Mutambo wembudzi

Mario Vargas Llosa.

Mario Vargas Llosa.

Mutambo wembudzi (2000) ingano yenhoroondo yakanyorwa neanokunda wePeruvia weNobel Prize yeMabhuku, Mario Vargas Llosa. Zano iri rakavakirwa pane zvinyorwa zvekare zvine chekuita nekupondwa kwemudzvanyiriri weDominican Rafael Trujillo, kunyange hazvo huwandu hwevanhu vake husina kumbobvira hwavapo.

Saizvozvowo, iyo tenzi yekuvakazve yezviitiko inotenderedza nhatu nzira dzekuyambuka. Yekutanga inotarisa kuUrania Cabral, mukadzi wechidiki anodzokera kuDominican Republic kunosangana nababa vake vairwara. Yechipiri inoongorora mazuva ekupedzisira ehupenyu hwaTrujillo uye chechitatu chinotarisa kune mhondi dzedzvinyiriri.

Sobre el autor

Jorge Mario Pedro Vargas Llosa akaberekerwa muArequipa, Peru. Akauya pasi rose munaKurume 28, 1936. Ndiye ega mwana wemuchato pakati paErnesto Vargas Maldonado naDoña Llosa Ureta. Little Jorge Mario akapedza chikamu chekutanga chehudiki hwake nemhuri yake yaamai muna Cochabamba, Bolivia, nekuti vabereki vake vakaparadzaniswa pakati pa1937 na1947. Ikoko akadzidza kuColegio La Salle.

Mushure mekugara kwenguva pfupi muPiura pamwe chete naamai vake nasekuru vamai, ramangwana munyori akatamira kuLima mushure mekuyananiswa kwevabereki vake. NaVaErnesto Vargas aigara achichengetedza hukama husina kugadzikana, sezvo baba vake vaive vakatsamwa uye vachiratidza ruvengo pakuda kwemwanakomana wavo kunyora. Mumuzinda wePeruvia akadzidza pachikoro chechiKristu.

Kutanga mabasa

Paaive nemakore gumi nemana, baba vake vakamunyoresa muLeoncio Prado Military Academy, chikoro chakasimba kwazvo chebhodhingi chaizoshanda senzvimbo yemunyori mune ramangwana rake rekutanga, Guta nembwa (1963). Muna 1952 akatanga basa rake rekutapa nhau mupepanhau Izvo zvisingaperi de Lima semutori wenhau uye wemunharaunda anobvunzurudza.

Chinyorwa chake chekutanga chehunyanzvi chaive chikamu chemitambo, Kubhururuka kweInca (1952), yakataurwa muPiura. Muguta iro akapedza baccalaureate yake pachikoro cheSan Miguel uye aishandira bepanhau repanzvimbo Iyo indasitiri. Muna 1953 akatanga zvidzidzo zvake muMutemo neMabhuku kuSan Marcos University kuLima.

Chekutanga muchato uye enda kuEurope

Muna 1955 akaroora muchivande tete vatezvara vake Julia Urquidi (kunyadzisa uku kwakafemesa zviitiko zvakataurwa mairi Tete Julia naMunyori). Vaviri ava vakarambana muna 1964. Zvichakadaro, Vargas Llosa akatanga - pamwe naLuis Loayza naAlberto Oquendo- de Zvinoumba Notebooks (1956-57) uye na Mabhuku Magazini (1958-59). Muna 1959 akaenda kuParis, kwaakashandira French Radio Television.

Gore rimwe chetero, Vargas Llosa akaburitsa bhuku rake rekutanga, Vakuru, muunganidzwa wenyaya. Gare gare, game Guta nembwa (1963) munyori wePeruvia akabatana ne "boom" huru yetsamba dzeLatin America pamwe chete ne "magamba" García Márquez, Juan Rulfo, Carlos Fuentes, Jorge Luis Borges, Julio Cortázar, Ernesto Sábato naMario Benedetti.

Kutsvenesa

Kubudirira kwakabvumidzwa Mario Vargas Llosa Achisiya nguva yekushaiwa zvemari, nekudaro, aikwanisa kuzvipira zvizere mukunyora. SAkaroora mu1965 nemuzukuru wemukadzi wake wekutanga, Patricia Urquidi, waaive naye vana vatatu: Vlvaro (1966), Gonzalo (1967) naMorgana (1974). Muna 1967, akatamira kuLondon, kwaakashanda semudzidzisi kuQueens Mary College.

Mumakore akatevera akararama kwenguva muWashington uye gare gare muPuerto Rico. Muna 1971 akawana Doctorate yake muFilosofi neTsamba kuComplutense University yeMadrid. Dzidziso yako yechiremba, García Márquez, iyo nyaya yekuuraya (1971), inoratidza chikamu chehunyanzvi basa raVargas Llosa semunyori wezvekunyora.

Mufungo wezvematongerwo enyika

Muhupenyu hwake hwese, Mario Vargas Llosa airatidza kusiyana kukuru mukufunga kwake kwezvematongerwo enyika. Munguva yehudiki hwake aive mutsigiri wechiKristu-anochengetedza maitiro uye aipokana nechero hudzvanyiriri. Munguva yemakumi matanhatu aive nehukama hwakakosha kuCuban Revolution yaChe Guevara naFidel Castro.

Muna 1971, iyo inonzi "Padilla kesi" yakaunza kuzorora kwakazara necommunism. Atove mukati ma70s anga achinyanya kuda kuita zvine mwero rusununguko uye akakwikwidza kuve mutungamiriri wenyika yePeru. Akakundwa naAlberto Fujimori musarudzo dza1990.

Basa rake muzvakawanda

Muna 1993, Vargas Llosa akapika mureza weSpain. Gore rakatevera akagamuchirwa kuRoyal Spanish Academy. Kusvikira zuva racho, Basa rake rinosanganisira 19 enganonyorwa, mabhuku mana enyaya, mabhuku matanhatu enhetembo, gumi nemaviri ezvinyorwa uye gumi mitambo, pakati pezvimwe zvakawanda zvekutapa zvinyorwa., zvinyorwa, shanduro, mabvunzurudzo, hurukuro uye memoir.

Zvinonyanya kukosha kuziva uye mibairo

Chinyorwa chakaparadzana chaigona kungotsanangurwa pamabasa akashongedzwa naMario Vargas Llosa muLatin America. Kunyangwe, pasina kupokana, matanho aro akakurumbira ave anotevera:

  • Prince Asturias Mubairo weMabhuku (1986).
  • Iyo Miguel de Cervantes Mubairo (1994).
  • Mubayiro weNobel muMabhuku (2010).
  • Doctorate chikonzero chinokudzwa:
    • ChiHeberu University yeJerusarema. Israeri (1990).
    • Queens Mary College yeYunivhesiti yeLondon. United Kingdom (1990).
    • Connecticut Koreji. Nyika dzakabatana (1990).
    • Boston University. Nyika dzakabatana (1990).
    • Harvard University. Nyika dzakabatana (1999).
    • Universidad Meya de San Marcos. Peru (2001).
    • Pedro Ruiz Gallo Yunivhesiti Yenyika. Peru (2002).
    • Simon Bolivar Yunivhesiti. Venezuela (2008).
    • Yunivhesiti yeTokyo. Japan (2011).
    • Yunivhesiti yeCambridge. United Kingdom (2013).
    • Yunivhesiti yeBurgos. Spain (2015).
    • Diego Portales Yunivhesiti. Chile (2016).
    • Lima Yunivhesiti. Peru (2016).
    • National University yeSan Agustín deArequipa. Peru (2016).

Analysis of Mutambo wembudzi

Mutambo wembudzi.

Mutambo wembudzi.

Unogona kutenga bhuku pano: Hapana zvigadzirwa zvakawanikwa.

Context

Pamutemo, Rafael Leónidas Trujillo Molina aive mudzvanyiriri weDominican Republic pakati pa1930 - 1938 na1942 - 1952. Muchokwadi, Trujillo akabata de facto simba kweanoda kusvika makore makumi matatu nemasere (kusvika pakuurayiwa kwake muna 31). Panyaya iyi, pane fananidzo yakafanana nerwiyo rwe merengue "Vakauraya mbudzi", yakataurwa naVargas Llosa pakutanga kwebhuku. Saka musoro webhuku.

Zviratidzo

Kushaya simba kwekudzvinyirira pabonde

Mubhuku rese, Trujillo anoratidzira hunhu hwekushushikana zvine chekuita nemuviri wake netsika dzezuva nezuva (hutsanana, yunifomu, mafambiro chaiwo)… Nenzira imwecheteyo, kusimbisa chinzvimbo chake chepamusoro, mutungamiri wenyika aigara achitora madzimai nehama dzenhengo dzehurumende yake.

Naizvozvo, apo mutongi anotanga kuratidza zviratidzo zvekusagadzikana uye kushaya simba pabonde, anoona mamiriro ezvinhu sekunetesa iye nehutongi hwake. Zvakawedzera, kusagadzikana kwake kwe erectile kunopokana nepfungwa yake (iye muponesi wenyika "alpha murume").

Kunyarara kwakanyarara

Unhu hwaAugusto Cabral haugone kupindura mibvunzo yakamutswa nemwanasikana wake. Kuregererwa uku kunomiririra kusangana kwakakosha kwevanhu vechitatu pakusimbisa hudzvanyiriri. Saka, Don Augusto haakwanise kutsigira hutsinye hwaTrujillo kana kusavapo kweruramisiro, pamberi uye mushure mekufa kwemudzvanyiriri.

Imba yemhuri yeKabral

Imba yemhuri yeCabral inoratidza huwori hwenyika yaimboyevedza yakaparadzwa nemakumi emakore ehudzvanyiriri. Imba iyoyo mumvuri weuyo unogarwa neUrania muhucheche hwake, inzvimbo yakadzikira sehutano hwomuridzi wayo.

Urania Cabral

Urania inomiririra nyika yese yakatsamwa kwemakore makumi matatu naTrujillo. Iye, uyo aidada nekuchengeta hunhu hwake pamberi pemhuri yake, akaendeswa nababa vake kumudzvanyiriri senzira yekuratidza kuvimbika kwake. Kunyangwe kushungurudzika kwakatambura, pakupera kwenyaya Urania inosarudza kumisazve hukama nemhuri yayo. Iyo, inomiririra tariro yekuyananiswa kwenyika.

Hanzvadzi dzaMirabal

Masisita aya haaratidzike zvakananga murondedzero, asi anomiririra simba rekuramba kwevakadzi kuudzvinyiriri. Vakave vafira kutenda mushure mekuurayiwa nehutongi nekuda kwebasa ravo sevatungamiriri vevadzidzi. Nechikonzero ichi, ivo vanorangarirwa sema heroine nevatangiri venyaya yakaguma nekufa kwaTrujillo.

Zvinoshamisa

Vargas Llosa anotsanangura kupokana kukuru kuripo munyika yakashatiswa zvachose, uko vezvematongerwo enyika vaizoita chero chinhu kuti vararame. Izvi zvinonzwisisika mukutaura kwekutsamwa kwakatambudzwa naUrania Cabral. Ndiani akavimbisa kuramba ari mhandara kana Trujillo akaregerera baba vake, asi baba vake vakafunga kumugamuchidza kuna mudzvanyiriri kuti awane kuregererwa.

Saizvozvowo, Joaquín Balaguer - anozivikanwa sa "purezidhendi mutungamiri" - akakwanisa kutiza pasina kurangwa mushure mekufa kwemudzvanyiriri. (kunyangwe hazvo aive akabatana zvakanyanya nehutongi). Muchokwadi, Balaguer aive akakosha kudzora mhuri yaTrujillo nekusimudzira shanduko kune democracy.

Zano

Quote naMario Vargas Llosa.

Quote naMario Vargas Llosa.

Kuti aite kupondwa kwaTrujillo, kutora chikamu kwenhengo zhinji dzehurumende kwaidikanwa. Mushure mezvose, kunyange vakuru vakuru vehurumende vaida kuputsika kwemudzvanyiriri. Zvakanaka, hapana munhu aida kuwedzera paranoia iripo nehurumende hugandanga hwakagadzwa kuburikidza nemasevhisi epachivande anotarisira kudzvinyirira chero zano rerangano.

Mamwe madimikira akatanhamara

  • "Zvaidikanwa kudzimura munhu uyo ​​tambo dzese dema dema dzakasangana" (peji 174).
  • "Trujillismo imba yemakadhi" (peji 188).
  • "Ndozviri zvematongerwo enyika, kuita nzira yako kuburikidza nezvitunha" (peji 263).

Izvo zviri muchinyorwa zvinoomerera pamisimboti yedu ye tsika dzekunyora. Kuti utaure chikanganiso tinya pano.

Mhinduro, siya zvako

Siya yako yekutaura

Your kero e havazobvumirwi ichibudiswa.

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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako

  1.   Gustavo Woltman akadaro

    Ndakaverenga mabasa mazhinji naVargas Llosa, iye munyori anoshamisa, nyaya dzake dzinonakidza. Handina kumbowana mufaro wekuverenga iyo Fiesta del Chivo, asi ndinodaro, uye nenyaya ino mupfungwa ndinofunga ndichave ndichidaro.
    -Gustavo Woltmann.

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