusunungurwa kwehofori kunoenderana nemimwe mamiriro, izvo zvaisamutendera kuti adzokere kumba.

Sezvo nguva inopfuura, hondo inotanga pakati pevaLilliputians nehumambo hweBlefuscu. - Zvakare nevagari vadiki. Nekuda kwehukuru hwayo hukuru, Gulliver anotora zvikepe zvevavengi, achimuwanira zita rekukudza. Mushure mekuramba kushandura Blefuscu kuita Lilliput koloni, Lemuel achasvetuka pakati pemativi kudzamara akwanisa kudzorera chikepe chehukuru hwake chaanotiza nacho ndokudzokera kuEngland.

Rwendo rwechipiri

Mwedzi miviri adzoka kumhuri yake, Gulliver anosarudza kutanga rwendo rutsva, nguva ino mumutambo. Zvekare, dutu rinokonzeresa kuti ngarava irasike nzira yayo uye inoguma yasiyiwa pachitsuwa cheBrobdingnag. Ikoko munhu wese anotarisa munhu muhombe, anoita kuti vashandi vatize nekutya, apo Remueri achimhanyira kusango.

Kuva ipapo, 22 metre murefu murimi anotora Gulliver kuti aratidze seyekukwezva sekisi. Anoronga kumuendesa kuna Mambokadzi, uyo anobva angoda kugara naye semhuka inovaraidza. Kuve mumuzinda, Remueri achapfuura nenjodzi dzakawanda nekuda kwehukuru hwake hushoma. Kutenda kune yakasarudzika mamiriro, iye achakwanisa kusvika kugungwa, kuti gare gare anunurwe nechirungu zvikepe.

Chechitatu kufamba

Mwedzi yakati gare gare - inotungamirwa nemamwe matambudziko emhuri--, Gulliver anosarudza kufamba zvekare. Panguva ino, ngarava inorwiswa nevapambi uye pavanotiza ichaguma munyika isingazivikanwe. Remueri anofamba nharaunda, kana kamwe kamwe, mumvuri muhombe unomufukidza, paanotarisa kudenga, tsvaga chitsuwa chinoyangarara pamusoro pake. Mushure mekukumbira rubatsiro, vamwe varume vanokanda tambo uye vanokwanisa kukwira.

Ichi chitsuwa chisinganzwisisike chakadaidzwa kunzi: Laputa, munharaunda ino zvese zvinochengetwa kuburikidza nemumhanzi uye masvomhu. Nenguva isipi Gulliver anoneta neiyi nharaunda isinganzwisisike uye anokumbira kudzoserwa pasi., kwaanoshanyira Balnibarbi kwemazuva mashoma. Pakupedzisira anosarudza kudzokera kuEngland, achipfuura nemuGlubbdubdrib asati ashanyira n'anga, pamusoro pekusangana nezvinhu zvisingafi zvinonzi struldbrugs.

Rwendo rwechina

Gulliver anga afunga kugara kuEngland uye aisazombofamba zvekare. Mushure menguva yekusurukirwa, akafunga kudzokera kugungwa, panguva ino semutungamiriri wengarava. Nguva pfupi mushure mekufamba nechikepe, kupesana pakati pevashandi kwakatungamira kuna Remueri achisungwa pachitsuwa. Ikoko achasangana nemagariro maviri akasiyana: maYahoos nemaHouyhnhnms, ekupedzisira ndiwo anotonga ndima.

Yahoos vanhu venyama vanogara musango, inogara yakasviba uye isingavimbike nayo. Kune chikamu chayo, houyhnhnms ari kutaura mabhiza, akangwara kwazvo uye anoita zvichienderana nechikonzero chakazara. Gulliver anosanganisa zvakakwana neibudiriro iyi, uye zuva rega rega kuvenga kwake kurudzi rwevanhu kunowedzera; kunyange, pakupedzisira - zvinopesana nekuda kwake - anodzoserwa kuEngland.

Biographical ongororo yemunyori

Jonathan Swift

Jonathan Swift

NeChitatu, Mbudzi 30, 1667, Guta reDublin (Ayarendi) akaona kuberekwa kwe mwana akabhabhatidzwa se Jonathan Swift. Vabereki vake vaive Abigail Erick naJonathan Swift, vese vekuChirungu vatorwa. Nguva pfupi asati azvarwa, baba vake vakashaya, zvichikurudzira amai vake kuti vadzokere kuEngland. Asi vasati vaenda, mukadzi wacho akabva aenda kurera naJonatani kutonga kubva kuna Sekuru Godwin.

Zvidzidzo uye mabasa ekutanga

Akange akadzidza achitenda sekuru vake, nekuti akararama makore ake ekutanga ari muhurombo hwakanyanya. Akadzidza paKilkenny Chikoro uye akawana Bachelor of Arts degree kubva kuTrinity College, Dublin.. Muna 1688 akadzoka naamai vake kuEngland, ikoko, nekuda kwake akakwanisa kushanda semunyori wemunyori weChirungu uye wezvematongerwo enyika Sir William Temple, aive hama iri kure uyezve shamwari yababamunini vake Godwin.

Mukuenderana nemabasa ake senzvimbo yepamusoro yeBaronet Temple, Akaenderera mberi nezvidzidzo zvake zvekuyunivhesiti uye akagadzwa semupristi weAnglican muna 1694. Aneta nekuva mudiki uye asiri kukwidziridzwa, akafunga kudzokera kuIreland kunotora nzvimbo yeKilroot. Muna 1696, akadzokera kuMoor Park - akagutsikana neTemberi - kuti agadzirire memoir yake netsamba zvisati zvaburitswa.

Swift akashanda naSir Temple kusvika parufu rwake muna 1699. Mumakore iwayo akawana ruzivo rwakakura mune zvematongerwo enyika, zvechitendero uye zvekunyora mamiriro yeguta, izvo zvakamutungamira kuti ave munhu akakosha uye ane simba. Zvakare, mu panguva iyoyo akanyora basa rake rekutanga, Hondo pakati pemabhuku ekare neazvino, rakazobudiswa muna 1704.

Zvinyorwa zvemitambo

Zvino kuratidzwa kwerugwaro rwake rwekutanga, gore rimwe chetero akatanga mukunyora kunyora kuburikidza nebhuku rake rechipiri: Nhoroondo yebhavha (1704). Akashanda semupepeti-mukuru-mupepanhau Ongorora, kwaakaburitsa zvinyorwa zvinoverengeka achitsigira hurumende yeTory, iyo yaive chipangamazano kubva muna 1710 kusvika 1714.

Muna 1726 akaburitsa pachena zita raizove rake rounyanzvi. Kufamba kwaGulliver. Izvi zvakamutungamira kuti ave mumwe wevanonyanya kukosha satirical vabudisi munyika. Kubudikidza nenyaya iyi yefilosofi, Swift akagadzira parody yemabhuku ekufambisa yakakurumbira yenguva, umo maanonyora nezve misanthropic maitiro akaratidzira akati wandei emabasa ake.

Inoshanda naJonathan Swift

  • Hondo pakati pemabhuku ekare neazvino (1697)
  • Nhoroondo yebhari(1704)
  • Maitiro evabatsiri(1711)
  • Iyo ngano yemugaba (1713)
  • Tsamba dzaRagman(1724)
  • Kufamba kwaGulliver (1726)
  • Chirevo chine mwero (1729)

Rufu

Kubva muna 1738 Swift akatanga kutambura nechirwere chisinganzwisisike, iyo inofungidzirwa kuve ine mutsipa muchimiro. Pakazosvika 1742, bundu remaziso rakaita kuti zvisaitwe kuti averenge. Paakanzwa kufa kwake, akati: "Nguva yasvika yekuti ndiputse nyika ino: ndichafa ndakatsamwa, segonzo rine chepfu mugomba rayo."

Jonathan Swift akafa muna Gumiguru 19, 1745 uye akasiira varombo pfuma yake zhinji. Mutumbi wake unozorora muSt. Patrick's Cathedral muDublin.


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