Dhayari yegore redenda

Pakutanga kwezana ramakore gumi nemasere, muna 1722, bhuku Dhayari yegore redenda nemunyori weBritish uye mutori wenhau Daniel Defoe. Nekudaro, munyori anozivikanwawo nenyaya yake Robinson cruose, akarondedzera zvakaitika mukati medenda guru reLondon muna 1665. Naizvozvo, kunofanira kucherechedzwa pakuvamba kuti iyi nhau yokufungidzira yakaburitswa hafu yezana ramakore denda racho raitika muEngland.

Naizvozvo, kunyangwe hazvo munyori achiratidzika semupupuri wechapupu, chokwadi ndechekuti apo denda rakarova London, aingova nemakore mashanu chete. Sezvinei, muverengi anozviwana pamberi pehunyanzvi hwenyaya yakadzama uye "yekuziva", zvichibva pazviitiko chaizvo (zvisati zvamboitika kumunyori wazvo). Nekudaro, ibasa renhau rine zvipupuriro uye zvinyorwa chaizvo zvenguva.

Nhoroondo yaDaniel Defoe

Daniel Defoe, sezviri pachena, akaberekerwa muLondon musi waGumiguru 10, 1660 uye akafira muguta iro muna Kubvumbi 24, 1731. Anotorwawo semumwe wevapamberi vemhando yekunyora, inozivikanwa pasi rese nebasa rake rekutanga rekunyepedzera. Robinson Crusoe (1719). Zvakare Akamira semutori wenhau, kusvika pakuve mugadziri weinonzi nhepfenyuro yezvehupfumi.

Uye zvakare, akatsaurira hupenyu hwake kuzvinhu zvakasiyana siyana zvekutengeserana, zvaisanganisira chikamu chemachira kana kutengeswa kwezvidhinha, semuenzaniso. Pakutanga, anga atanga mumabasa echechi, asi akaisiya nekuda kwesimba rake rekusimudzira bhizinesi. Gare gare, Akanga ari chikamu chehurumende kuburikidza nemabasa epachivande enyika yake, kushanda mumagazini kutsigira rimwe danho rezvematongerwo enyika.

Daniel Defoe: murume

Munyori weBritish aive mwanakomana wevabereki vePresbyterian, anozivikanwa nekuramba kubva padzidziso dzakakosha dzeChechi yeEngland. Baba vake James vaive bhudhi vakazvipira, nepo aine makore gumi aive nherera naamai vake Annie. Zvinonzwisisika Pazera remakore manomwe akatanga kudzidziswa kwake muzvikoro zvakasiyana, achiisiya kuita mutengesi.

Nekudaro, kutadza muhupenyu hwake semushambadzi kunozivikanwa zvakanyanya, kwakaratidzirwa nechikwereti chakasimba uye chisingaperi chakamutungamira kujeri. Kunyangwe izvi, aigona kutora chikepe uye imwe nyika, asina kuwana mibairo inobatsira. Kunze kweizvi, akasimbirira pakuedza rombo rakanaka muhupenyu hwake hwerudo; muna 1684 akaroora Mary Tuffley, waaive naye nevana vasere.

Zvematongerwo enyika uye zvekunyora hupenyu

Mugore re 1701, Daniel Defoe akaburitsa iro rekutanga basa raaizowana kuzivikanwa naro, Chirungu chechokwadi. Nezve bhuku iri, zvinofanirwa kucherechedzwa kuti munyori weBritish akatora chinzvimbo mukudzivirira kwaMambo William III. Neiyi nzira, rake bhuku repamhepo (iro raaizivikanwa kwazvo uye aive nezvinetso pamberi pemutemo) raizosimbiswa.

Zvechokwadi, Defoe akaiswa mutirongo nekuda kwebhuku racho Iyo ipfupi nzira nevanopesana, parody paTories yeChechi. Sezvo iye akaisa izvo zvambotaurwa "mu pillory" uye akavavhenekera kuruzhinji kusekwa (kubva ipapo kwakamuka kwake Nziyo kuPillory). Muverengi anogona kushandisa zvinyorwa zviviri izvi kuti anzwisise hunhu hwezvematongerwo enyika hwemagwaro ake pamberi pemanoveli aizoita kuti ave nemukurumbira.

Ruzivo rwake

Nezve mabasa engano akaburitswa naDaniel Defoe, bhuku ra1719 rakanzi Robinson Crusoe. Nekuda kwezita iri Defoe akawana kuzivikanwa kwepasirese. Mariri anorondedzera mamiriro ezvinhu akaipisisa emurume akapunzikirwa nechikepe. (Akafuridzirwa nenyaya yechokwadi yemufambisi wengarava Alexander Selkirk uyo akaputsikirwa nechikepe pachitsuwa chePacific).

Saizvozvowo, Izvo zvinodikanwa kutaura mamwe ake maviri anokosha enganonyorwa: Iyo Adventures yaKaputeni Singleton (1720) uye Dhayari yegore redenda (1722). Mukutanga, mumwe anoona rudo (rutendo) rwemumwe murume kune mumwe anokwanisa kushandura hupenyu hwake hwekuparadzwa uye kusagadzikana munharaunda.

pamusoro Dhayari yegore redenda

Maitiro uye chinangwa

Mubhuku rino muverengi anowana mhando ye chisingaperi pazviitiko zvehosha huru yeLondon. Iko munyori anofarira kuudza nenzira kwayo, asi zvinoita kunge asiri kunyatsobatanidzwa mune zvakaitika. Chero zvazvingaitika, Zvinogona kucherechedzwa kuti iyi yakanyatsorondedzerwa nhau uye yekuongorora zvinyorwa.

Nguva Dhayari yegore redenda ibasa rekunyepedzera, Defoe airatidza hunyanzvi hwake hwekuferefeta nenzira yake yekuunganidza chaiko zvipupuriro uye zvinyorwa zvepamutemo. Nekudaro, muverengi anogona kuona kuswedera kweanooneka protagonist nemunyori. Uye zvakare, chinangwa chikuru chaive chekusiyira ramangwana rekurangarira zvakakanganiswa nedambudziko muna 1665 nedenda.

Kutengesa Dhayari yegore re ...
Dhayari yegore re ...
Hapana wongororo

Musoro mukuru wenyaya

Iyi chinyorwa cheChirungu, chine nhoroondo yekuverenga uye kurondedzera mune yeakaitika toni, inoshanda padingindira renhoroondo yedenda guru reLondon. Sezvinozivikanwa, Europe yakanga yatove nenjodzi yedambudziko rebubonic kubva muzana ramakore regumi nemana. Nekudaro, veLondon vaitarisira chiitiko chakadzokororwa chehosha imwechete muna 1665, ne20% yevagari vayo vachifa.

Chiono chemunyori chedambudziko

Saizvozvowo, hazvigone kutaurwa kuti ingori inoverengeka ine zvemanyepo kana zvemukati zvinyorwa. Zvakare, Dhayari yegore redenda inotaura nezvechirwere ichi nedzimwe nheyo dzemishonga. Uye zvakare, Defoe akatsigira nyaya iyi nehuwandu uye humbowo hwechiitiko chakaratidza chizvarwa.

Nezvikonzero izvi, iyo poindi yekuona yemunyori yakapihwa kukwana kwakaringana uye nesimba. Zvimwechetezvo, sezvo iri nganonyorwa isina kutaurirana, muverengi anoona mumiriri wakavimbika wemifananidzo (izvi, zvakare, zvinopa basa kukosha kwazvo).

Pfupiso ye Dhayari yegore redenda

Iri basa rinorondedzera muudzame hunoshamisa izvo zvakaitika mukati medambudziko guru reLondon ra 1665. Panguva iyoyo, chirwere ichocho kwaive kutya kwekupedzisira pakati pevagari vemuBritain Humambo ... izvo zvakava chinhu chinotyisa chaicho. Pakutanga, Defoe - kuburikidza nemunyori - anopa mharidzo pamusoro pehunhu hwevanhu uye pamusoro pezvinofungidzirwa kuti zvinoshamisa zvechirwere.

Zvino, rapporteur anozvipira iye kutsanangura zvakadzama mamiriro ezuva nezuva enharaunda anokonzerwa nekupararira kwechirwere. Ari munzira yake kuburikidza nemigwagwa yeLondon, munyori haana kuzeza kuratidza chinosiririsa chikamu cheguta kuburikidza nenyaya diki uye dzinovhundutsa.

Nhaka

Zviri mukati Dhayari yegore redenda ine hunhu husingaperi. Munhoroondo yese yevanhu, zviitiko zviviri zvekusvika pasirese zvakadzokororwa zvinosimbisa izvi. Yekutanga, hosha yefuruwenza (avian flu, H1N1) ya1918. Yechipiri, denda reSars-Cov-2 rakatanga muna 2020.


Izvo zviri muchinyorwa zvinoomerera pamisimboti yedu ye tsika dzekunyora. Kuti utaure chikanganiso tinya pano.

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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako

  1.   Estelio Mario PEDREAÑEZ akadaro

    Denda ra1918-1920 rakadaidzwa kuti "Chirwere cheSpain" nekuti chakarwisa varwi vachirwa mumigero yeFrance munguva yeHondo Huru (yakazotumidzwa zita rekuti "Hondo Yenyika Yekutanga") asi wekutanga kumhan'ara yaive pepanhau reSpain, iro rakanga richirerekera uye pasi pekudzivirirwa kwehondo. Zvinonzi hutachiona uhu hwakachinja muUnited States uye hwakaparadzirwa nemasoja akaenda kunorwa kuEurope muna 1917, kunyangwe paine fungidziro yekuchinja kwehutachiona hwehutachiona hwakafumurwa nezvombo zvemakemikari (gasi rine muchetura) zvinoshandiswa nemativi ese iyo hondo inoparadzirwa nechisimba chekuwedzera kwevatongi veEuropean. Mamirioni akauraiwa nekuda kwevarume vane makaro vasina kumboburitsa hupenyu hwavo panhandare yehondo uye pavakakundwa vakaenda kunhapwa saWilhelm II weGerman, kuurayiwa kwevanhu vasina mhosva avo vakaraira kuurawa kwaHereros neNamas muna 1904-1908 muNamibia yanhasi. .