Julio Cortázar: nhetembo

Zvakataurwa naJulio Cortázar

Zvakataurwa naJulio Cortázar

Julio Cortázar aive munyori ane mukurumbira wekuArgentina uyo akatanhamara pane zvekunyora pasi rose nekuda kwekusiyana kwezvinyorwa zvake. Mabviro ake akaita kuti abudise mabasa enhetembo akakosha, zvinyorwa, nyaya pfupi, pfupiso uye zvakasiyana. Kwenguva, basa rake rakaputsika nemafungiro; akafamba nerusununguko rwakakwana uye kutonga pakati pe surrealism uye realism yemashiripiti.

Mubasa rake refu, Cortazar akavaka muunganidzwa wakasimba wemabhuku anosiyana-siyana uye ane revo. Kwete pasina inoonekwa semumwe wevanyori vakuru ve chiitiko chekunyora chinozivikanwa se "Latin America boom”. Akaitawo basa rinocherechedzwa semuturikiri kuUnesco uye mune mamwe makambani anotsikisa mabhuku. Mubasa rekupedzisira iri, mabasa ake pamabasa a: Edgar Allan Poe, Daniel Defoe, André Gide, Marguerite Yourcenar naCarol Dunlop anomira pachena.

Basa renhetembo naJulio Cortázar

Presencia (1938)

Chinyorwa chakabudiswa muna 1938 pasi pezita remanyepo Julio Denis. Iri ishopu ine mashoma inounzwa neEditorial El Bibliófilo. Makopi 250 chete akadhindwa, ayo anosanganisira 43 soneti. Munhetembo idzi nziyo dzakakunda, mukuwedzera pakutsvaka kuwirirana nerunyararo. Cortazar Akanga asingadada nebasa iri, akariona sechiito chokukasika uye chisina kukura, saka akaramba kuritsikisazve.

Muna 1971, mubvunzurudzo naJG Santana, munyori wacho akataura pamusoro pezvinotevera nezvebasa racho: “Chivi choujaya chisingazivikanwi nomunhu uye chandisingaratidziri munhu. Zvakavanzwa zvakanaka…”. Kunyangwe zvishoma zvichizivikanwa nezvebhuku iri, mamwe emasoneti aya anonunurwa, imwe yacho ndeiyi:

"Mumhanzi"

I

Mambakwedza

Vanoita tsika dzehusiku kaviri, vachimirira

yebakatwa reorange - rakateurwa

kusingaperi, oleander panyama ine mapapiro—

uye maruva anotamba muchirimo.

Vanozviramba - kuzviramba - wakisi swans

chisungo chinoitwa nomunondo;

vanoenda - kuenda iwe - kuchamhembe kune chero kupi zvako

Kutuhwina furo kusvika zuva rafa

Rusvingo rwendege dzakasiyana rwakagadzirwa.

Iyo dhisiki, iyo dhisiki! Mutarise, Jacinto,

fungai kuti akakuderedzai sei urefu hwake!

Mimhanzi yemakore, melopea

kuti iitike mbiru

Anofanira kuvigwa manheru.

Pameos uye meopas (1971)

Ndiyo muunganidzwa wekutanga wenhetembo dzakatsikiswa pasi pezita rake. Ndizvo mubatanidzwa nenhetembo dzake dzakawanda. Cortázar aizeza kuburitsa nhetembo yake, ainyara zvakanyanya uye aingwarira nezvezvinyorwa zvake murudzi urwu. Panyaya iyi, akati: "Ndiri mudetembi wekare [...] kunyange zvazvo ndakachengeta zvinenge zvose zvakanyorwa mumutsetse iwoyo zvisina kudhindwa kwemakore anopfuura makumi matatu nemashanu."

Kutengesa Pameos uye Meopas ...
Pameos uye Meopas ...
Hapana wongororo

Muna 2017, Editorial Nórdica akapa mutero kumunyori nekutsikisa basa iri, iro raive nenhetembo yaakanyora kubva 1944 kusvika 1958. Bhuku racho rakakamurwa kuita zvikamu zvitanhatu -Imwe neimwe ine zita rayo-, idzo dzine nhetembo dziri pakati pembiri kana ina, dzisina hukama pakati padzo kana zuva rekutsanangudza. Pasinei nekusiyana kwakasiyana pakati pechimwe nechimwe chezvinyorwa - kushaikwa kwekusawirirana mune anogamuchira, musoro, amplitude kana rhythm - vanochengetedza maitiro avo. Ichi chinyorwa chine mifananidzo naPablo Auladell. Imwe yenhetembo idzi ndeiyi:

"Kudzorera"

Kana pasina chandinoziva nezvemuromo wako kunze kwezwi

uye pamazamu ako chete mucheka mutema kana orenji wemabhuruku;

ndingazvitutumadza sei kuti ndinewe

kupfuura nyasha dzemumvuri unopfuura pamusoro pemvura.

Mundangariro dzangu ndinotakura magestures, the pout

zvakandifadza sei, uye nenzira iyoyo

kuti ugare mauri, uine chakakombama

zorora mufananidzo wenyanga dzenzou.

Iyi haisi nyaya hombe yandasiya.

Uyewo maonero, kutsamwa, dzidziso,

mazita ehama nehanzvadzi,

kero yeposvo neyenhare,

mapikicha mashanu, pefiyumu yebvudzi,

kudzvinyirirwa kwemaoko madiki pasina aitaura

kuti nyika yakavanda kwandiri.

Ndinotakura zvinhu zvose zvisina simba, ndichirasikirwa nazvo zvishoma nezvishoma.

Handizofungi nhema dzisina maturo dzekusingaperi.

zviri nani kuyambuka mabhiriji nemaoko ako

ndizere newe,

kubvarura ndangariro yangu kuita zvidimbu,

achipa njiva, kuna vakatendeka

shiri duku, ngadzikudyei

pakati penziyo neruzha nekurova.

Kunze kwerubvunzavaeni (1984)

Muunganidzwa wenhetembo dzakaburitswa nemunyori achangofa. Chinyorwa ndeche chiratidzo chezvaunofarira, ndangariro uye manzwiro. Zvinyorwa zvakasiyana-siyana, kuwedzera kune zvakaitika kwaari, zvinoratidza rudo rwake kumaguta ake maviri: Buenos Aires neParis. Mubasa iri akapawo ruremekedzo kune vamwe vananyanduri vakacherechedza kuvapo kwake.

Muna 2009, Editorial Alfaguara yakaburitsa chinyorwa chitsva yemuunganidzwa wenhetembo uyu, uyo zvaisanganisira zvinyorwa zveruramiso zvakaitwa nemunyori. Naizvozvo, zvikanganiso zvaiva muzvose zviri zviviri bhuku rapakuvamba nedzimwe shanduro dzakagadziridzwa. Sonnet inotevera chikamu chebhuku rino:

"Double invention"

Kana rozi rinotifambisa

encrypt zviga zverwendo,

panguva yemamiriro ezvinhu

izwi rekuti chando chadzimwa,

pachava nerudo runozotitora pakupedzisira

kuchikepe chevanhu,

uye muruoko urwu pasina shoko

ichamutsa chiratidzo chenyu munyoro.

Ndinofunga ndiri ini nekuti ndini ndakagadzira iwe,

alchemy yegondo mumhepo

kubva mujecha nerima,

uye iwe pakurinda uku kurudzira

mumvuri wamunondivhenekera nawo

uye anogunun'una kuti ndimi makandigadzira.

Dzimwe nhetembo nemunyori

"Husiku"

Ndine maoko matema manheru ano, moyo wangu wakadikitira

senge mushure mekurwa kukanganwa neutsi centipedes.

Zvese zvakasiiwa ipapo, mabhodhoro, igwa,

Handizivi kuti vaindida here, uye kana vaitarisira kundiona.

Mubepanhau rakarara pamubhedha rinoti diplomatic meetings,

sangria yekuongorora yakamurova nemufaro mumaseti mana.

Sango refu rakakomberedza imba iyi pakati peguta.

Ndinoziva, ndinonzwa kuti bofu riri kufa pedyo.

Mudzimai wangu anokwira nekudzika nemanera

sakaputeni asingavimbi nenyeredzi….

 

"Mukomana akanaka"

Handichaziva kusunungura shangu dzangu uye kuti guta rindirume tsoka dzangu
Handingadhakwe pasi pemazambuko, handiite zvikanganiso muchimiro.
Ini ndinobvuma magumo aya ehembe dzesimbi,
Ndinosvika kumabhaisikopo nenguva, ndinopa chigaro changu kumadzimai.
Kusagadzikana kwenguva refu kwepfungwa kwakaipa kwandiri.

 

"Shamwari"

Mufodya, mukofi, muwaini,
vanomuka pakupera kwousiku
semanzwi aya anoimba ari kure
ndisingazive chii, munzira.

Zvishoma hama dzemagumo,
Dioscurios, mimvuri yakachenuruka, vanondityisa
nhunzi dzetsika, dzinondibata
kugara pamusoro pemhepo.

Vakafa vanotaura zvakawanda asi munzeve,
uye vapenyu maoko anodziya uye denga,
Huwandu hwezvakawanikwa uye zvakarasika.

Saka rimwe zuva muchikepe chemumvuri,
kubva pakushaikwa zvakanyanya chifuva changu chichavanda
hunyoro hwekare uhu hunovatumidza mazita.

"Goredzva Rakanaka"

 

Tarisai, handikumbiri zvakawanda

ruoko rwako rwoga ngaruve narwo

sechidatya chinorara chichifara kudai.

Ndiri kuda door riya ramakandipa

kupinda munyika yako, chidimbu chidiki ichocho

yegirinhi yeshuga, yekufara kweraundi.

Haundikweretesewo here ruoko rwako manheru ano

Husiku hwegore idzva hwemazizi?

Iwe haugone, nekuda kwezvikonzero zvehunyanzvi. Zvadaro

Ndinoitambanudza mudenga, ndichiruka chigunwe chega chega,

iyo silky pichisi yemuchindwe

uye shure, iyo nyika yemiti yebhuruu.

Saka ndinoitora ndoibata, senge

kana zvichitsamira pazviri

nyika zhinji,

kutevedzana kwemwaka mina,

kurira kwemajongwe, rudo rwevanhu.

Nhoroondo yezvinyorwa zvemunyori

Julio Florencio Cortázar akaberekwa musi waNyamavhuvhu 26, 1914 munharaunda yekumaodzanyemba kweIxelles muBrussels, Belgium. Vabereki vake vaive María Herminia Descotte naJulio José Cortázar, vese vekuArgentina. Panguva iyoyo, baba vake vakashanda semumiriri wezvekutengeserana wemumiriri weArgentina.

Zvakataurwa naJulio Cortázar

Zvakataurwa naJulio Cortázar

Dzokera kuArgentina

Apo Hondo Yenyika Yokutanga yakanga yava kuda kupera, mhuri yakakwanisa kubva muBelgium; Vakatanga kusvika kuSwitzerland ndokuzosvika kuBarcelona. Cortázar paakanga ava nemakore mana, akasvika kuArgentina. Akararama uduku hwake muBanfield—kumaodzanyemba kweBuenos Aires—pamwe chete naamai vake, hanzvadzi yake Ofelia namainini.

Hudiki hwakaoma

Kuna Cortázar, hudiki hwake hwakazadzwa nekusuwa. Akatambura kusiiwa nababa vake paaiva nemakore matanhatu uye haana kunzwa kubva kwaari zvakare. Mukuwedzera, akapedza nguva yakawanda ari pamubhedha, nokuti aigara achitambura nezvirwere zvakasiyana-siyana. Zvisinei, izvi zvakaita kuti aswedere pedyo nokuverenga. Pazera remakore mapfumbamwe chete, akanga atoverenga Victor Hugo, Jules Verne naEdgar Allan Poe, izvo zvaikonzera kuti agare achirota zvinotyisa.

Akava murume wechidiki akasiyana. Kuwedzera pakuverenga kwake nguva dzose, akapedza maawa akawanda achidzidza Duramazwi rinonzi Little Larousse. Nyaya iyi yakazonetsa amai vake zvekuti vakashanyira mukuru wechikoro chavo nachiremba vachivabvunza kana zvaive zvakajairika. Nyanzvi dzose dziri mbiri dzakamukurudzira kuti adzivise kuverenga kwemwana kwehafu yegore, pamwe chete, uyewo kunyura nezuva.

Munyori mudiki

Paakanga ave kuda kusvitsa makore gumi, Cortázar akanyora bhuku pfupi, kuwedzera dzimwe nyaya uye masoneti. Mabasa aya aive asina chaanopomerwa izvo zvakaita kuti hama dzake dzisavimbe kuti aive agadzirwa naye. Munyori akareurura kakawanda kuti mamiriro ezvinhu aya akamushungurudza zvikuru.

Studies

Akapinda chikoro chepuraimari paChikoro Nhamba 10 muBanfield, ndokuzopinda muMariano Acosta Normal School of Teachers. Muna 1932, akapedza kudzidza semudzidzisi wenguva dzose uye makore matatu gare gare saPurofesa weTsamba. Gare gare, akanyoresa kuYunivhesiti yeBuenos Aires kuti adzidze Philosophy. Akasiya chikoro mushure mekupasa gore rekutanga, sezvaakafunga kudzidzira basa rake kuitira kubatsira amai vake.

Chiitiko chebasa

Akatanga kudzidzisa mumaguta akasiyana-siyana munyika yacho, kusanganisira Bolívar neChivilcoy. Mune yekupedzisira akararama kwemakore anenge matanhatu (1939-1944) uye akadzidzisa mabhuku paChikoro Chenguva. Muna 1944, akatamira kuMendoza ndokudzidzisa zvidzidzo zvemabhuku echiFrench paNational University yeCuyo. Panguva iyoyo akabudisa nyaya yake yokutanga, "Muroyi", mumagazini Literary Mail.

Makore maviri gare gare—mushure mokukunda kwePeronism—. Akasiya basa rake rokudzidzisa ndokudzokera kuBuenos Aires, kwaakatanga kushanda muArgentine Book Chamber. Nguva pfupi yapfuura, akabudisa nyaya "Imba yakatorwa" mumagazini Nhoroondo dzeBuenos Aires —Inotungamirirwa naJorge Luis Borges—. Gare gare akapa mamwe mabasa mune mamwe magazini anozivikanwa, akadai se: Chokwadi, pamusoro and the Chinyorwa cheClassical Zvidzidzo kubva kuYunivhesiti yeCuyo.

Kukodzera semuturikiri uye kutanga kwezvinyorwa zvako

Muna 1948, Cortázar akakwanirisa somuturikiri kubva muchiRungu nechiFrench. Kosi iyi yakatora makore matatu kuti apedze, asi zvakamutorera mwedzi mipfumbamwe chete. Kwapera gore, akapa nhetembo yokutanga yakasainwa nezita rake: “Los reyes”; Uyezve, akaburitsa chinyorwa chake chekutanga: Kunakidzwa. Muna 1951 akaburitsa Bestiary, bhuku rinobatanidza nyaya sere uye rakaita kuti azivikanwe muArgentina. Nguva pfupi yapfuura, akatamira kuParis nekuda kwekusawirirana nehurumende yeMutungamiri Perón.

Muna 1953 akatambira chikumbiro cheYunivhesiti yePuerto Rico chekushandura repertoire yakazara kuita prose yaEdgar Allan Poe.. Iri basa raionekwa nevatsoropodzi seyakanakisa kunyorwa kwebasa remunyori weAmerica.

Rufu

Pashure pemakore anopfuura 30 achigara muvhu reFrance, Mutungamiri François Mitterrand akavapa nyika. Muna 1983, munyori akadzoka kekupedzisira - pashure kudzokera democracy - kuArgentina. Nguva pfupi pashure pacho, Cortázar akadzokera kuParis, uko Akashaya muna Kukadzi 12, 1984 nekuda kweleukemia.


Izvo zviri muchinyorwa zvinoomerera pamisimboti yedu ye tsika dzekunyora. Kuti utaure chikanganiso tinya pano.

Iva wekutanga kutaura

Siya yako yekutaura

Your kero e havazobvumirwi ichibudiswa.

*

*

  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako

bool (chokwadi)