Emilia Pardo Bazan

Emilia Pardo Bazan.

Emilia Pardo Bazan.

Iyo Countess yaPardo Bazán Akanga ari mukadzi akakosheswa wechikadzi muSpain mukati memakumi emakore ekupedzisira ezana ramakore rechiXNUMX uye kutanga kwezana ramakore rechiXNUMX. Kutenda kudzidzo yakapfuma yekudzidzisa yakapihwa nababa vake, Emilia Pardo Bazán akasimuka semunyori, mutori wenhau, munyori wemitambo, muturikiri, mudzidzisi uye piyona wekodzero dzevakadzi.

Basa rake rekunyora rakakura kwazvo, rinosanganisira zvinyorwa, nhetembo, zvinyorwa, kugadzirisa uye kushoropodza. Iyo gakava yaive mamiriro aigara achingoitika muhupenyu hwake sezvo aigara achishandisa avant-garde nzira dzehunyanzvi (seanotungamira echisikigo) uye aidzivirira zvakasimba kuenzana kwevakadzi. Neichi chikonzero, kunyangwe achiunganidza zvinopfuura kukwana kwakaringana, haana kumbobvumirwa kuRoyal Spanish Academy.

Udiki, hudiki uye mabasa ekutanga

Emilia Pardo-Bazán uye de la Rúa Figueroa Iye akazvarwa munaGunyana 16, 1851, mumhuri ine mbiri kubva kuLa Coruña, Spain. Aive munyori ane hunyanzvi, kubva pahudiki hwake airatidza hunyanzvi hwekuverenga nebasa rehungwaru. Pazera remakore gumi nematatu akanyora bhuku rake rekutanga, Zvinokuvaraidza zvine njodzi (rakabudiswa muna 2012).

Mushure mekusvitsa makore gumi nematanhatu (16) akaroora José Quiroga ndokuenda kunogara kuMadrid. Vaviri ava vakafamba zvakanyanya muEurope; Sekureva kwevanyori venhoroondo, hwaive hukama hwakabatana. Doña Emilia akaburitsa zvinyorwa zverwendo urwu mupepanhau El Imparcial, zvakare mubhuku rake ZveCatholic Europe (1901), kwaanokurudzira kufamba kamwe chete pagore kuzvidzidzisa, pamwe nekuratidza kudiwa kwe "Europeanization" yeSpain.

Vaviri ava vaive nevana vatatu: Jaime (1876), Blanca (1879) naCarmen (1881). Munguva iyoyo akagadzira zvinyorwa zvake zvekutanga semunyori, rondedzero Yakakomba kudzidza yemabasa aBaba Feijoo nebhuku renhetembo Jaime (akazvitsaurira kumwanakomana wake wedangwe), ese anoshanda kubva 1976. Zvakare, muna 1877 akataura chinzvimbo chake chakapesana nedzidziso dzaDarwin nezvekwakatangira zvipenyu mumagazini. ChiKristu Sayenzi. Kana Emilia Pardo Bazán akamirawo mune chimwe chinhu, zvaive nekuda kwemashoko ake ane mukurumbira.

Mumakore akatevera, Emilia Pardo Bazán aive achiwana mukurumbira pamwe, Pascual López, nhoroondo yehupenyu hwemudzidzi wezvekurapa (1879) uye Honeymoon (1881), maviri enganonyorwa enhau mune echokwadi rondedzero maitiro. Neyekupedzisira, zvakajeka zvinhu zvinoonekwa izvo zvinopa chigaro cheGalician semumwe wevatungamiriri ve Naturalism, nekuda kwetsananguro yakadzama yeiyo physiology yezvinhu zvakasikwa uye mavara.

chirevo naEmilia Pardo Bazán.

chirevo naEmilia Pardo Bazán.

Kukura kwemabhuku

Kubva muna 1881, Emilia Pardo Bazán aizochengetedza epistolary kutaurirana naBenito Pérez Galdós. Pakutanga hwaive hukama hwekunyora, zvisinei, mushure mekuburitswa kwe Mubvunzo unopisa (1883) gakava rakasimba kwazvo rakaburitswa rakatenderedza bhuku iro rakavhiringidza murume wake uye zvakatungamira mukuparadzaniswa zvine hushamwari. Kunyangwe shamwari dzake dzepedyo dzakarwisa kuverengera kuve basa rinofungidzirwa kuti hakuna Mwari, rinofarira "zvinonyadzisira zveFrance."

Gore rakapfuura (1882), Doña Emilia akaburitswa Rostrum, basa rine zvemagariro nezvematongerwo enyika zvakagadzirwa nehunyanzvi hwekuita, akafunga rimwe remabasa ake ekutanga kureverera kodzero dzevakadzi. Pamusoro pezvo, mune iri basa anosanganisa iro rebasa sechinhu chakakosha chekupokana.

Iyi idanho raanodzivirira zvinyorwa zveSpanish uye osuma chirevo chechisikigo kuburikidza nezvinyorwa zvake zvekunyora pamusoro paEmilie Zola, rakaburitswa mumagazini Nguva. Muna 1885 kuvhurwa Mhandara, achireva dambudziko remuchato.

Muna 1886 bhuku rinozivikanwa kwazvo naEmilia Pardo Bazán rakaonekwa, The pazos de Ulloa. Iri ibasa rezvemasikirwo rakaiswa mumaruwa eGalician ayo anoratidza kupokana pakati penzanga yakanatswa yemaguta nevanhu vanobva kunzvimbo dzekumaruwa dzakadzokera kumashure. Iko, vatambi vanoratidza nzvimbo yaZola nezve simba renharaunda pane hunhu hwevanhu

Nyaya inoenderana:
"Iyo pazos de Ulloa" naEmilia Pardo Bazán

The pazos de Ulloa Akazvitsaurira Emilia Pardo Bazán seimwe yeanonyanya kunyora manhamba eSpain enguva dzese. Iyo inoverengeka inobata nekutarisisa kwechokwadi pakuderera kwebasa reanosimudzira munharaunda. Muna 1887 akaburitsa Amai hunhu, bhuku rezvakasikwa rinotaura nezvokubata kumeso pakati pevechidiki vaviri vasingazive kuti ihama.

Kure kure neakasikwa

Mushure mekuparadzaniswa nemurume wake, akakwanisa kuzvipira zvakasununguka mukutsvaga kwake kwehungwaru. Aigara achipindira munhau yezvematongerwo enyika uye mukurwira kusunungurwa kwevakadzi. Nenzira iyi, zvinyorwa zvakaita se Iyo yekuchinja uye inoverengeka muRussia (1987) kana Mukadzi wechiSpanish (1890), inorumbidzwa neruzhinji nevanyori vanotsoropodza.

Mother Nature, bhuku raEmilia Pardo Bazán.

Mother Nature, bhuku raEmilia Pardo Bazán.

Kunyangwe iye asina kumira kuyemura dzidziso dzaZola, iwo ma1890 akaratidzira nzira yaEmilia Pardo Bazán kune fungidziro uye chiratidzo, kukuvadza zvakasikwa. Iyi shanduko inosimbiswa mumabasa senge Mukristu (1890), Nyaya dzakasarudzwa (1891), Mai Milagros (1894), Chimera (1895), Ndangariro dzeBachelor (1896) Ngano-dzakashatiswa (1899), Mutema mermaid (1908) uye Muridzi anotapira (1911), pakati pevamwe.

Chimwe chikonzero chakatungamira Pardo Bazán kuti azviparadzanise nechunhu chaihwo hwaive hukama nehunhu, nguva pfupi yapfuura mune kwavo mareferenzi kurudzi nhaka uye kusarudzika kwerudzi. Icho chaive chinzvimbo chakauya kuzoruramisa mukati Mufananidzo wehunyanzvi (1899), zvine chekuita neanti-Semitism yenyaya yaDreyfus. Nekudaro, zvakafanira kujekesa kuti haana kumbozvitsanangura semusaruraganda (chokwadi chakasimbiswa nenyanzvi dzinoverengeka dzezvinyorwa).

Nyowani Yakakomba Theatre

Mushure mekufa kwababa vake muna 1890, Doña Emilia akashandisa iyo yakakura nhaka yababa kupa mari kugadzirwa kwe Nyowani Yakakomba Theatre.Chinyorwa ichi yaive yemagariro uye ezvematongerwo enyika magazini yakanyorwa naiye mukuremekedza iye anoyemurwa Benito Jerónimo Feijoo. Yaisanganisira zvinyorwa, kushoropodza zvinyorwa, ruzivo rwevamwe vanyori uye ongororo yezvematongerwo enyika uye zvidzidzo zvemagariro kuitira kuratidza chokwadi chenguva yake.

Mumazuva ayo ekutanga, Nyowani Yakakomba Theatre yakagamuchirwa kwazvo nekuda kwayo yakatwasuka, yakapfupika uye yakatendeseka maitiro. Asi iyi magazini yakaunza vaimutsoropodza vatsva (kunyanya munyika inochengetedza yeSpanish aristocracy), vakamudaidza kuti stoic uye echimurenga (zano rekupandukira, kungova mukadzi).

Mushure memakore matatu, Pardo Bazán akaonekana nevaverengi vake achipikisa kuti magazini iyi yakanga yamukonzera "kurasikirwa nemari uye kuseka."

Nhaka yaEmilia Pardo Bazán

Mhirizhonga yaive chinhu chinogara chiri mumabasa eCountess. Kupfuura sosi yekukochekera muverengi kuburikidza netsananguro dzakadzama, yaive nzira yekushora kushungurudzwa mumuviri, pamoyo nepfungwa kunotambudzwa nevasina kusununguka munharaunda.

Kunyangwe zvaisabvisa mafomu ehutsinye kune vakuru varume mavara, kusvibiswa kwayo kwakanyanya kunoonekwa mukushungurudzwa kunoitwa vacheche uye - kunyanya - vakadzi. Nechikonzero ichi, anoonekwa semumwe wevatanga kumiririra kodzero dzevakadzi. Hunhu, kuita kwakawanda, uye kukura kwebasa rake hazvina kunyatsokosheswa kusvika makumi emakore mushure mekushaikwa kwake kwemuviri.

Emilia Pardo Bazán mukuverenga.

Emilia Pardo Bazán mukuverenga.

Pasinei nechinzvimbo chake uye kuziva kwenjere, kusvika pakupera kwemazuva ayo iyo Spanish macho macho haina kumira kurwisa kuBazán. Iye munyori akanyimwa nzvimbo dzaakanyanya kuwana kuburikidza nebasa rake, kunyanya kuRoyal Academy (akarambwa katatu).

Emilia Pardo Bazan akashaya musi waMay 12, 1921, panhamba 27 Calle de la Princesa, Madrid.


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