Peter Salinas

Peter Salina.

Peter Salina.

Pedro Salinas anoonekwa semumwe wevanyori vakanakisa vezana ramakore rechiXNUMX, uye mumiriri mukuru weCastilian prose. Basa rake rinozivikanwa seinonzwisisika uye, panguva imwechete, risinganzwisisike. Iye munyori aive murume wetsamba uye shanduko, mune ese mativi.

Iye pachake akataura nezvake nebasa rake achiti: “Ndinokoshesa nhetembo, pamusoro pezvose, chokwadi. Ipapo runako. Ipapo huchenjeri. Mazhinji ezvinyorwa mune izvi mudetembi ane mukurumbira wechiSpanish ivo vakazvipira kudanana, kubva pakuona kwakawanda uye neavant-garde inopenya.

Hupenyu nhoroondo

Kuzvarwa uye hudiki

Pedro Salinas Serrano akaberekerwa muMadrid, Spain, musi waNovember 27, 1891. Chibereko chemuchato pakati peSoledad Serrano Fernández naPedro Salinas Elmos. Wekupedzisira akashanda semushambadzi kusvika parufu rwake muna 1897. Panguva iyoyo, munyori weramangwana aingova nemakore matanhatu chete.

Kubva parufu rwababa vake, Institutions senge Hispano-Francés Chikoro uye San Isidro Institute muMadrid ndiyo yakaumba mabhesheni makuru edzidzo yekuSalinas kupaza kuenda kuyunivhesiti nyika. Gare gare, Pedro akanyoresa kuYunivhesiti yeMadrid, kwaakatanga kudzidza zvemutemo.

Mushure memakore maviri, akasiya mitemo kuti apinde mukuda kweuzivi netsamba. Iri basa rakamutungamira gare gare, muna 1917, kuti awane doctorate. Akabudirira nedzidziso yemifananidzo ye Don Quijote weLa Mancha, naMiguel de Cervantes kana isu tine ruzivo.

Nyanduri werudo

Achizivikanwa nevakawanda sa "Mudetembi werudo", munyori ano mukurumbira akasimbisa basa rake uye mabasa ekunyora mukudzika uye nehunyengeri hwekunzwa kukuru akachengeta. Izvo zvinofanirwa kucherechedzwa kuti rudo rwunotsanangurwa naPedro mumabhuku ake haugare uchifara uye hwakakwana.

Salinas akawana nzira yekusanganisa kuti rudo rwusingafadzi uye rwunorwadza runogona sei, asi nenzira ine hunyanzvi. Nenzira imwecheteyo, akabatanidza kufunga kwake pamusoro pekuparadzana uye kunzwa kwekurasikirwa.

Hupenyu hwake, nyaya yerudo

Muna 1915, kuAlgeria, akaroora Margarita Bonmatí. Salinas aingova namakore makumi maviri nemana chete panguva iyoyo. Ivo vaigara kunyanya muParis. Makore gare gare, muna 24, vakagara muSpain. Vaive nevana vaviri: Soledad naJaime Salinas. Muchato wakaramba wakamira uye uchifara kusvika muzhizha ra1917.

Nekusikwa kweSantander Summer University, maaive achibatanidzwa, Pedro Salinas akatarisa pamudzidzi weAmerica anonzi Katherine R. Whitmore. Akapenga murudo naye uye mukuremekedzwa kwake, akafuridzira nhetembo trilogy: Izwi rakafanira iwe (1933), Chikonzero cherudo (1938) uye Nguva refu yekuzvidemba (1939).

Dzorudo rwakachengetedzwa kunyangwe pakadzokera Katherine kunyika yake yekuzvarwa. Asi, panguva yekudzidza ya1934-1935, Margarita - mukadzi waPedro - akaziva nezvehukama hwepachivande uye akaedza kuzviuraya. Nekuda kweizvi, Katherine akakurudzira kubvaruka kwese kwehukama hwake naSalinas.

Quote naPedro Salinas.

Quote naPedro Salinas.

Kuguma kunoshamisa

Hondo yeVanhu veSpain yaive chikonzero chakazopedzisira chave kuparadzanisa vese vadikani. Mushure memubatanidzwa, Salinas akaenda kuFrance uye akazotapwa kuUnited States. Pakazosvika 1939, Katherine akaroora Brewer Whitmore ndokutora zita rake rekupedzisira. Zvisinei, akafa mushure memakore mana mutsaona yemotokari.

Sezviri pachena, hukama pakati paKatherine naPedro dzimwe nguva hwakaramba huripo, asi hwakazopera. Musangano wavo wekupedzisira waive muna 1951. Mwedzi mishoma gare gare, musi waZvita 4, nyanduri akafira muBoston, Massachusetts. Mutumbi wake wakavigwa muguta guru rePuerto Rico, San Juan.

Gare gare, muna 1982, Katherine akashayawo. Asi, kwete usina kutanga wabvumidza kuti iyo Epistolary pakati pake naSalinas kwakaburitswa. Chero bedzi chishuwo chake chekupedzisira chakazadzikiswa: kuti aive makore makumi maviri mushure mekufa kwake uye kuti tsamba dzake dzakasiiwa.

Chizvarwa che27

Hapana mubvunzo, Pedro Salinas anoonekwa semumwe wevanyori vadiki vezana ramakore rechi27 uye mumiriri weanonzi Generation of XNUMX. Sangano iri rakazozivikanwa pachivanhu mugore irori uye rakabuda sekutsiva Noucentisme. Munyori aiperekedzwa nevanyori vehunhu hwe Raphael Alberto, Federico García Lorca naDámaso Alonso.

Kusiyana neyekare mafambiro, Chizvarwa che '27 chakashandisa dzakasiyana zvinyorwa. Pakati peizvi, zvinotevera zvinomira: neopopularism, Hispanic philology - yakakurumbira nzvimbo yeSalinas -, surrealist nhetembo uye homoeroticism.

Kuongorora kwemabasa ake

Semunhu akadzama wezvevanhu uye nyanzvi, mabasa anozivikanwa aPedro Salinas Serrano ndiwo mabasa ake anoshamisa sanyanduri nemunyori. Nekudaro, mumwe haagone kutadza kutaura mamwe mabasa ake. Kufanana, semuenzaniso, izvo zvemunyori weprozi, mhando kubva kune matatu emazita ake epamusoro akabuda.

Salinas akashandawo semutambi wenhau pakati pa1936 na1947, achigadzira gumi nemana mitambo. Aive zvakare muturikiri wemunyori wechiFrench Kuzvikudza, uyo akakwanisa kutora zvinyorwa zvake munyika inotaura chiSpanish kuburikidza naye.

Hunhu hwevanhu

Uyu mudetembi-troubadour akatsanangura nhetembo se: «Rwendo rwekuenda kune mhedziso. Unoswedera padhuze kana zvishoma, unoenda nenzira yakati rebei kana shoma: ndizvozvo chete ». Kwaari, nhetembo yaive, yekutanga ruoko, chokwadi, ichiteverwa nerunako uye wit, kusarudza mavhesi mapfupi achizeza kuita rwiyo seyakanakisa sarudzo mumabhuku ake.

Izwi rinokodzera iwe, naPedro Salinas.

Izwi rinokodzera iwe, naPedro Salinas.

Kune rimwe divi, vatsoropodzi nevamwe vavanoshanda navo kubva kunzvimbo yekunyora vakatsanangura basa raSalinas semuyedzo wekudzivirira kubva kuhunhu hwetsika dzeEurope pamberi peHondo Yenyika II. Hwake rudo uye hunhu hunhu hwakamutungamira kuti abvunze uye anyore nezvedivi rerima rezvinhu.

Kuna Leo Spitzer, weAustria stylistic shasha uye nyanzvi pamitauro yeRomance, Nhetembo dzaSalinas dzaigara dzichitora hunhu hwakafanana: yake pfungwa. Basa rake rese rine chimwe chinhu cheiye. Nzira iyo munyori anozviratidza nayo kuburikidza nekushamisika uye kugona kutaura.

Matatu enhetembo

Kutanga kwake munyika yekunyora kunotanga zvichiteerana muna 1911 nhetembo dzake dzekutanga dzinodaidzwa kuti "dzinotyisa." Aya akaburitswa naRamón Gómez de la Serna mumagazini yake Prometeo. Zvisinei, kubatanidzwa kwake sanyanduri anozviisa pasi netsika ine rudo yakazozivikanwa kubva pamatanho matatu enhetembo.

Shanduko huru inoonekwa mune yega yega matanho. Izvi hazvina chete nokuda kugutsikana mabasa, asiwo mafungiro nyanduri pachake. Mavara ake aigara achifurirwa nehupenyu hwake. Pamusoro pezvo, Salinas aigara achiwana kurudziro mukukura kwake ega.

Chikamu chechipiri chinonyanya kumira. Mazita emazita akaburitswa panguva iyoyo, pamusoro pekufumisa basa rake rese, ndiwo ainyanya kuzivikanwa panguva iyoyo.

Kutanga danho

Chikamu chekutanga chinotangira kubva muna 1923 kusvika muna 1932. Salinas, ipapoka, aive murume wechidiki anga achangotanga kutora chimiro chakanaka apo dingindira rerudo raive protagonist. Iyo nzira panguva iyi yakavhenekerwa nhetembo dzaRubén Darío - munyori weNicaragua - uye vanyori vekutangira kweSpanish: Juan Ramón Jiménez naMiguel Unamuno.

Mashura (1923), Random inishuwarenzi (1929) uye Ngano uye kusaina (1931) zvaive zvigadzirwa zveichi nhanho. Chinangwa chemunyori chaive chekuita nhetembo yake ive yakakwana sezvinobvira. Kutenderera uku kwaive rudzi rwekugadzirira danho rake rechipiri rinozivikanwa se: kuzara.

Chikamu chechipiri

Pakati peiyi nhanho, inotangira kubva muna 1933 kusvika 1939, mudetembi Salinas anotora mukana unonakidza uye unoshamisa nekunyora trilogy yerudo. Izwi rakafanira iwe (1933) yaive yekutanga mazita. Iri basa rinorondedzera zvizere, kubva pakutanga kusvika kumagumo uye nenzira yehunyanzvi, kudanana kwakanyanya.

Ndokuoneka Chikonzero cherudo (1936). Mariri, Salinas anotora rudo kubva pakuona kwake kunorwadza. Simbisa kuti kurambana kunogona kuoma sei uye kutambura kunosara mushure mekurambana. Mitsara yakaita seiyi: "Uchave, rudo, rwendo rwakareba rwusingaperi" ane mukurumbira mubhuku iri.

Sekuvhara, zvinoita Nguva refu yekuzvidemba (1939) - achirangarira Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer—. Iri basa rinoteedzerawo nzira imwechete yekubudirira inotsanangurwa mune mamwe mabhuku. Chikamu chinodaidzwa kuti kuzara nekuti chinoenderana nemwaka wake werudo naKatherine Withmore.

Mashura, naPedro Salinas.

Mashura, naPedro Salinas.

Chikamu chechitatu

Kubva panguva iyi, pakati pa1940 na1951, Salinas akatanga nhetembo dzakafemerwa negungwa rechitsuwa chePuerto Rican. Iyi ndiyo kesi ye: Iyo inofungidzirwa (1946). Basa rinomuka Zvese zviri pachena uye nedzimwe nhetembo (1949) - musoro unosimbisa simba rekusika kuburikidza neshoko.

Imwe nhetembo inomiririra chikamu ichi "Confianza" (1955). Mune izvi, munyori anozvirumbidza nekusimbisa uye kusimba kwesimba kweicho chaicho chaicho. Izvo zvinofanirwa kucherechedzwa kuti yaive zita rakaburitswa muna 1955, mushure mekufa kwake.

Pedzisa runyorwa rwemabhuku ake

Nhetembo

  • Random inishuwarenzi. (Western Magazine, 1929)
  • Ngano uye kusaina. (Plutarch, 1931).
  • Izwi rakafanira iwe. (Chiratidzo, 1933).
  • Chikonzero cherudo. (Editions yeMuti, 1936).
  • Miscalculation. (Imp. Miguel N, 1938).
  • Nguva refu yekuzvidemba. (Edhisheni Mubatanidzwa, 1939).
  • Nhetembo pamwechete. (Losada, 1942).
  • Iyo inofungidzirwa. (Nueva Floresta, 1946).
  • Zvese zvakajeka uye nezvimwe nhetembo (Sudamericana, 1949).
  • Kuvimba (Aguilar, 1955).

Rondedzero

  • Yakagadziridzwa vhezheni yeCantar de Mio Cid. (Western Magazini, 1926).
  • Evha wemufaro. (Western Magazini, 1926).
  • Bhomba rinoshamisa. (South America, 1950).
  • Izvo zvisina kupfeka zvisina kupfeka uye dzimwe nhoroondo (Tezontle, 1951).
  • Pedzisa nhoroondo. (Peninsula, 1998).

Bvunzo

  • Zvinyorwa zveSpanish. Makumi maviri emakore. (1940).
  • Jorge Manrique kana tsika uye mavambo. (1947).
  • Nhetembo dzaRubén Darío (1948).
  • Basa remunyori. (Seix Barral, 1961).
  • Pedzisa zvinyorwa. Shanduro: Salinas de Marichal. (Taurus, 1983).
  • Mudziviriri (Alianza Editorial, 2002).

Epistolary

  • Tsamba dzerudo kuna Margarita (1912-1915). Edhiyo Mubatanidzwa, 1986
  • Tsamba kuna Katherine Whitmore. Tusquets, 2002.
  • Salinas, Pedro. (1988 a). Tsamba kuna Jorge Guillén. Christopher Maurer, ed. García Lorca Foundation Bulletin, n. 3, peji. 34-37.
  • Tsamba sere dzisina kunyorwa kuna Federico García Lorca. Christopher Maurer (ed.) García Lorca Foundation Bulletin, n. 3, (1988); p. 11-21.
  • Tsamba kubva kuna Pedro Salinas kuenda kuGuillermo de Torre. Renaissance, n. 4, (1990) peji. 3- 9.
  • Tsamba sere kubva kuna Pedro Salinas. Enric Bou (ed.) Western Magazine, n.126, nov. (1991); p. 25-43.
  • Salinas / Jorge Guillén tsamba (1923-1951). Dhinda, sumo uye zvinyorwa naAndrés Soria Olmedo. Barcelona: Tusquets (1992).

Izvo zviri muchinyorwa zvinoomerera pamisimboti yedu ye tsika dzekunyora. Kuti utaure chikanganiso tinya pano.

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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
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  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
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