Akanakisa Philosophy Mabhuku

Friedrich Nietzsche akatorwa

Friedrich Nietzsche akatorwa

Iwo akanakisa mabhuku efilosofi ndeaya anoratidzira ideology yevazhinji vevakangwara kwazvo munhoroondo yevanhu. Iyo ipfungwa yevadzidzi vakaita saSeneca kana René Descartes, kutaura nezvevamwe vanozivikanwa kwazvo. Munguva pfupi yapfuura, mabasa aFriedrich Nietzsche, Simone de Beauvuoir, Osho naJostein Gaarder, pakati pevamwe, haadziviriki.

Zvimwechetezvo, zvinyorwa zvehunyanzvi izvo zviri chaizvo kusangana kwakapedzwa kwemazana emakore anoverengeka zvinogona kutengwa muzvitoro zvemabhuku kutenderera pasirese (Tao te ching, Ndomumwe wavo). Munhu wese mabhuku efilosofi akafanana ane chinangwa chekufunga, chakadzama, chakakodzera kuongororwa nekudzikama uye kufungisisa. Naizvozvo, murudzi urwu rwekuverenga kumhanyisa hakuna zvakunoreva. Heino runyorwa rwemabasa akanakisa mundima iyi.

Tao te ching (Zana ramakore rechitanhatu BC)

Izvo zvinonziwo se Dao De Jing o Tao Te Ching, Icho chinyorwa chekare kubva kuChina. Kubudirira kwayo kunogona kuiswa kubva kuzita rayo; tsime Dao zvinoreva "nzira", kubva inomiririra "simba" kana "kunaka" uye jing zvinoreva "bhuku rekare". Zvinoenderana netsika dzechiChinese, yakaitwa muzana ramakore rechitanhatu BC. C yeLaozi -yakashandurwa Lao Tzu, "mudzidzisi wekare" - Archivist weZhou Dynasty.

Zvisinei, nyanzvi dzakawanda dzinopokana nekunyorwa uye zera rerugwaro urwu. Pane rimwe divi, zvirevo zve Tao te ching akaisa akawanda emitemo yemafilosofi echiTao. Nekudaro, ichi chinyorwa chakakonzera zvakanyanya mamwe madhiri kana zvikoro zvemweya kuAsia kondinendi (Neo-Confucianism uye Legalism, semuenzaniso).

Dudziro uye dudziro

Chinyorwa ichi chizere nemitemo isinganzwisisike, inoshanda mumamiriro ezvinhu akasiyana ehupenyu, kubva pamisoro yakajairika uye yemazuva ese kune kurudziro yekirasi yezvematongerwo enyika. Naizvozvo, chinhu chinonyanya kurairwa kune vaverengi kutora pfungwa dze Dao De Jing pasina kuyedza kuva nemhedziso kana chinangwa chakazara.

akakosha mazano

  • Iyo Tao inonzwisisa kubata kwemibvunzo isingaperi, ndeyekusingaperi, haina chimiro chaicho kana ruzha. Kana kuti inogona kurondedzerwa nemazwi.
  • El Dao De Jing anoshamwaridzana ne Yin -Chikadzi, chakasviba uye chisina kujeka divi rezvinhu- zvine hunyoro mamiriro emvura kana unyoro. Kupesana nekusimba uye kusimba kwedombo kana gomo (Yan).
  • Pfungwa ye "kudzoka" mu Dao De Jing zvakafanana ne "reflection", "Hindsight" kana "kubvisa" paari. Hapana mamiriro izvo zvinoreva kudzoka kune zvakaitika.
  • Icho Chinhu hachimiriri musimboti weTao uye ari Iye, chinangwa chayo. Saizvozvo, zvinodikanwa kuisa parutivi iyo ego, fungidziro uye kunetseka kwenyika kana iko kushuvira kuri kwechokwadi kukwana kwepfungwa.
Kutengesa Tao Te Ching. Lao Tzu: ...

Zve kupfupika kwehupenyu (55 AD)

Ne brevitate vitae yakanga iri imwe yemagwaro akaumbwa Nhaurirano, bhuku ra muzivi Seneca yakatsaurirwa kuna Paulino. Mubasa, munyori anoti hupenyu - kunyangwe zvichionekwa saizvozvo - haupfupi; ndiye munhu anogadzira iyo pfungwa ndisingazive maitiro. Nechikonzero ichi, vezvakaitika kare vanonongedzera kumufungi wechiRoma sechirevo chisina kujeka chevanyori veSpanish Golden Age

akakosha mazano

  • Nguva yakakoshaNaizvozvo, haifanire kutambiswa kuongorora nyaya izvo pakupedzisira zvisina basa.
  • Mumwe munhu asingade hupenyu hunowonekwa nekukurumidza haafanire kuramba akabatikana.
  • Hupenyu hunopfuura katatu: zvakapfuura, zviripo uye ramangwana. Kubva kwavari, izvozvi kungova kungobwaira — kunenge kusipo— ramangwana rizere nekusaziva uye zvakapfuura ndizvo chete zvisingarambwe.
  • Mumwe munhu akachenjera zvechokwadi - sekureva kwaSeneca - munhu anonyatso rangarira zvakapfuura, tora mukana wezvino uye uzive nzira yekutungamira ramangwana rako.
  • Avo vanoregedza zvakapfuura, vanoregeredza yavo yanhasi uye vanotarisana neramangwana nekukahadzika nekutya.

Hurukuro yemaitiro (1637), naRené Descartes

Chinyorwa ichi chinoonekwa seimwe yembiru dzehunyanzvi hwekuMadokero uye chinyorwa chine zvakakosha mukusimudzira sainzi. Musoro wakazara webasa iri ndi (wakashandurwa kubva kuFrance) Hurukuro pane iyo nzira yekuitisa yako wega chikonzero zvakanaka uye kutsvaga chokwadi musainzi.

Maumbirwo ehurukuro uye zvirevo

Iyo yakakamurwa kuita zvikamu zvitanhatu:

  • Yokutanga inyanzvi yehupenyu, iyo iyo munyori asina chokwadi nezveruzivo rwake rwekare, anotsoropodza sainzi uye dzidziso yebhaibheri yenguva yake. Ipapo anopedzisa nekusimbisa kuti nzira chete yechokwadi iri mazviri.
  • Muchikamu chechipiri, Descartes anokurumidza kutsanangura mabheseni enzira yake nyowani kuburikidza nemitemo mina:
    • Uchapupu sechinhu chakakosha kutsigira chikumbiro.
    • Govanisa dambudziko muzvikamu zvakawanda sezvazvinodiwa kuti riongororwe zvakakwana uye nemhinduro dzacho
    • Ronga pfungwa; mukukwira kurongeka zvichienderana nekuoma kwavo.
    • Wongorora basa raitwa "kuve nechokwadi kuti usarasikirwe nechinhu."
  • Muchikamu chechitatu, anokurudzira anofunga azvino kuti aratidze zvachose chikonzero chake uye inotaura nezve "hutsika hunodzora hupenyu hwake." Nezve iri kodhi yechipo, taura masirogani mana asinganzvengeki:
    • Tevedzera nemitemo yenyika, remekedza tsika dzenyika, chengetedza chinamato chako uye teerera kune akanyanya kufunga mafungiro.
    • Sarudza uye tsunga muzviito zvichaitwa, kunyangwe mune izvo zvinounza kusahadzika.
    • Chinhu chega chiri pasi pekutonga kwemunhu ipfungwa dzavo.
  • Muchikamu chechina, Descartes inosimbisa iyo musimboti we "nzira yekusahadzika" uye inogadzira sirogani yake inozivikanwa "Ndinofunga, saka ndizvo zvandiri", iyo inobvuma kuvapo kwaMwari.
  • Muchikamu chechishanu, madhizaini ehungwaru eFrance anoronga sangano rezvose uye hunopa mweya chete kuvanhu (kusabatanidza mhuka).
  • Muchikamu chechitanhatu, Descartes anoti zivo yesainzi inofanira kufambiswa. Chekupedzisira, anofumura chishuwo chake chekusave "munhu akakosha munyika" kuti arege zvinokanganisa uye kutarisisa zvakakwana pazvidzidzo zvake.

Yakadaro Zarathustra (1883), naFriedrich Nietzsche

Inofungidzirwa seunyanzvi hwaFriedrich Nietzsche. Yakadaro Zarathustra. Bhuku remunhu wese uye hapana munhu (zita rizere) inotsvaga pfungwa huru dzemudzidzi wechiGerman. Idzi pfungwa dzakarongedzwa munhevedzano yenyaya uye zvinyorwa zvine mutsindo zvinotarisa pane zvakaitika uye kuratidzwa kwemuporofita Zarathustra (Zoroaster wePersia).

Chaizvoizvo Nietzsche akashandisa mufananidzo wekunyepedzera weZarathustra - kwete munhu wenhoroondo - semutauriri wedzidziso dzake. Anomuratidzira semunhu akavhenekerwa mutongo wake unodarika uyo wevanhu uye nenzira inopesana nemitemo yeChechi yeKaturike.

Thematic

Kufa kwaMwari

Inomiririra iyo nguva iyo munhu anowana zinga rakakura kudaro zvekuti iye haadi Mwari wekumaka mirau yehupenyu hwake. Panguva iyoyo, hunhu hunotsiviwa nechokwadi uye munhu ndiye ane mhosva panzira yake.

Kuda kwesimba kana Ermbermensch

Iyo ndiyo nharo yepakati pebasa, yakatorwa kubva kune pre-Socrate uzivi, ine yakajeka inokosha uye yakasikwa maficha. Kunyangwe, Nietzsche anogara achiratidza kusanzwisisika kuri pachena maererano nekudzika kwebhuku rake "akaberekwa nehupfumi hwepedyo hwechokwadi." Uye ndezvekuti, panguva imwechete, inodzivisa chero kunyepedzera kwe "kugadzirisa vanhu."

Kudzoka kusingaperi kwehupenyu

Pakupedzisira, Zarathustra inokurudzira varume kuti vagamuchire hupenyu hwakazara, pachinzvimbo chekufungidzira nezveupenyu hwerufu. Nenzira imwecheteyo, Nietzsche anotaura kuti kushaya simba kwemunhu ndiko kutsvaga kubudirira uye kuzadzikiswa pamweya mushure mekufa.

Kutengesa Saka zvakataura Zarathustra ...

Mamwe eanonyanya kukosha mafirosofi mabhuku ezana ramakore rechimakumi maviri

Bonde rechipiri (1949), naSimone de Beauvoir

Icho chinyorwa chakanyatsojeka chakamuka semhedzisiro yekutsvagisa kwemunyori wechiFrance nezvenhoroondo yekubata uye basa revakadzi munharaunda. Nekuda kweshanduko yayo yekusimbisa - kunze kwekuve inoyevedza kutsikisa kubudirira - Iri bhuku rakaisa hwaro hwe chikadzi chiripo kuenzana.

Nenzira imwecheteyo, inotorwa senge encyclopedic chinyorwa nekuda kwekutarisa kuzivikanwa kwevakadzi kubva kwakasiyana dzidziso uye nesainzi maonero. Pakati pezvirango zvakatariswa ndezve: sociology, anthropology, psychology, biology uye kubereka anatomy (nezvazvinoreva muhukama hwepabonde).

Nyika yaSofia (1991), naJostein Gaarder

Kunyange hazvo zita iri rakarongerwa senhau, Munyori weNorway akatora mukana wechirevo ichi kuti aongorore nhoroondo yehunyanzvi hwekuMadokero. Mhedzisiro yacho rave bhuku rinotengesa zvakanyanya pasi rose, rakashandurwa mumitauro inodarika makumi matanhatu uye rakashandurwa kuita bhaisikopo (1999) richitungamirwa naErik Gustavson.

Mafirosofi mafashama akatsanangurwa (kuna Sophie, protagonist)

  • Kuberekwazve
  • Kudanana
  • Zviripo
  • Pfungwa dzaMarx
  • Pamusoro pezvo, dzidziso yeBig Bang inotsanangurwa uye vamwe vanofungidzirwa kubva mumabhuku echinyakare vanoonekwa (Little Red Riding Hood, Ebenezer Scrooge nemukadzi we Hama Grimm Fairy Tales).
Nyika yaSofia ...
Nyika yaSofia ...
Hapana wongororo

Kuziva (2001), naOsho *

Izvo zvinofanirwa kucherechedzwa, Osho haasi iye munyori mune yakasimba pfungwa yezwi. Mabhuku ake akagadzirwa kubva muzvinyorwa zvehurukuro dzisingatarisirwi uye hurukuro dzakapihwa pamusoro pemakore makumi matatu nemashanu. Mavari, kuratidzira kwake pazvinhu zvichibva pakutsvaga kwake kunounzwa, kumafungiro nezvematongerwo enyika uye nzanga.

En Kuziva, muzivi wechiHindu anokurudzira vanhu kuti varambe vakasvinura mu "pano uye ikozvino." Nenzira iyi, munhu wenyama aigona kuzonzwisisa kusakosha kwemanzwiro akadai sekutsamwa, hasha, godo uye kunzwa kwekuziva. Uye zvakare, inotaura nezve kugamuchirwa uye kubatana kwepolarities (mufaro uye kuchema, semuenzaniso) senzira yekuyera kuzere.


Izvo zviri muchinyorwa zvinoomerera pamisimboti yedu ye tsika dzekunyora. Kuti utaure chikanganiso tinya pano.

Mhinduro, siya zvako

Siya yako yekutaura

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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako

  1.   SC akadaro

    Yakanaka chinyorwa, asi chakaoma kuverenga mune zvimwe zvikamu nekuti typography yakajeka.