Ntchito ndi Garcilaso de la Vega

Wolemba Garcilaso de la Vega

Wolemba Garcilaso de la Vega

Ntchito ya Garcilaso de la Vega imawonedwa ngati yofunika mkati mwa mitundu yofotokozera ndakatulo ya Renaissance mu chilankhulo cha Chisipanishi. M’chenicheni, wolemba ndakatulo wa ku Toledo akuzindikiridwa kukhala mmodzi wa oyambitsa ndakatulo m’nthaŵi yotchedwa Spanish Golden Age. Komabe, sanaonepo chilichonse mwa zinthu zolembedwa zake chikufalitsidwa m’moyo wake.

Anali bwenzi lake lalikulu Juan Boscán 1487 - 1542 amene analemba ndakatulo ya Garcilaso nalifalitsa (post-mortem) limodzi ndi ndakatulo zake zingapo mu 1543. Ndiyeno, mu 1569, wosindikiza wa ku Salamanca anafalitsa ntchito ya wolemba nyimbo wa ku Toledo aliyense payekha. Pambuyo pake m’zaka za zana limodzimodzilo, ndakatulo zina​—zosasindikizidwa panthaŵiyo​—zinaphatikizidwa m’mpambo wa ndakatulo Wachispanya wodziŵika lerolino.

Ntchito za Garcilaso de la Vega

Kusindikiza koyamba kwa ndakatulo zake

Anapangidwa pakati pa 1526 ndi 1535, Ntchito yaying'ono yosungidwa mpaka pano ndi Garcilaso idawonekera koyamba mkati Ntchito za Boscán ndi ena a Garcilaso de la Vega (1543). Komabe, akatswiri ena a mbiri yakale amanena kuti iye mwina analemba mawu amwambo ndipo anakhala wolemba ndakatulo wodziwika bwino m’mabwalo amilandu a Castilian paunyamata wake.

Mulimonsemo, Juan Boscán anali wofunikira pakusinthidwa kwa vesi la hendecasyllable (italic) kuti likhale la Castilian metrical lolembedwa ndi Garcilaso.. Womalizayo adasintha bwino kalembedwe ka Castilian kukhala katchulidwe ka Chitaliyana. Momwemonso, idaphatikizanso ndakatulo za Neoplatonic za ndakatulo za Tana za Renaissance.

Kudzoza ndi zisonkhezero

Boscán analinso wofunikira pakuyamikira kwa Garcilaso ndakatulo za njonda yaku Valencian Ausiàs March. Munthu wina wofunika kwambiri pa moyo wa wolemba nyimbo wa ku Spain anali Pedro de Toledo, yemwe anakhala Viceroy wa Naples. Ndithudi, kukhalako kuŵiri kwa Garcilaso (1522-23 ndi 1533) mumzinda wakumwera kwa Italy kunasonyeza kuphatikizidwa kwa mbali za Petrarchan mu ndakatulo zake.

Mu 1526, wolemba ndakatulo wa ku Toledo anakumana ndi Isabel Freire de Andrade, mmodzi wa amayi a Isabella wa ku Portugal pamene mfumukazi yamtsogolo inakwatiwa ndi Carlos I. Malinga ndi akatswiri ena a maphunziro, namwali wachipwitikizi akuwoneka ngati m'busa Elisa m'mavesi a Garcilaso de la Vega. Mwachiwonekere, Zimenezi zinakhudzidwa pamene anakwatiwa ndi Don Antonio de Fonseca, phungu wa ku Toro (Castilla) mu 1529..

Zokonda zina zofunika kuzitchula

Mu 1521, Garcilaso anabala mwana wapathengo -ngakhale anaphatikizidwa mu chifuniro chake- ndi Guiomar Carrillo, yemwe amadziwika kuti ndi chikondi choyamba cha ndakatulo ya Toledo. Mayi uyu akutchedwa Galatea mu Zolemba I. Kuphatikiza apo, Magdalena de Guzmán (msuweni) ndi Camila ku Eclogue II komanso Beatriz de Sá wokongola, mkazi wa mchimwene wake Pablo Laso (wotchedwanso Elisa).

Makhalidwe a mawu a Garcilaso de la Vega

Ntchito ya Garcilaso de la Vega Lili ndi eclogues atatu, nyimbo zinayi, sonnet makumi anayi, kalata, ode ndi mabuku asanu ndi atatu. mtundu wachikhalidwe (olembedwa m'mavesi a octosyllabic). Pakuphatikiza uku ndizotheka kuyamikira mu gawo lake lonse kukonzanso mitu ndi mitundu yomwe imagwiritsidwa ntchito munyimbo ya Renaissance.

Kuphatikiza apo, ena mwa ma sonnet ndi ma eclogue a Garcilaso amawonedwa ndi akatswiri a mbiri yakale kukhala chifaniziro chokhulupirika cha njonda yabwino ya Renaissance. Nthawi yomweyo, mavesi ake adaphatikizanso miyeso ya ndakatulo yanyimbo yaku Italy ku nyimbo zachi Spanish..

Mitu

Nyimbo zambiri za makolo a Garcilaso ndi zachikondi, zomwe zinalembedwa ali wachinyamata zimawonetsa mikhalidwe ya buku la nyimbo lachikhalidwe. M'malo mwake, ma soneti omwe adapangidwa muzaka zakukhwima za wolemba ndakatulo wa ku Toledo amawonetsa njira yodziwika bwino ya Renaissance sensibility. (zomvekanso mu nyimbo zawo).

Sonnet XXIII

"Bola rose ndi kakombo

mtundu ukuwonetsedwa mu manja anu,

ndi kuti mawonekedwe anu achangu, owona mtima,

ndi kuwala kowala mphepo yamkuntho;

 

ndi pamene tsitsi, limene mu mtsempha

golide anasankhidwa, ndi kuthawa kofulumira.

ndi khosi loyera lokongola, lowongoka;

mphepo imayenda, imafalikira ndi kusokoneza;

 

tengani ku kasupe wanu wokondwa

chipatso chokoma, nyengo yokwiya isanafike

kuphimba pamwamba wokongola ndi matalala.

 

Mphepo yachisanu idzafota duwa;

m'badwo wopepuka udzasintha chilichonse,

chifukwa chosasintha mwambo wawo”.

Chilengedwe mu ntchito ya Garcilaso

Koma, Zolemba za Garcilaso zimapanga chiwonetsero chachikulu cha talente yake yandakatulo. M'menemo, abusa angapo amakambirana mafunso okhudzana ndi chikondi m'malo omwe ali abwino. Ngakhale kuwerengedwa Eclogue II Inali yoyamba kulembedwa ndi wolemba nyimbo wa Chicastilian ndipo, mwa atatu a mlembi wake, inali imodzi yokha yopereka chiwembu chochititsa chidwi.

Eclogue II (chidutswa)

"Alubaniya

 

Kodi awa ndi maloto, kapena ndimasewera

dzanja loyera? Aa, loto, ukunyoza!

Ndinkakhulupirira ngati wopenga.

Ndisamalireni! mukuwuluka

Ndi mapiko othamanga kudzera pakhomo la ebony;

Ndinagona apa ndikulira.

Kodi sikokwanira kuipa koopsa komwe kumadzutsa

mzimu umakhala ndi moyo, kapena kuuyika bwino,

akufa ndi moyo wosatsimikizika?

 

salicum

Albanio, lekani kulira, qu'en oíllo

Ndikumva chisoni

 

Chialubaniya

Ndani ali pa maliro anga?

 

salicum

Apa ndi amene angakuthandizeni kumva.

 

Chialubaniya

Kodi uli kuno Salicio? chitonthozo chachikulu

Ndinali pakampani yanu yoyipa,

koma m’menemo ndili nako thambo”.

Wambiri ya Garcilaso de la Vega

Garcilaso de la Vega

Garcilaso de la Vega

Olemba mbiri alibe mgwirizano wokhudzana ndi chaka cha kubadwa kwa Garci Lasso de la Vega (dzina la christening). Chimodzi mwa zotsimikizirika pankhaniyi ndi chakuti anabadwira ku Toledo pakati pa 1491 ndi 1503, m'banja la anthu olemekezeka a ku Castilian. Bambo ake anali amasiye ali wamng'ono, koma izi sizinamulepheretse kusokoneza ndale za ufumu wa Castile..

Unyamata wake m'makhoti a Castilian

Mnyamatayo Garcilaso adalandira maphunziro amphumphu pa nthawi yake mu Mabwalo a ufumu. Kumeneko, adaphunzira zilankhulo zingapo (Chilatini, Chigiriki, Chitaliyana ndi Chifalansa) ndipo anakumana ndi Juan Boscán, yemwe ayenera kuti amamukonda kwambiri ndakatulo za Levantine. Mu 1520, wolemba ndakatuloyo anakhala msilikali wachifumu; kuyambira pamenepo adagwira nawo ntchito zambiri zankhondo potumikira Mfumu Carlos Woyamba.

Pa November 11, 1523, Garcilaso de la Vega anasankhidwa kukhala Santiago mu mpingo wa San Agustín ku Pamplona. M'zaka zotsatira, anapitiriza kuchita nawo maulendo ofunikira ankhondo (anavulala kwambiri m'modzi mwa iwo). Panthaŵiyo, mu 1525 anakwatira Elena de Zúñiga, mlongo wake wa Carlos I wa ku Spain, amene anabala naye ana asanu.

Zochita zankhondo zomaliza, kuthamangitsidwa ndi imfa

Mu 1530, Garcilaso anali mbali ya ulendo wachifumu wa Carlos Woyamba kupita ku Bologna, kumene anakhala Charles V, Mfumu Yopatulika ya Roma. Patapita chaka, iye anathamangitsidwa (chifukwa chochita nawo ukwati wosaloleka) ku chilumba cha Schut (Danube), asanakhazikike ku Naples. Mu 1535, adadulidwa mikondo iwiri pakamwa ndi kudzanja lamanja pa Tsiku la Tunis.

Chaka chotsatira, Charles V anapita kunkhondo ndi Francis Woyamba wa ku France. Posakhalitsa, Garcilaso adasankhidwa kukhala woyang'anira ntchito paulendowu kudzera ku Provence. Kumeneko, adavulazidwa kwambiri pankhondo panthawi yomwe ankamenyana ndi chitetezo cha Muy. Pomalizira pake, wolemba ndakatulo ndi msilikali wa ku Toledo anamwalira ku Nice, pa October 14, 1536.


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