Literary modernism: chii uye maitiro ayo

Rubén Darío uye Yemazuva Ano.

Rubén Darío uye Yemazuva Ano.

MuchiSpanish, izwi rokuti modernismo rinoreva sangano retsika nekunyora rakazvarwa pakati pemakore 1880 na1917. Iyi yazvino yakave nekuwanda kukuru mumabhuku echiCastilian, kunyanya muLatin America. Mumiriri waro mukurusa aive mudetembi wekuNicaragua, mutori wenhau uye mumiriri Rubén Darío, aine nhetembo yake. Azul (1888). Iri basa rinomiririra kuputika kweaesthetics mutsamba dzenguva.

Literary modernism yairatidzwa nekunatswa, kushongedza uye aristocratization yemazwi., nokudaro kugadzira kuvandudzwa mukutarisira kwemetrics nemutauro. Muchikwata ichi zvinokwanisika kuziva pesvedzero yematatu makuru eEuropean currents: Parnassianism (kutsvaga chinangwa); romanticism (kukosha kwezvakasiyana); uye kufananidzira (zvakavanzika zvekududzira).

Hunhu hwezvinyorwa zvemazuva ano

Chimwe chezvakadzama zvechinyorwa chemazuva ano chine chekuita nekushandiswa kwakadzama kwemutauro. Chimwe chezvinangwa zvake zvikuru chaiva "art for art's sake". Iyi pfungwa inoreva kugadzira nekuda kwekuzviita, kuburikidza nemaitiro uye nhetembo. Vatauriri vesangano iri vakasarudza kudetemba senzira yekutaura yavanoda, sezvo yakavabvumira kudhinda zviratidzo zvakazara norunako.

Kutsvaga kweaesthetics

Kune vemazuva ano zvaive zvakakosha kuti mifananidzo yaive yakanaka. Kukwana kwepamutemo muzvinyorwa kwaiva chikamu chekushongedzwa kwebasa rimwe nerimwe. Mutauro une tsika uye wakanyatsotarisirwa, uye kudikanwa kwekugadzira pasina chikonzero chine musoro kana chinonzwisisika, asi pane hunyanzvi, chakaumba aesthetics yenhetembo uye mamwe magwaro ekufamba.

kutsvinda mumutauro

Modernism yakatsvaga runako kuburikidza nezvinyorwa zvinyorwa zvine tsika yakaiswa. Kutarisisa kune zvakadzama kwakagadzira mifananidzo yaive ine hukama neruvara, kuwirirana, pfungwa uye art. Literary modernism inoratidzirwa nekushandisazve kushandiswa kwe alliteration, rhythms yakanyorwa uye synesthesia yechiratidzo. Saizvozvowo, inguva inodarika mabhuku.

kurambwa kwechokwadi

Zvakawanda zvekunyora zvine chekuita nekunyora kwemazuva ano kunoitika munzvimbo nyowani, dzekunze, kana dzenhema. Modernists vaigara vachitiza kubva maindasitiri echokwadi panguva, pakanga pasina nzvimbo yeunyanzvi norunako. Hazvishamisi kuti munhetembo kutsvaga kuzere kwekugutsikana kuburikidza nekunaka kunogona kufarirwa.

Kuwanda kwekukosha

Mutsara naJosé Martí.

Mutsara naJosé Martí.

Ikozvino yemazuva ano yakanga ine maitiro akajeka ekugadzira zviratidzo, mifananidzo uye nzvimbo dzakakosha. Classic runako iripo nechinangwa chega chekugutsa chinodiwa chekunaka. Vadetembi vaive nechido chekushandisa mutauro waive uzere nezvinhu zvakanaka zvekutaura zvaiita kuti mabasa avo ave nemazvo.

Kubatana pakati pe melancholy uye simba

Modernist maartist aifarira kupotera munyika dzaisiyana nedzavo nekuti vaisada mamiriro enguva yavo. Ichi ndicho chimwe chezvikonzero nei hunhu hwe melancholic huchionekwa muzvinyorwa zvekufamba uku. Pakanga pane kumwe kusava netariro uye kuora mwoyo pakati pezana remakore rechiXNUMX neXNUMX, izvo zvakasimbisa mafungiro erima evadetembi.

Kutungamira kwemimhanzi

Nhetembo dzemazuva ano uye zvinyorwa zvaive nemimhanzi yakanyatsozivikanwa. Iri sangano rinopa rukudzo kune hombe dzechinyakare stoles. Mavhesi emuMiddle Ages akadai seayo dodecasyllable, iyo Alexandria uye ineasyllable anoshandiswa.. Saizvozvo, inobatanidza mitsva mitsva yesonnet.

Kufurira kwengano

Zvizhinji zvezvinyorwa zvemazuva ano zvinopesvedzerwa nengano dzeGreco-Latin. Mupfungwa iyi, Zviri muropa kuti nhetembo dzinonangisa madingindira adzo kuburikidza nevamwari uye pfungwa dzakanaka dzine chekuita nehumwari. Nenzira imwecheteyo, kune kutaura kwemavara akajairwa neGirisi yekare uye hunhu hwakanamirwa kwavari, izvo zvakavapa mhepo yakawedzera tsika uye yehungwaru kumabasa.

tsvaga rusununguko

Modernism, kufanana nerudo, inoratidzirwa nekutyora mitemo yekare yezvinyorwa zvenguva yayo. Vemazuva ano vakatsvaga kupandukira zvimiro netsika kuti vawane mafomu matsva uye akanaka ehunyanzvi..

Munhetembo dzemazuva ano ekuedza uye hunyanzvi hutsva hwakawanda. Ivo zvakare vakagadzira mune lexicon, nekushandiswa kweGallicisms, Hellenisms uye cultisms. Nzira idzi dzakaedza kuwana kushomeka kwemazwi kupfuura kurongeka kweamwechete.

uwandu hwemasyllables

Nyanduri Ruben Dario, mumiririri mukuru wemazuva ano muLatin America uye nhetembo yezana remakore rechiXNUMX, akashandura metric yeCastilian kune yechiLatin. Munyori akavandudza mutinhimira waiita sewakakanganikwa mundima, kusanganisira mapfumbamwe, gumi nembiri negumi neina. masyllables akawanda mukati mezvinyorwa zvavo.

Nhoroondo yezvinyorwa zvemazuva ano zvinyorwa

Zana remakore rechiXNUMX rakanga rakatsunga kushandisa nzanga yakasimukira uye inodisa zvenyika yakazvipira kushanda. Kuchinja kwemaindasitiri kwakaunza muenzaniso wenzanga umo vanhu vaiitira hanya zvikuru kugadzirwa kupfuura kufunga. Muchirevo ichi, zvinyorwa zvemazuva ano zvinomuka kuchengetedza kusika, runako uye hunyanzvi.

Jose Marti.

Jose Marti.

Zvakanyanya kuoma kuziva kuti izvozvi zvinoitika papi chaipo. Zvisinei, Latin America inonakidzwa nevanyori vemazuva ano. Saizvozvo, Rubén Darío, akaberekerwa muMetapa, Nicaragua, anorangarirwa kuva baba veiri sangano. Mabasa emunyori uyu, anozivikanwa se "muchinda wetsamba dzeCastilian", akapihwa Parnassianism uye chiratidzo chakafemerwa nemabasa aThéophile Gautier naPaul Verlaine.

Pamusoro paDario, Vamwe vanyori vakuru vezvinyorwa vakaburitsa muhafu yekutanga ye1880 vaive: maCuban Jose Marti, the Dominican Max Henríquez Ureña, mudetembi weCuba Julián del Casal, wekuMexico Manuel Gutiérrez Nájera, wePeruvia Manuel González Prada uye wekuColombia José Asunción Silva. Ava maartist vainzi "modernists" sezwi rekuzvidza. Zvisinei, vakazogamuchira zita iroro vachidada.

Mabasa akakurumbira aRubén Darío (1867-1916)

  • Azul (1888);
  • Profane prose nedzimwe nhetembo (1896);
  • Nziyo dzehupenyu netariro (1905);
  • Ndinoimba kuArgentina nedzimwe nhetembo (1914);
  • Izvo zvisingawanzo (1896).

Mamwe mabasa ezvinyorwa zvemazuva ano

  • Nguva yendarama (1878-1882): José Martí;
  • ismaelillo (1882): José Martí;
  • Amphoras, Kudhindwa kweChirikadzi yeMontero (1914): Max Henriquez Urena;
  • Mubatanidzwa wediplomatic (1916) Max Henriquez Urena;
  • Moran, Francisco. Casal à rebours (1996): Julián del Casal;
  • Mexican Parnassus (1886): Salvador Diaz Miron;
  • art sensations (1893): Enrique Gomez Carrillo.

Izvo zviri muchinyorwa zvinoomerera pamisimboti yedu ye tsika dzekunyora. Kuti utaure chikanganiso tinya pano.

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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
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