Rwiyo

Federico Garcia Lorca.

Federico Garcia Lorca.

Iyo lyric ndiyo yakanyorwa kuratidzwa kwekunzwa. Iyo yakafara izwi, dzimwe nguva rakaoma kutsanangura zvinoenderana nemaonero anoshandiswa pakumisikidzwa kwayo. Pasina kupokana, kukosha kwayo kunokosha. Nekuti yakashandiswa nevanyori veese mazera kuratidza zvakadzama manzwiro, manzwiro uye maonero kupasirese pasingaverengeke misoro.

Saizvozvowo, zvidimbu zvemitambo zvakanyorwa mune zvese mitauro yekuMadokero. Kazhinji, iyerwiyo rwakakamurwa muzvikamu zvinoverengeka, zvakaiswa muzvikamu zviviri. Sezvazviri, makuru marudzi: rwiyo, rwiyo, ode, elegy, eclogue, uye satire; uye madiki madiki: madrigal uye letrilla.

Mabviro

Izwi iri nderimwe remhando dzekutanga dzezvinyorwa zvepasirese. Pamberi pemadhirama uye nhoroondo. Zvisinei, kuoneka kweshoko iro parizvino rinoripa zvinoreva kwaisazotanga kushandiswa kusvika muzana ramakore regumi nesere Pasati pataurwa nezve nhetembo uye zvakasiyana zvakasiyana.

Inotora zita rayo kubva pambira. Nekuti kubva kuGirisi rekare uye kusvika pakaparara Humambo hweRoma, mabasa enhetembo aive nziyo dzakabatana zvakanyanya nechiridzwa ichi. Iwo mavhesi - paive zvakare nenzvimbo yeprose, asi izvi zvaive zvisiri izvo zvakajairwa - zvaida kuitirwa kana kudzokororwa.

Evhangeri uye kusimudzira lyric

Rwiyo uye nhetembo zvishoma nezvishoma zvakaparadzanisa nzira dzavo. In consecuense, chirevo chakasimukira kure nekuomarara kunoitwa nemahodhi uye mutinhimira wemakonzonendi. Uye zvakare, minstrel troubadours yakapihwa rusununguko rwakawanda rwekushandura mhando.

Neshanduko yakaitika nekusvika kweiyo Renaissance, kutyora kwakave pachena. Muchokwadi, iyi nguva inomiririra shanduko. Kubva ipapo, pfungwa mbiri dzakazvimirira dzakabatwa, kunyangwe zvadzo dzakabatana zvine mutsindo: nhetembo nenziyo nenziyo.

Mune fungidziro yeboka

Kune yakakosha chikamu chevanhu, kutaura nezve lyrical nhasi kuneganhurwa chete kune pfungwa yekuimba nenziyo. Saizvozvo, kupokana (uye kwete nguva dzose chaizvo) kupatsanurwa kunoitwa pakati pe "tenors uye sopranos". Kureva, panguva ino vese avo "vanoimba rwiyo" vari mumapoka. Zvisinei nekuti rejista rezwi rakasiyana neevambotaurwa uye vanozivikanwa mimhanzi.

Runyorwa

Sechirevo, lyricism iri kunyange gare gare; yaro yepamutemo "kutanga" yakanyorwa mugore ra1829. Yakaonekwa mutsamba yakabva kuna Alfred Victor de Vigny, nyanduri ane mukurumbira wechiFrance, munyori wemitambo, uye munyori wenhau. Mukufunga kwake, "kurira kwepamusoro" kwakatemerwa kuti kuve kwakaenzana nedambudziko remazuva ano.

Hunhu hwese

Tichifunga hupamhi hwepfungwa, kumisikidza hunhu hwese hwerwiyo kunogona kutaridzwa sechiito chekumanikidza. Nekudaro, zvinokwanisika kuumba seti yezvakajairika maficha. Kunyangwe paine chokwadi chekuti vazhinji vavo vanopindura zvakanyanya kune "echinyakare" mazano.

Kuzviisa pasi kwese

José de Espronceda.

José de Espronceda.

Kana kutarisisa kwagara kuri kwekufungidzira - kunyangwe utopian mukati meimwe zvinyorwa zvemhando - murwiyo rwakagovaniswa zvachose. Munyori ane basa uye kodzero yekuburitsa pachena manzwiro ake uye manzwiro nezve zvimwe zviitiko kana zvinokurudzira.

Hapana furemu

Hongu pane mavara; kune protagonist (iyo "lyrical chinhu"); zvimwe zvinhu zvinotsanangurwa. Asi murwiyo mumiriri we "zano" hauna huchokwadi, izvo zvakakosha pakurondedzera uye mumutambo. Kunyangwe mune dzimwe rondedzero imwe "rondedzero" yebudiriro kuvandudzwa inogona kushandiswa - nenzira yakasununguka zvachose, nevanyori nevaverengi.

Panguva ino, kumwe kupesana kunoratidzwa kana muchiongorora nhetembo dzakasiyana nenziyo dzekuimba. Chikonzero? Zvakanaka, opera (iyo subgenre par kugona kana uchitaura nezve "mimhanzi lyric") inoda "inoshamisa kuvaka". Nekudaro, iwe haugone kukanda mapfumo pa "classic".

Kune vadetembi, shoma nguva

Kunze kwekusiiwa, nhetembo dzenhetembo ibhuku pfupi, rine mitsetse mishoma Kana iri yakakura kwazvo, inogumira kumashizha mashoma. Aya mamiriro pamwe anokonzerwa nekwakatangira, nekuti avo vaiimba nekuverenga vaifanira kudzidza nhetembo nemoyo. Zvisinei, izvi hazvina kuchinja kunyange nekuuya kwemuchina wekudhinda.

Kunatsiridza mutauro

Runako kwagara kuri kukosha kwakakosha kune vadetembi. Naizvozvo, iyesarudzo yemashoko haisi yake chete nekuda kwekutsvaga rwiyo. Iko kune zvakare kufarira kufambisa manzwiro kuburikidza nemifananidzo, iyo inogadziriswa zvakanyanya kuburikidza nekushandiswa kwemifananidzo senge madimikira.

Zvisinei, kudzamara Middle Ages uku kunatsiridzwa kwemitauro kwaisagona kuiswa pamusoro pehunhu uye mutinhimira. Mutinhimira, kunze kwenziyo, ndiwo aive maturusi ekutanga kuti uwane mimhanzi yaidiwa kwazvo. Hunhu uhwu hwaenderera mberi kusvika pamazhinji enziyo dzerwiyo zvino.

Chirevo chega

Mune rwiyo, iyo kuzviisa pasi kwekutaura kwezvido zvemunyori. Nechinangwa ichi, lMazhinji acho akanyorwa semunhu wekutanga. Kunyangwe vamwe vanyori vachitendeukira kumunhu wechitatu, zvinongova sechinhu chedetembo. Naizvozvo, hazvireve kuti chero nguva kuregererwa kwemaonero emunhu.

Hunhu hwekufungidzira

Hunhu hwerwiyo chinhu chakakosha pakuvaka izvi zvidimbu zvehunyanzvi. Pamwe, inopfupikisa mamiriro emunyori kana akatarisana nezvaakasika uye, kunyanya, chinhu chine rwiyo. Chaizvoizvo unogona kuzviita munzira mbiri dzinopokana uye dzakasarudzika: netariro kana kusava netariro. Pamusoro pezvo, iyo lyrical mafungiro akaiswa muzvikamu zvitatu:

Chirevo chekuzivisa

Mutauri wenziyo (munyori) anopa nhoroondo yezvakaitika zvezviitiko zvinoitika kana zvakaitika kuchinhu chine ruzha kana iye pachake. Zviripachena kana pakati pemitsara, murondedzeri anoedza kuratidza zviitiko zvakaringana.

Maitiro ekukwirira

Iyo inozivikanwawo seapostrophic mafungiro. Mune ino kesi, nyanduri anobvunza mumwe munhu angave ari mufananidzo anomiririrwa nechinhu chine rwiyo kana nemuverengi. Chinangwa ndechekumisikidza nhaurirano, zvisinei kuti mhinduro dzinogadzirwa here kana kwete.

Anotsanangura mafungiro

Pasina mafirita, munyori anovhurira nyika nenzira yakatendeseka; mutauri anoratidza uye kutaurirana naye, achipa maonero ake uye mhedziso. Mune zvimwe zviitiko zvinoreva kubatana kwakazara pakati pemutauri nechinhu chine rwiyo.

Mienzaniso yenziyo

"Sonnet XVII", Garcilaso de la Vega 

Kufunga kuti mugwagwa wainge wakananga
Ndakauya kuzomira munyatwa yakadaro,
Handikwanise kufungidzira, kunyangwe nekupenga,
chimwe chinhu chingagutswa chinguva.

Iyo yakafara munda inoita kunge yakamanikana kwandiri,
husiku hwakajeka kwandiri hwasviba;
kambani inotapira, inovava uye yakaoma,
nenzvimbo yakaoma yehondo pamubhedha.

Zvekurota, kana paine chero, icho chikamu
chete, icho chimiro cherufu,
zvinokodzera mweya wakaneta.

Zvisinei, ini ndakanaka neunyanzvi zvakadaro,
kuti ndinotonga neawa rakasimba zvishoma,
kunyange maari ndakazviona ini, iye apfuura.

"Rwendo rwekupedzisira", Juan Ramón Jiménez

Juan Ramon Jimenez.

Juan Ramon Jimenez.

Uye ndichaenda. Uye shiri dzichagara, dzichiimba;
uye bindu rangu richasara nemuti waro wakasvibira,
uye netsime rayo jena.

Masikati ega ega denga rinenge riine bhuruu uye rakagadzikana;
uye vachatamba, sezvavari kutamba masikati ano,
mabhero ebheriferi.

Avo vaindida vachafa;
guta richava idzva gore rimwe nerimwe;
uye pakona yeiyo yangu yemaruva uye yakacheneswa gadheni,
mweya wangu uchadzungaira.

Uye ndichaenda; Uye ndichave ndega, ndisina pekugara, ndisina miti
girini, isina chena tsime,
pasina bhuruu uye denga rakadzika ...
Uye shiri dzichagara, dzichiimba.

"Octava chaiye", José de Espronceda

Mureza unoona izvo muCeriñola
iyo huru Gonzalo yakaratidzirwa mukukunda,
wechiSpanish anokudzwa uye anoyevedza anodzidzisa
iyo yaidzora Indian uye Atlantean gungwa;
regal banner iyo inoputika mumhepo,
Chipo chaCRISTINA, anodzidzisa zvine hungwaru,
tinogona kumuona muhondo yepedyo
yakabvarurwa hongu, asi haina kumbokundwa.

"Pakubuda mutirongo", Fray Luis de León

Pano shanje nemanyepo
vakanga vandivharira.
Yakakomborerwa iyo inozvininipisa mamiriro
yemurume akachenjera anotora mari
wenyika ino yakaipa,
uye netafura isina kunaka neimba,
mumunda unofadza
naMwari oga tsitsi,
hupenyu hwake hunopfuura wega,
haana kuita shanje kana godo.

Chidimbu che "Ropa Rakateurwa", Federico García Lorca

Ini handidi kuzviona!

Udza mwedzi kuti uuye
Handidi kuona ropa
yeIgnacio pajecha.

Ini handidi kuzviona!

Mwedzi wakafara.
Bhiza remakore akanyarara,
uye grey square yehope
nemikonachando pazvipingaidzo. (…)


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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako