Federico García Lorca: nhetembo dzakatanhamara, hupenyu nebasa

Federico Garcia Lorca.

Federico Garcia Lorca.

Nhetembo dzaFederico García Lorca ipfuma yekunyora. Zvisinei nekuvapo kwayo kwenguva pfupi, zita rake rakamira seimwe yeanonyanya kuratidzwa pakati pevanyanduri venhoroondo yevaSpanish.

Munyori akaberekwa musi waJune 5, 1898, muFuente de Vaqueros, taundi diki rine varimi mubani reGranada, Andalusia, Humambo hweSpain. Vabereki vake vaive Vicenta Lorca Romero (mudzidzisi wechikoro) naFederico García Rodríguez (muridzi wemunda). Aive aine mukoma, Francisco, uye hanzvadzi mbiri, Conchita naIsabel.

Udiki, kuyaruka uye nzendo dzekufunda

Hupenyu munyika hwakaratidza kufemerwa kwakeIzvi zvisinei nekuti mhuri yese yakatamira kuguta reGranada muna 1909, apo Federico aive nemakore gumi nerimwe. Kufamba uku kwaizomukanganisa zvakanyanya, sezvaakazorondedzera mune rondedzero yehupenyu hwevanhu kumamiriro ekumaruwa eFuente de Vaqueros.

Zvizhinji zvezviitiko zvekunzwa (kuimba kweshiri, kumhanya kwenzizi, kunhuwa kwehuswa, kuravira kwemichero, mifananidzo yemwedzi ...) akamutsa gare gare. Uyezve, Federico, mukomana, akapedza mazhizha mazhinji munzvimbo yekumaruwa yeAsquerosa (parizvino Valderrubio). Panzvimbo iyoyo, akapoteredzwa nemasikirwo, akanyora nhetembo dzake dzekutanga.

Aigara achichengetedza pfungwa yakasimba yekuve wekumaruwa, kunyangwe achitsanangurwa se "muchinda weguta." Mukukura kwake, akatanga kunetsa nyaya yekusaenzana munharaunda. Pakati penzendo dzake zhinji dzekufunda, akaona kucherechedzwa kwevarimi vane "moyo yakachena" uye "vanoshanda nemaoko" nevagari vemuguta.

Munyori akakurumbira asati akura uye vadzidzisi vakamudzidzisa

Akanyoresa kuYunivhesiti yeGranada muna1914, mune kosi yakabvumidza kupinda kumadhigiri efilosofi netsamba, nemutemo. Zvisinei, panguva iyoyo vamwe vake vakangwara vaimuziva zvakanyanya sevirosooso yemimhanzi uye kwete zvekunyora kwake. Akange atora zvidzidzo zvepiyano naAntonio Segura Mesa uye akayemura zvibodzwa naBeethoven, Chopin naDebussy, pakati pevamwe.

Federico, wechidiki, aifarira yemitambo uye aigara achisangana neboka revadzidzi vadiki pane cafe "El Rinconcillo". Mapurofesa avo vaimukurudzira kwazvo panguva yake kuYunivhesiti vaive Fernando de los Ríos (Enzanisa Zvematongerwo Enyika Mutemo) naMartín Domínguez Berrueta (Dzidziso yeZvinyorwa neUnyanzvi).

Kutanga kudhindwa nhetembo

Nzendo dzaFederico García Lorca dzekufunda dzakamubvumidza kuti azive mamwe matunhu eSpain uye akapedzisira achikurudzira kudaidzwa kwake semudetembi. Kutenda nerubatsiro rwemari rwababa vake, muna 1918 akaburitsa bhuku rake rekutanga reprose inonzi Mifananidzo uye Nzvimbo, muunganidzwa wemapeji ake akanakisa - kusvika panguva iyoyo - kwaakataura nyaya dzezvematongerwo enyika dzaimunetsa.

Mune iwo manyoro Akaratidzawo matambudziko ake echitendero uye zvekushongedza uye zvekufarira (Rwiyo rwaGregory, iyo Renaissance maitiro, iyo Baroque, inozivikanwa rwiyo ...). Muna 1918 mudzidzisi wake wemimhanzi akafa, chiitiko chakazomutungamira kuenda kudunhu renhetembo.

Madrid Mudzidzi Residence

Muna 1919 mudiki Federico akatamira kuMadrid ndokugara -kusvika 1926- muResidencia de Estudiantes, kwaakasangana zvakare nenhengo dzinoverengeka dze "El Rinconcillo". Iyo yaive saiti inoshamisa, nekuti nzvimbo iyi yakashanda senge chinobatsira mukutsinhana kwetsika pakati pevaSpanish nevatorwa, yakakwana nzvimbo yekukura kwepfungwa kwaGarcía Lorca.

Muimba yekugara akave shamwari nevanyori venyika vanonyanya kukosha uye maartist enguva idzo pakati pavo Luis Buñuel, Rafael Alberti naSalvador Dalí vakamira. Avo vakataurwa, pamwe naGarcía Lorca, Jorge Guillén, Pedro Salinas naGerardo Diego, kungodoma mashoma, mamwe makore gare gare vakaumba avant-garde artistic inozivikanwa inozivikanwa se "Chizvarwa che27".

Saizvozvowo, pekugara yaive nzvimbo yekusangana yemasayendisiti akakurumbira ekunze, vaimbi nevanyori sa: Claudel, Valéry, Cendrans, Max Jabob, Marie Curie, Le Corbusier, Ravel, pakati pevamwe vakawanda. Mukushanya kwake kweguta akasangana nevatungamiriri vemitambo vakaita saEduardo Marquina naGregorio Martínez Sierra, pamwe nevakakurumbira vehunyanzvi vakaita saRamón Gómez de la Serna kana Vicente Huidobro.

Salvador Dalí naFederico García Lorca.

Salvador Dalí naFederico García Lorca.

Kusangana kwake nemudzidzisi akamuita mudetembi

Panguva iyoyo García Lorca akaburitsa chikamu chake chekutanga chemitambo: Butterfly Hex (Izvi hazvina kugamuchirwa zvakanaka). Kutenda tsamba yekukurudzira kubva kuna Fernando de los Ríos, a kunonoka 1919 wechidiki Federico akasangana naJuan Ramón Jiménez, uyo akazova chipangamazano chake semudetembi uye shamwari inodikanwa kwehupenyu hwake hwese.

Pakati pa 1920 na 1922, García Lorca akaburitsa mamwe mavhesi ake mumagazini anozivikanwa seSpain, The y Chinyoreso. Juan Ramón Jiménez akamukurudzira kuti agadzirise bhuku rake renhetembo (rakanyorwa kubvira 1918) kuimba yekutsikisa yaGabriel García Maroto, kunyangwe yaive imba diki yekutsikisa, Federico akakwanisa kuzviongorora ega ega zvese zvakadhindwa, kudzamara basa ratangwa gore ra1921 .

Izvo zvinyorwa zvakasiyana-siyana zvaGarcía Lorca

Munguva yemwaka wezhizha we1921 akasangana naManuel de Falla muGranada, panguva iyoyo akanyora runyorwa rwake Suites uye iyo Poema del cante jondo (rakabudiswa muna 1931). Iyo yekupedzisira inobata nemabasa akafuridzirwa nehupfupi, hukobvu uye kudimikira kweichi chirevo chekuratidzira kwehunyanzvi kwemitsara mitatu kana mina.

Muna 1923 akasika Blackjack Maputi, mhando yemitambo yemitambo, iyo yaakaratidza Musikana anodiridza Basil uye muchinda achishamisika. Iyi yaive komedhi yaive nekuvapo kwaFalla semubatsiri uye muimbi wemimhanzi (piano).

Kunyorerwa kwekunyora kwaGarcía Lorca kwakasvika muna 1925 nekuburitswa kweunganidzwa wake wenhetembo Nziyo. Mukufananidza, mukurumbira wemitambo muMadrid naMariana Pineda kwakabuda, uko Salvador Dalí akapenda seti. Uye zvakare, naDalí akatenderera Catalonia, nyika iyo - sekureva kwaFederico pachake - yakawedzera kugona kwake kwekugadzira.

1928 inoonekwa seye nguva yekunyorwa kwekunyora kwanyanduri, mugore irori ndipo paive yakaratidza kuzivikanwa kwake neakakurumbira uye ane tsika stylization, hunhu hwaakatora mu Gypsy kudanana, basa rekubudirira. Muna 1929 akaenda kuColumbia University pane kudzidza; mudunhu reAmerica akanyora rimwe remabasa ake avant-garde: Nyanduri muNew York.

Munguva ya1931 yechipiri Spanish Republic yakavambwa. Shamwari yake Fernando de los Ríos anogadzwa seGurukota rePublic Instruction, iyewo, akagadza García Lorca co-director weLa Barraca (yunivhesiti yemitambo femu iyo yakaita hurukuro mumatunhu).

Munguva iyoyo akanyora Ropa Muchato, ibasa rinozivikanwa pasi resefuti ngomwa y Doña Rosita Soltera. Misoro yako inodzokororwa vaive bonde, rudo, kufa uye kusarongeka munharaunda.

Nhetembo dzaFederico García Lorca.

Federico García Lorca: Nhetembo.

Federico García Lorca: nhetembo dzakatanhamara

Chipfuva chanyanduri

Iwe haumbofi wakanzwisisa zvandinokuda iwe
nekuti unovata mandiri, uye iwe wakarara.
Ndinokuvanza iwe uchichema, kutambudzwa
nenzwi resimbi inobaya.

Norm iyo inomutsa nyama imwechete uye nyeredzi
atobaya chipfuva changu chinorwadza
uye mazwi asina kujeka akaruma
mapapiro emweya wako wakasimba.

Boka revanhu rinosvetuka muminda
kumirira muviri wako uye kurwadziwa kwangu
mumabhiza akajeka uye akasvibira manes.

Asi ramba wakarara, mudiwa.
Inzwai ropa rangu rakaputswa mumavhitini!
Tarisa, ivo vachiri kutinyangira!

Nyanduri anotaura parunhare nerudo

Izwi rako rakadiridza dune repachipfuva changu
muimba inotapira yemapuranga.
Kumaodzanyemba kwetsoka dzangu chaive chitubu
uye kuchamhembe kwehuma yangu ruva fern.

Chiedza chepine kuburikidza nenzvimbo yakamanikana
yakaimba pasina mambakwedza nekudyara
uye kuchema kwangu kwakatanga kekutanga
korona yetariro mhiri kwedenga.

Izwi rinotapira uye riri kure rakadururwa neni.
Izwi rinotapira uye riri kure kwandiri rakafarirwa.
Iri kure uye rinotapira izwi rakafa.

Kure kure semhembwe yakasviba yakakuvadzwa.
Inotapira senge kuchema muchando.
Kure uye kutapira mumongo wakakomberedzwa!

Yakareba masekondi

Yakareba spectrum yesirivha yakazunguzwa
mhepo yeusiku inogomera,
ndakavhura ronda rangu rekare neruoko grey
ndokufamba ndichienda: ini ndaive ndakaitarisira.

Ronda rerudo ruchandipa hupenyu
ropa risingaperi uye mwenje wakachena unobuda.
Kutsemuka mune iyo Filomela mbeveve
ichava nesango, kurwadziwa uye dendere rakapfava.

Oo runyerekupe rwakanaka mumusoro mangu!
Ndicharara pasi padyo neruva riya
uko runako rwako runoyangarara pasina mweya.
Uye iyo inodzungaira mvura inozoita yero,
apo ropa rangu rinomhanyira murwizi
kunyorova uye kunhuwa kubva kumahombekombe.

Hondo Yenyika uye kuurayiwa

Muna Ndira 1936 Lorca akapinda muPamberi Pekutanga, uye muna Chikunguru Hondo yevagari vemo yakatanga.. Ichi chiitiko chakaratidza kutapwa kwevakawanda vevadzidzi veIberia. Colombia neMexico vakapa García Lorca hupoteri hwezvematongerwo enyika, asi akaramba kusiya nyika yake ndokudzokera kudunhu rake.

Mutsara naFederico García Lorca.

Mutsara naFederico García Lorca.

Musi waAugust 16, 1936, akasungwa uye akaurayiwa nekuraira kwaGavhuna weGranada., José Valdez Guzmán, mushure mekunyunyuta kusingazivikanwe. Zvinotendwa kuti mutumbi wake uchakarara muguva rakawanda riri munzira pakati peVíznar neAlfacar.


Izvo zviri muchinyorwa zvinoomerera pamisimboti yedu ye tsika dzekunyora. Kuti utaure chikanganiso tinya pano.

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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako

  1.   FERNANDO GARCIA ORTEGA akadaro

    NDIYO MUTENGO UNOBHADHWA NEVANYANZVI MUDZIMAI DZVANODZIDZISA NEZVESE