Mitambo yeCalderón de la Barca

Mitambo naCalderón de la Barca.

Mitambo naCalderón de la Barca.

Mitambo naCalderón de la Barca (1600 - 1681) chiratidzo chematafura epasirese. Munyori anoonekwa semumwe wevanyori vevanyori vepamitambo veSpanish Golden Age Musiyano wakadai unogoverwa nehukuru hwehunhu hwaMiguel de Cervantes, Lope de Vega naTirso Molina. Iwo mana akasikwa anozivikanwa-epasirose mitambo, pamwe neiyo isinganyanyo kupararira mhando yeiyo nhanho mashandiro, asi yeiyo yakanakisa hunyanzvi mhando: autos sacramentales.

Calderón de la Barca yaizivikanwawo nemamwe maficha ehupenyu; mazhinji acho anoratidzwa mumitambo yake yezvisikwa. Pakati peavo vatinogona kutaura: vanokudzwa, vemauto, vakangwara, nyanduri, echechi uye chapupu chakasarudzika chemakona makuru ezvematongerwo enyika nevemagariro ezana ramakore rechiXNUMX. Kugadzikana kwakadai kwakabatsira zvakanyanya kudzika kwe nyaya dzavo, zvirevo zvavo uye mavara.

Udiki uye hudiki hwaPedro Calderón de la Barca

Kuberekwa, hudiki uye kutanga zvidzidzo

Pedro Calderón de la Barca naBarreda González de Henao Ruiz de Blasco y Riaño vakazvarwa muna Ndira 17, 1600, muMadrid. Aive wechitatu pavana vatanhatu vemuchato pakati paGeorge Calderón naAna María de Henao, vese vane mbiri dzakanaka. Nemakore mashanu chete akatanga kuenda kuchikoro kuValladolid achidzidziswa naambuya vake Inés de Riaño. Muna 1608 akapinda muImperial College yevaJesuit muMadrid.

Muna 1610 amai vake vakafa nekuda kwekuzvara. Muna 1614, Diego Calderón akaroorazve Juana Freyle Caldera, kubva kumhuri inozivikanwa, kunyangwe aine matambudziko emari. Gore rimwe chetero achiri kuyaruka Pedro akagamuchirwa kuYunivhesiti yeAlcalá, asi akavhiringidza kudzidza kwake mushure mekunge baba vake vangoerekana vafa muna 1615. Panguva iyoyo, gakava repamutemo rakamuka pamusoro pemitemo yenhaka pakati paamai vokurera nevana.

Yunivhesiti yeSalamanca uye basa remauto

Apo Doña Juana akaroorazve muna 1616, hama dzeCalderón dzakasiiwa dzichichengetwa nasekuru vadzo, Andrés González de Henao. Zvichakadaro, mudiki Pedro Calderón de la Barca akanyoresa kuYunivhesiti yeSalamanca. Akapedza kudzidza muna 1619 sebachelor mukanoni uye mutemo wehurumende.

Nekudaro, haana kugadzwa semupristi (sekuda kwaizoitwa nababa vake vehutongi) uye kubva 1922 akasarudza kupinda muchiuto. Yakanga iri nguva yakaoma, sezvo iye nemadzikoma ake vakamanikidzwa kutengesa zvinhu zvavo zvakagara nhaka kuti vararame. Munguva yemakore akatevera, Pedro Calderón akatenderera Flanders nekuchamhembe kweItaly panguva dzinoverengeka dzehondo mushandiro yeXNUMXth Constable weCastile.

Kutanga mabasa emitambo

Musi waJune 29, 1623, mutambo wake wekutanga unozivikanwa wakabudirira kuratidzwa, Rudo, kukudzwa uye simba, pachiitiko chekushanya kwaCharles, Muchinda weWales. Mushure mekupedza nzendo dzake dzechiuto muna 1626, Pedro Calderón de la Barca akakwanisa kuzvipira zvizere kuzvinyorwa zvake zvekunyora. Zvisinei, anga atoburitsa kare Judas Maccabeus uye mamwe akawanda emitambo anoshanda pamwe neJuan Acacio Bernal kambani.

Hunhu hwemitambo yemitambo yeCalderón de la Barca

Basa rekusiyana kwakakura, rakaoma kuronga

Basa raCalderón de la Barca rine zvinhu zvikuru muhuwandu uye musiyano. Tungamira fomu uye chiitiko mukati merefu-renji kuita kunoonekwa nekunetseka kwekufunga. Sekureva kwaJosé María Díez Borque, "Kana iyo synthesis uye mataurirwo ehunyanzvi iri imwe yemisimboti yemabaroque aesthetics, muCalderón (zvakare mutori uye theorist yekupenda) inoendeswa kumagumo ayo ekupedzisira.

Nekuda kweizvozvo, kuronga uye kupatsanura mabhaisikopo emabasa enjere yeMadrid ibasa rinotyisa, zvichipiwa hukuru hwezvisikwa zvaro. Sekureva kwenhoroondo yakaitwa naiye mwedzi asati afa, Calderón de la Barca yakaburitsa ma comedies zana negumi, makumi masere masitramasara pamwe nenhamba isingazivikanwe yemimwe mitambo mipfupi.

Fomula "lopesca"

Anoshamisa Lope de Vega akagadzira iyo yemitambo modhi iyo yakatsanangura iyo baroque chiitiko chekunopera 1630 uye kutanga kwezana ramakore rechiXNUMX. Pakazosvika XNUMX, Lope de Vega anga atorumbidza tarenda raCalderón de la Barca nekuda kwekunzwisisa kwake uye kusangana kwemimhanzi. Kuchinjana pakati pehofori kwakakonzera kushanduka kweiyo "lopesca fomula" yakapfuma muzvigadzirwa zvehunyanzvi, yakanatswa yezvinhu zvine mutsindo izvo zvisina basa zvakanyanya uye zvine mashoma mashoma.

Saizvozvowo, huwandu hwevatambi hwaderedzwa, nepo rangano rakagadziridzwa kutenderedza mumwe protagonist Kuna Calderón, rudo rwake rwekupenda rwakamiririra chinhu chakakosha kukosha chinobatanidza madimikira, rhetori, uye maonero ake epasirese. Kunge kupenda kweBaroque, bhaibheri, ngano, madingindira ezvakaitika uye hukuru hwezvisikwa sekusikwa kwaMwari kwakawanda mumabasa ake.

Pedro Calderón de la Barca.

Pedro Calderón de la Barca.

Mupfungwa iyi, mabasa aPedro Calderón de la Barca anogona kuverengerwa seinotevera (mimwe mienzaniso yakatumidzwa):

  • Mitambo: Chiremba wekukudzwa kwake; Iyo pendi yekunyadzisa kwake; Mwanasikana wemhepo.
  • Zvakakomba uye sitcoms: Hupenyu Chiroto; Meya weZalamea.
  • Dare comedies: Chikara, mheni uye dombo; Echo naNarcissus.
  • Swashbuckling satires: Mukadzi wegoblin; Hapana kuseka murudo.
  • Sacramental mota: Iyo huru yemitambo yenyika; Kuratidzira kwekutenda.

Unhu kuvakwa

Chokwadi chechokwadi nezvevanyori mumitambo yaCalderón chingangoita chakazara. Kusvika padanho rakafanana vanoshaya chimiro chechisikigo chevanhu, nekuti ivo vazere nehunhu, madimikira, uye chirevo. Vakadzi vayo protagonists vakaisirwa mari neane hunhu masimba, aine hunhu hunenge hwechirume.

Nokuenzanisa, varume veCalderón vanoratidza kukura kwepfungwa. Vamwe, saDon Gutierre de Chiremba wekukudzwa kwake, hazvina musoro zvachose nekuda kwegodo ravo. Ivo vanomiririra zviverengero zvinoshandiswa mumatambudziko eCalderonia, azere nekunyengera, kufungira uye kuburitsa zvishuwo. Vamwe vatambi, vakaita saSegismundo kana Don Lope Figueroa, vari chikamu cheye isingakanganwike repertoire.

Polymetry kudzikisira

Calderón de la Barca inochinjisa iyo "lopesca fomula" ichienda kune yemhando yemhando yakanyanya kutarisisa padanho rinoshamisa. Neichi chikonzero, iye anogadzira ndima repertoire nekushandura mavhesi ake kuita octosyllables, hendecasyllables uye, pano neapo, heptasyllables. Anowanzo shandisa antitheses, madimikira, uye gudziramukanwa kuitira kusimbisa runako rwemutauro.

Culteranism

Calderón anoratidza kuraira kwakanyanyisa kwerhetori izere neanalogies, symmetries, kupokana, kuparara uye kuunganidzwa. Idzo pfungwa dziri mumitsara yako dzinogona kuoneka dzakadzokororwa kujekesa kusanzwisisika kwechimwe chirevo mune chirevo. Saizvozvowo, mune mazhinji emamwe ma comedies ake zviratidzo zveNeoplatonic uzivi uye zviwanikwa senge iyo horoscope uye zviporofita zvinoita sekuunza (kwenhema) tarisiro muvateereri.

Tsika

Kupembedzwa kwezvinangwa zveva protagonists, ngazvive zvinorumbidzwa kana kumonyaniswa - mhosva dzinokonzerwa negodo, semuenzaniso - dzinotaridzika zvine musoro, asi zvine mutsindo zvisinga gamuchirwe. Pane rimwe divi, mumatauriro eCalderón metatheatrical mitambo inotungamira kune yakafanana kusvika kune yekuita zvepabonde. Izvi zvinoreva kuti, anonyorazve uye parodies emabasa nevamwe vanyori kana nezvake anowanzo kuve nenzira yekuziva.

Chikamu chechitendero

Iko kusanganiswa pakati pezvirevo zvitsvene nezviitiko zvisina humwari chinhu chechisikigo chechitendero chevanhu panguva yeBaroque. Pamusoro pezvo, kudzidziswa kwemaJesuit kwaCalderón kunoratidzwa mumatanho eSan Agustín naTomás de Aquino, pamwe neake Philoponic uzivi. Munhandare yaCalderón, rudzi rwekusiya basa runogona kunzwisiswa zvichipesana nezviri pachena kuzvitonga uye kuvimbika kwezviito zvevanhu.

Mwari nemunhu

Kutenda muna Mwari inyaya isingafungidzike iyo inosarudzira nzira kune iripo uye zvine musoro nyaya. Saka, huMwari hunofungidzirwa kuburikidza nezvinhu zvina zvepanyika uye hachisi icho chikonzero chekutambudzika kwevanhu pasi pano. Mumabasa eCalderón de la Barca, kukudzwa, rusununguko uye hunhu hunodiwa zvinoratidzika kunge zvakatarisana nemakaro, shanje, godo pamwe nemakakatanwa eOedipal.

Kusvika kwezviitiko zvinosiririsa

Pakati-1640s, akateedzana ezviitiko akafunga zvakare hupenyu hwaCalderón de la Barca. Kutanga, kufa kwaMambokadzi Isabel del Borbón naPrince Baltasar Carlos kwakaburitsa mitemo miviri yekuvhara (yegore rimwe chete uye matatu, zvichiteerana) yemakwaya emakomedhi. Gare gare, kufa kwevakoma vake José (1645) naDiego (1647) kwakapinza Calderón mukushushikana kwakazivikanwa.

Iwo masakaramende mota

Muna 1646 mwanakomana wake wekubereka, Pedro José, akazvarwa. Makore mashanu gare gare akagadzwa semupristi uye muna 1653 akawana chinzvimbo cheNew Kings cheToledo. Nekudaro, Calderón akaisa pamberi pekunyorwa kwema autos sacramentales, yemhando yemitambo inoratidzirwa nekuratidzira kwedzidziso uye zvakavanzika zvekuona.

Mutsara naPedro Calderón weBarca.

Mutsara naPedro Calderón weBarca.

Kunyangwe akaenderera pamwe nekuumbwa kwema comedies, ma autos sacramentales akatonga mazhinji ezvisikwa zvake kusvika pakufa kwake muna Chivabvu 25, 1681. Muchokwadi, chisikwa chake chekupedzisira yaive auto sacramental Gwayana raIsaya, akapedzwa mazuva mashanu asati afa.

Anogona kuitika mabasa emitambo naCalderón de la Barca

  • Sango rinovhiringidza (1622).
  • Rudo, kukudzwa uye simba (1623).
  • Kupesana kweEngland (1627).
  • Imba ine madhoo maviri, yakaipa ndeyekuchengeta (1629).
  • Mukadzi wegoblin (1629).
  • Muchinda anogara aripo (1629).
  • Chikwata uye ruva (1632).
  • Kudya kwaMambo Bhershazari (1632).
  • Mashiripiti prodigy (1637).
  • Chikara chikuru munyika (1637).
  • Chiremba wekukudzwa kwake (1637).
  • Ivo vaviri vanoda denga (1640).
  • Chakavanzika chakavhurika (1642).
  • Iyo pendi yekunyadzisa kwake (1650).
  • Meya weZalamea (1651).
  • Mwanasikana wemhepo (1653).
  • Iyo huru yemitambo yenyika (1655).
  • Ngwarira mvura yakadzikama (1657).
  • Echo naNarcissus (1661).
  • Fate uye bheji raLeonido naMarfisa (1680).

Izvo zviri muchinyorwa zvinoomerera pamisimboti yedu ye tsika dzekunyora. Kuti utaure chikanganiso tinya pano.

Mhinduro, siya zvako

Siya yako yekutaura

Your kero e havazobvumirwi ichibudiswa. Raida minda anozivikanwa ne *

*

*

  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako

  1.   Jose Manuel Serrano Valero akadaro

    Zvinyorwa paCalderón de la Barca zvakakwana uye zvinonakidza. Zvakandibatsira zvakawanda kuti ndimuzive zviri nani. Ndatenda