Kodi Enlightenment ndi chiyani

Tsindikani chomwe chiri Fanizo

The Enlightenment inali gulu la chikhalidwe lomwe linabala kulingalira. Nthawi zambiri imadziwika kuti Age of Enlightenment, XNUMXth. Linali gulu lomwe silinangosintha Literature, linaphatikizanso zaluso, Sayansi, Philosophy ndi Ndale, ndikulimbikitsa mayendedwe a anthu, monga French Revolution.

Mkati mwa theka lachiŵiri la zaka za m’ma XNUMX ndi kumayambiriro kwa zaka za m’ma XNUMX, Kuwalako kunafalikira m’maholo a akatswiri ndi oganiza bwino ndipo kunathandiza kuwongolera dziko. Komabe, mwina limenelo linalinso vuto lake. Kumbali ina, inalimbikitsa kugwetsedwa kwa zopinga, koma zatsopano zinapangidwanso. Mwachidule, chinali gulu la ma bourgeois.

Chiyambi ndi nkhani ya Chidziwitso

Inatchedwa Nyengo ya Chidziwitso chifukwa inatulukira ndi cholinga chopereka kuwala kwa maziko a obscurantist omwe moyo wa ndale ndi wapagulu udalipobe, chipembedzo chili ndi malo apadera. Anthu akale amenewa anali osadziwa komanso kukhulupirira malodza. Zikhulupiriro zakale, kusaphunzira ndi kalasi ndi akuluakulu ankhondo adapitilirabe mpaka pamenepo. Kuchokera pamwamba mpaka pansi. Ulamuliro wa ufumuwo unalinso wosakayikitsa, chifukwa mafumuwo ankalamulira ndipo anachita zimenezi chifukwa chakuti anasankhidwa ndi Mulungu.

Ndipo ngakhale kuti kuunikirako kunalimbikitsa kusintha kwakukulu kosintha, iwo anathamangira ku chilimbikitso chomwe chinapitiriza kulekanitsa ochita zisankho ndi anthu. Chifukwa chake, mphamvu idapangidwanso molunjika. Ankafuna kupanga njira yabwino kwa aliyense, koma popanda kuwerengera magulu onse a anthu. Pachifukwa ichi, ndithudi idzagwira ntchito panthawiyo kuti ikwaniritse kusintha kwa chikhalidwe ndi chikhalidwe cha anthu. Chifukwa chake, zaka za m'ma XIX zikanabweretsa kusintha kwatsopano m'magawo osiyanasiyana amitundu yosiyanasiyana.

Salon ya Madame Geoffrin

Salon ya Madame Geoffrin (1812), yojambula ndi Charles Gabriel Lemonnier.

Zida

  • Kuunikira Despotism: mphamvu zinagwera mumtundu wa abambo ndi anthu. Iwo ankafuna kuphunzitsa anthu kudzera m’mawu a Chidziwitso ndi chikhutiro chakuchita zabwino kwa nzika, koma osawakhudza. Ndipo mphamvu inakhalabe ya mtheradi kwa mfumu.
  • Chikhalidwe: Mulungu amachotsedwa ndi munthu.
  • Kulingalira: kulingalira kumapambana chikhulupiriro.
  • Pragmatism ndi mzere wotsatira wa filosofi ya Utilitarian. Zogwirizana kwambiri ndi maphunziro ndi kufunika kophunzira maphunziro okha omwe angagwiritsidwe ntchito.
  • Kutengera: kuyesa kubwerera kwa olemba akale (neoclassicism).
  • Lingaliro: podziyesa kuti adzitalikitse ku zenizeni ndi zopanda pake ndi kufunafuna zokometsera, amakhalanso kutali ndi anthu ndi zosowa zawo zenizeni. Ndi kukana otchuka.
  • Universalism: amabwerera ku chiyambi cha mabuku ndi filosofi. Zomwe zili padziko lonse ku chikhalidwe cha azungu, koma sizikukhudzana ndi zochitika zenizeni za anthu.

Chidziwitso ku Ulaya

Kulankhula za Kuwala ndiko kuyankhula za Buku (Encyclopédie) Denis Diderot ndi Jean le Rond d'Alembert, omwe ankayang'anira mgwirizanowu. Amatchedwanso Mtanthauzira mawu wasayansi, zaluso ndi zaluso Ndi zolemba zambiri zomwe zimayesa kuphatikiza chidziwitso cha zilembo ndi za sayansi kuchokera pamalingaliro a pragmatic.. Anthu odziwika bwino monga Voltaire kapena Rousseau anagwirizana nawo palembali. Linasindikizidwa mu 1751 ku France ndipo ndithudi ndi ntchito yofunika kwambiri ya m’zaka za zana la XNUMX.

Chilankhulo cha Chifalansa chinali njira yotumizira malingaliro panthawiyi.. Kuganiziridwa bwino kwambiri, ntchito zazikulu zinalembedwa m'chinenero ichi. Komabe, kuwonjezera pa France, Kuwalako kunalinso ndi kufunika kwapadera ku England ndi Germany. Chingerezi, Chijeremani, kapena Chisipanishi ndizodzaza ndi Gallicisms.

Mu Literature, mitundu yodziwika kwambiri inali ya classicism: tsoka ndi nthabwala zamasewera ndi nthano zambiri ndi nthano zomwe zimalimbikitsa kuphunzira kudzera mu ziphunzitso zamakhalidwe. Komabe, ntchito zambiri zozama kwambiri zimalankhula za Economy ndi Philosophy; mwa olemba ake otchuka kwambiri ndi Adam Smith (Chuma cha Mitundu), Immanuel Kant, David Hume, Montesquieu, ndi Voltaire ndi Rousseau, kumene. René Descartes kapena John Locke anali gwero la chilimbikitso kwa onsewa.

Chiwonetsero cha ku Europe

Ndikoyeneranso kutchula olemba ena omwe adalemba zopeka komanso omwe adathandiziranso zaka za m'ma XNUMX ndi pambuyo pake. Chifukwa iwo anali iwo adapanga buku lamakono:

  • Daniel defoe: Robinson Crusoe (1719). Ndi nkhani yodziŵika bwino ya munthu amene anakhala pafupifupi zaka 30 pa chisumbu cha m’chipululu ngalawa imene anakwera itasweka.
  • Jonathan Swift: Maulendo a Gulliver (1726). Nkhani yapaulendo, dziko la Lilliput, komwe zimachitika komanso okhalamo, a Lilliputians, ndiwodziwikanso kwambiri.
  • Laurence Stern: Vida ndi malingaliro a njonda Tristram Shandy (1759) ndiwodziwika bwino kwambiri ndi njira yofotokozera yomwe amagwiritsa ntchito ndi mawu amkati komanso mafunso odabwitsa.
  • Pierre Choderlos wa LaclosMabwenzi oopsa (1782) ndi buku la epistolary.
  • Donatien Alphonse Francois de Sade, wodziwika bwino monga Marquis de Sade: ndi mmodzi mwa olemba omwe amatsutsana kwambiri nthawi zonse. Dzina lake lathandizira kuwonjezera mawu atsopano mumtanthauzira mawu, nkhanza (chiganizo: zachisoni), chifukwa cha tsatanetsatane wopanda chifundo wa malemba ake, limodzinso ndi mfundo zake zodzaza ndi zopotoka. Koma mabuku ake, ngakhale amakangana, ndi nthabwala kapena popanda iwo, amayesanso mwa njira yawoyawo kuphunzitsa owerenga. Iwo amaonekera: Justine kapena zoipa za ukoma (1791), Philosophy patebulo lovekera (1795) kapena Masiku 120 a Sodomu kapena sukulu ya makhalidwe oipa lolembedwa mu 1785, koma linasindikizidwa zaka zambiri pambuyo pake.
Royal Spanish Academy

Likulu ku Madrid la Royal Spanish Academy.

Chidziwitso ku Spain

Nkhani zandale ku Spain mu theka lachiwiri la zaka za zana la 1759 zinali motere: ulamuliro wa Bourbon wa Carlos III (1788-1788) ndi Carlos IV (1808-XNUMX). Mafumu a Absolutist omwe m'maulamuliro awo malingaliro owunikiridwa ndi opita patsogolo a Europe otsogola sanalowe ndi mphamvu zokwanira. Osati monga ku France, osachepera. Ku Spain, ziphunzitso zamwambo kwambiri ndi chipembedzo cha Katolika zinali zozikidwa mozama m’maganizo ndi miyambo ya anthu a ku Spain., amene sanalimbikitse kusinthako.

Tiyenera kuyembekezera mpaka zaka za m'ma XNUMX kuti kuchotsedwa kwenikweni kwa Carlos IV kuchitike, komanso kuti pakhale ufumu wopita patsogolo ku Spain ndi kukhudza kwachifalansa, kuti a Spaniards oyeretsedwa kwambiri akhale achi French ndi kuti chilichonse chithe. nkhondo yodziyimira pawokha komanso kubwerera kwa absolutism yachitsulo kwambiri ndi dzanja la "Wofunika", Fernando VII.

Koma, Mu chikhalidwe cha chikhalidwe, kulengedwa kwa Royal Spanish Academy (1713) kumaonekera, kuyambira nthawi imeneyo yakhala ikuyang'anira "kuyeretsa, kukonza ndi kupereka ulemerero" ku chinenero chathu., komanso Royal Academy of Fine Arts ya San Fernando (1752), Academy of History (1738) kapena zomwe masiku ano ndi National Museum of Natural Sciences, pakati pa mabungwe ena ofunika kwambiri ndi kutchuka. Momwemonso, Economic Society of Friends of the Country inali gulu lapamwamba komanso laluntha lopangidwa ndi olemekezeka ena a nthawiyo ndipo lomwe linadutsa magawo osiyanasiyana, koma silinasiye khalidwe lawo lapamwamba.

Jovellanos ndi Goya

Kujambula kwa GM de Jovellanos (1798), ndi Goya.

Olemba aku Spain azaka za zana la XNUMX

  • Fray Benito Jeronimo Feijoo (1676-1764). Amonke a Benedictine, anali munthu wofunikira kwambiri pantchito zamakalata komanso malingaliro ozama. Ntchito zake zofunika kwambiri ndizo Universal Critical Theatre (1726) ndi Makalata Ophunzirira komanso Okonda Chidwi (1742).
  • Gregory Mayans (1699-1781). Monga wolemba mbiri wounikiridwa, iye anali wofunika kwambiri mu nkhani ya mbiri yakale ndipo ntchito zake zimaonekera kwambiri chifukwa cha kukhwima kwawo. Ntchito yake yofunika kwambiri: Chiyambi cha chinenero cha Chisipanishi (1737).
  • Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos (1744-1811). Kuphatikiza pa kulemba zolemba zosiyanasiyana pazachuma kapena ulimi (chofunika kwambiri ndi ntchito yake Nenani za Lamulo la Agrarian), adathandizira kuti chiwonetsero chazithunzi za ku Spain chikhale nthabwala yakale yolembedwa mu prose, Chigawenga choona mtima (1787), yopangidwa mkati mwa zisudzo zoyengedwa za Chidziwitso.
  • Jose de Cadalso (1741-1782). Wolemba wamkulu waku Spain wazaka za zana la XNUMX. Iwo amatsindika awo Makhadi a ku Morocco (1789), buku labwino kwambiri la epistolary kudzera mwa munthu waku Spain komanso mlendo wokongola wochokera ku Moroccan yemwe amayesa kuphunzira zachidwi komanso miyambo yachi Spanish. Ndiwofunikanso usiku wachisoni (1789-1790), nyimbo yosangalatsa komanso yachisoni, ngakhale ili pafupi ndi Spanish pre-romanticism.
  • Juan Melendez Valdes (1754-1814), woimira wamkulu wa ndakatulo zaku Spain zazaka za zana la khumi ndi zisanu ndi zitatu.
  • Thomas waku Iriarte (1750-1791) ndi Felix Maria Samaniego (1745-1801) amaimira nthano yophunzitsa ya mabuku ojambulidwa achi Spanish.
  • Leandro Fernandez de Moratín (1760-1828) anali wolemba sewero wofunikira kwambiri wazaka za zana la XNUMX ku Spain. Ma comedies ake amaonekera Mkulu ndi mtsikana (1790), Inde a atsikana (1805), komanso comedy yatsopano (1792)

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  1.   Vladimir Portela anati

    Kuchulukitsidwa kwathunthu. Pa nthawiyo sizinkadziwika kuti nzeru (iq) inkagawika. Pachifukwa ichi, lero tikudziwa kuti linali gulu la achifwamba achi French omwe ankaganiza kuti kupyolera mu kuwerengera koyenera kukhala ndi moyo wabwinoko n'kotheka. Tiyeni tisangalale kuti lero zomwe tikudziwa kuti sizili choncho. Ife a Hispanics tinalibe Zowala. Izo zinali zodulira kunja.
    Tisakhulupirire ku France. Ayi.

    1.    Belen Martin anati

      Hello Vladimir! Zikomo chifukwa cha ndemanga yanu. Inde, ndayesera kulengeza uthenga wakuti Kuwalako sikunali gulu la aliyense ndipo kuti, mofanana ndi china chirichonse, zikanathekanso kuchita bwino. Ndiponso, Zounikira ku Latin America zinali mdima kwambiri! Kumene. Zabwino zonse.