Kufungisisa: Marcus Aurelius

Kufungisisa

Kufungisisa

Kufungisisa, Pfungwa o Pamusoro pe —neshanduro yaro kubva muchiGiriki Τὰ εἰς ἑαυτόν, Tà eis heatón, zvinoreva chaizvoizvo zvinhu zvake- ibhuku rekunyora rakagadzirwa nenhevedzano yemafungiro akanyorwa namambo weRoma uye muzivi Marcus Aurelius. Maererano nezvinyorwa, rakanyorwa pakati pemakore 170 ne180 uye, sezviri pachena, harina kuverengwa kwenguva.

Ichi chinyorwa cheStoic chine mavhoriyamu gumi nemaviri, uye, chokwadi, chakasiyana nerudzi rwacho. Nekune rumwe rutivi, zvirimo zvinoratidzika kuva zvinofukidza makore ekupedzisira ehupenyu hwaMarcus Aurelius, kunyanya maererano nemafungiro ake nekuita ari ega, paaikwanisa kufungisisa. Zvizhinji zvezviratidziro izvi zvinoramba zviripo nanhasi, izvo zvinotaura nezve kukosha kwavo uye huchenjeri hwemunyori wavo.

Zvinyorwa zve Kufungisisa naMarcus Aurelius

Mafungiro ehupenyu: yako uye yevamwe

Marcus Aurelius aiva murume uyo vaiva nevadzidzisi vakawanda, kwete bedzi avo vaiva nebasa rokumudzidzisa, asiwo avo iye amene akasarudza kudzidza. Mupfungwa dzake, ndima diki dzine manhamba dzaakanyora munguva idzodzo dzekumuka dzakasurukirwa, Akatenda varairidzi vake nezvaakanga akwanisa kutora kubva kune mumwe nemumwe wavo. Zvirinani, ndizvo zvinowirirana ne Bhuku ra1.

As of Bhuku ra2, munyori anozvitsaurira pakunyora zvinyorwa zveautobiographical uye mitsara yake. Zvinozivikanwa kuti hakuna mumwe munhu munyika yekare akapa vaverengi vake uchapupu hwakatendeseka, hwakadzama uye hwouzivi hwomunhu oga samambo uyu, uyo aifanira kupfeka chidzitiro chechipfuva uye chepepuru chemurwi pamberi pehumambo hukuru hwakanga hwatyisidzirwa.

Kutsvaga kuita zvakanaka

Pamusana pemamiriro ezvinhu akaoma kwayakawanikwa Roma Munguva yaMarcus Aurelius, aisakwanisa kutarisira kutanga republic seyaPlato. Zvisinei, Zvinyorwa zvake, uye zvakanyorwa nevamwe vanyori nezvake, zvinoratidza kuti aigara achiedza kuzvibata semuzivi wechiStoic. uye mugari akakodzera weGuta Rekusingaperi, uye akariwana, achipfuura sechiratidzo.

Izvi zvinogona kuonekwa mudhayari yake yechienzi, kwaakatora kusava nechokwadi kwake, ndangariro dzokuonga dzevadzidzisi vake neshamwari, zano raaishandisa kudzokorora kwaari, kusava netariro kwake, nguva dzake dzokunakidzwa uye kuda kwake nyika yake. Ndatenda kune zvese izvi, Marcus Aurelius akakwanisa kunyora rimwe remabhuku akakwana maererano nezvinofanira kunge zviri manejimendi eHurumende.

Zviri mukati me Kufungisisa naMarcus Aurelius

Kubva muchitsauko XII, Iri bhuku rine fungidziro pamusoro pemamiriro emunhu, zvakasikwa, hupenyu, rufu, rombo, kusikwa, kufa uye hunhu hunofanirwa kana kukurudzirwa nevanhu. Nenzira iyi, munyori anoita sekunge akabatikana uye ofunga rondedzero yehunyoro, achigamuchira humambo hweRoma uye manejimendi ahwo pamusoro pahwo sebasa risingagutsi uye rinosuwisa.

Mambo anotangazve chinzvimbo cheStoic kubva pakuona kwekukosha kwemunhu nekuremekedza vamwari, pamwe chete nepamusoro pezvinomiririra vanhu. Marcus Aurelius akapa fungidziro yekuenderana nemasimba makuru anotonga nyika mune rake basa semuzivi uye muzivi, kunyangwe kana achinge akuda kutiza kubva munyika uye hunhu hwehupenyu.

Izvo "zvisina maturo" zvekuvapo

Pashure pokunge afunga kwenguva refu, uye atarisana nebviro isingadzivisiki yokuti nyika ingasava nomufungo upi noupi, munhu akachenjera haana chisarudzo kunze kwokuhwirudzura nhano dzake amene ndokuisa ukoshi hunokosha zvikuru pakuvapo kwake somunhu oga. SaSeneca, Marcus Aurelius aifunga kuti mweya wakaparadzana nemuviri, uye unoumbwa nemweya, pneuma, kufema kwakakosha uye njere.

Chakanga chiri chisarudzo ichi chakatsanangura kutonga kwake kweHumambo hweRoma. Marcus Aurelius Akaita basa rake se regent ne stoicism, asi, panguva imwecheteyo, akanzwa kusakosha uye kusakosha. izvo zvinowanzochengetedza kusava nemusoro kwevanhu, izvo zvinongodzivisa zviito zvavo mukutsvaga kushanduka uye kujekeswa kwemweya, zvichiita kutenderera kwekuvhiringidzika kwakaoma kuputsa.

Chitarisiko Kufungisisa yaMarcus Aurelius munyika dzeIberia

Muna 1528, muSeville, the Bhuku reGoridhe raMarcus Aurelius, izvo zvakaita kuti vanhu vayemurwe uye vafarire mambo weRoma. Iri vhoriyamu rakanyorwa naAntonio de Guevara, uyo akazoriwedzera mukati machinda anotarira gore rinotevera.

Bhuku iri raive nezvinyorwa makumi mashanu nesere zvakashandurirwa mumitauro yakawanda, richisvika muEurope yose. Pasinei nekushaikwa kwaro kweruzivo rwenhoroondo uye nzira yaro iri pachena yekufungidzira kwechechi yeSpain, bhuku rakanakidzwa nekubudirira kunoshamisa. Zviri muchirevo ichocho chepogee yemufananidzo wamambo uyo Kufungisisa naMarcus Aurelius.

5 yeKufungisisa Kwakanakisa kwaMarcus Aurelius: Bhuku 1

  • “Kubva kuna amai vangu: ruremekedzo kuvamwari, rupo nokudzivisa kwete bedzi kuita zvakaipa, asi kunyange kuva nemifungo yakadaro; zvikuru kwazvo, kuderera mumararamiro uye kutsauka kubva pamararamiro akafanana neapfumi”;
  • "Kubva kuna sekuru vangu: ndisina kupinda zvikoro zvehurumende uye kushandisa vadzidzisi vakanaka kumba, uye vachinzwisisa kuti, nokuda kwezvinangwa zvakadaro, zvakakosha kushandisa mari yakawanda";
  • “Kubva kumutungamiriri wangu: ndisina kumbobva kuboka reGreen kana Bhuruu, kana mutsigiri weparinularios kana escutarios; kutsungirira kuneta uye kuva nezvinodiwa zvishoma; kushanda nesimba uye kurega mabasa akawandisa, nokugamuchira kuchera kusina kunaka”;
  • "Kubva kuFronto: wakamira kuti ufunge nezve shanje, hunyengeri uye hunyengeri hwemudzvinyiriri, uye kuti, kazhinji, avo vari pakati pedu vanonzi "eupatrids" mune imwe nzira, havakwanisi rudo";
  • "Kubva kuCatullus: kusapa kukosha kudiki kunyunyuta kweshamwari, kunyange kana yakaitika isina hwaro, asi kuedza kubatanidza hukama hwenguva dzose; kurumbidza kwoushamwari kwevadzidzisi, sezvinoyeukwa kuti Domitius naAthenodotus vakaita; "rudo rwechokwadi kuvana."

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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
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