Benito Pérez Galdós, mumiriri wepamusoro weSpanish Realism

Benito Pérez Galdós, pamwe chete naLeopoldo Nhamo «Clarín», ndivo vamiririri vepamusoro ChiSpanish chaicho. Zvisinei, nhasi tinofuratira wechipiri, uyo watichakurukura mune imwe nyaya munguva pfupi, uye isu tinotarisa pamusoro pebasa rekutanga, Galdós.

Benito Pérez Galdós uye nhoroondo yake

Mubasa raGaldós, rake guru rekugadzira zvigadzirwa rinonyanya kumira, mune mapoka akati wandei anosiyaniswa:

  • ari Zvikamu National izvo zvinoumba seti yemanovhero makumi mana neshanu anorondedzera nhoroondo yeSpain kubva kuHondo yeTrafalgar kusvika kudzoreredzo rwehumambo. Mazita ake ane mukurumbira mune aya National Episodes ari "Trafalgar", "Bailen" y "Saragossa".
  • Mumanozari ekutanga eGaldós, izvi pachena inoratidza mamiriro ayo ekuenderera: Hunhu hunomiririra pfungwa dzepamberi dzinowanzotarisana nevamwe vanochengetedza, izvo zvinomiririra kusashivirira uye kusagadzikana. Inoshanda se "Mukadzi Akakwana" (1876), "Kubwinya" (1877) uye "Mhuri yaLeon Roch" (1878). Mazhinji emanovel aya ari pamusoro «Thesis novels»Mune mamwe mazwi, chokwadi chakapihwa chiri kushandira zano uye vatambi havasati varatidzira hunhu hwakaomarara hwematanho ekupedzisira.
  • Kune rimwe divi, maGaldós, zvizere kukura kwekunyora, anonyora enganonyorwa dzazvino dzeSpanish. Mavari, sarudza iyo yakanangana nechimiro uye kuramba nzira yekufunga zviri pachena. Mumanovel aya hunhu hwehunhu hunonzwisiswawo, asi hazviuye kuzogadzirwa mukufamba uku kunyangwe vachishandisa chaiwo maitiro ehunhu. Madrid inowanzo kuve iro guta rakasarudzwa nemunyori kune aya manyowani: «Tormento» (1884), "La de Bringas" (1884), "Meow" (1888) uye «Fortunata naJacinta» (1887).

  • Kubva 1889, iyo yekupedzisira yekugadzira nguva yemunyori. Izvi zvinoratidzirwa nekumisikidzwa kwemabasa ake, nekuti maGaldos anotarisa pamunhu uye zvinoreva hupenyu hwake. Mune ino nguva, iye anoedza nehunyanzvi hutsva hunyanzvi uye anosanganisira zvinhu zvakaita sekurota, iyo yekufananidzira kana inonakidza. Novels dzakadai "Chokwadi" (1889), «Angel Guerra» (1891), "Tristana" (1892), "Nazarín" (1895) kana "Tsitsi" (1897).

Pfungwa uye dingindira rebasa rake

Kune akati wandei mazano uye madingindira anogona kutariswa zvachose "Galdosian":

  1. La kushoropodzwa munharaunda. Galdós anonzwa ruremekedzo rukuru kune avo vanotambura, vakadai sevapemhi, vanorwara kana vakaremara, panguva imwe chete yaanoratidza bato kune avo vasina kujaira nguva dzazvino, sevafundisi, vanokudzwa kana simbe. Iyo yemagariro kirasi inoshoropodza zvakanyanya mune rake basa ndeye bourgeoisie.
  2. La Política, iyo inotongwa kubva kunhoroondo yezvino. Kune mabasa anobudirira kwazvo ongororo yezvazvino uye zvakapfuura zvemunyori wavo. Mune izvi munoonekwa wakasununguka, republican uye socialist mweya uyo akatungamira pamusoro pekushanduka kwemazano ake. Galdós inofambira mberi kune tariro yekusava netariro yenhoroondo, kunyanya mukukwegura kwake, izvo zvinoita kuti afunge nezveramangwana renyika sechinhu chakadzika midzi muSpanish.
  3. La chitendero. Ari kupokana nesimba revafundisi, kunyangwe achiratidza kunzwira tsitsi mupirisita weevhangeri.

Maitiro echokwadi aGaldós

Galdós anogadzira mumabasa ake fikisheni yezvakatendeka yakatendeka kuchokwadi. Nzanga yemazuva ano iri, muchokwadi, kwaanobva kurudziro. Nekudaro, mune yake yekupinda kutaura ku Royal Spanish Academy, iyo yakanyanya kudanwa "Paridza nzanga seyakavanzika nyaya"inoti:

«Mufananidzo wehupenyu ndiyo Novel, uye hunyanzvi hwekuinyora iri mukuberekesa hunhu hwevanhu, zvishuwo, kushaya simba, vakuru nevadiki, mweya nemafizikiki, zvese zvemweya nezvepanyama zvinotikomberedza uye isu takakomberedza, uye mutauro, rinova mucherechedzo werudzi, nedzimba dzekugara, chinova chiratidzo chemhuri, uye zvipfeko, izvo zvinogadzira zvisaririra zvekupedzisira zvehunhu: izvi zvese pasina kukanganwa kuti panofanirwa kuve neyakaenzana yakatendeka pakati pekururamisa uye runako rwekubereka. 

Dialogues uye kuseka zvakare akakosha maficha eGaldós maitiro.

Kana iwe uchida yechokwadi -style novel, mangwana isu ticharamba tichiongorora mairi, tichiongorora mumwe munyori nyeredzi wesangano iri: Leopoldo Maiwe «Clarín».


Izvo zviri muchinyorwa zvinoomerera pamisimboti yedu ye tsika dzekunyora. Kuti utaure chikanganiso tinya pano.

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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako