Enlightenment yog dab tsi

Npog dab tsi yog Illustration

Lub Enlightenment yog txoj kev coj noj coj ua uas tau yug los rau qhov laj thawj. Nws yog feem ntau hu ua Hnub Nyoog ntawm Kev Nkag Siab, XNUMXth. Nws yog ib qho kev txav uas tsis tsuas yog hloov Cov Ntawv Sau, nws tseem suav nrog Arts, Science, Philosophy thiab Politics, thiab txhawb kev sib raug zoo, xws li Fabkis Revolution.

Nyob rau hauv lub thib ob ib nrab ntawm lub xyoo pua XNUMXth thiab thaum ntxov XNUMXth centuries, lub Enlightenment kis mus rau lub tsev ntawm cov kws tshawb fawb thiab cov neeg xav thiab pab txhim kho lub ntiaj teb no. Txawm li cas los xij, tej zaum kuj yog nws qhov txhaum. Ntawm ib sab, nws txhawb kev rhuav tshem ntawm kev thaiv, tab sis cov tshiab kuj tau tsim. Nyob rau hauv luv luv, nws yog ib tug bourgeois zog.

Keeb kwm thiab ntsiab lus ntawm Enlightenment

Nws tau raug hu ua Lub Hnub Nyoog Kev Pom Zoo vim tias nws tau tshwm sim nrog lub hom phiaj ntawm kev muab lub teeb rau lub hauv paus obscurantist uas tseem muaj kev nom kev tswv thiab pej xeem lub neej, nrog kev ntseeg nyiam qhov chaw nyiam. Cov haiv neeg thaum ub no tau tshwm sim los ntawm kev tsis paub thiab kev ntseeg. Cov kev ntseeg qub, kev tsis nyeem ntawv thiab cov chav kawm thiab tub rog hierarchy txuas ntxiv mus txog thaum ntawd. Los ntawm sab saum toj mus rau hauv qab. Lub hwj chim monarchical kuj tsis muaj lus nug, vim cov vaj ntxwv kav thiab lawv ua li ntawd vim lawv raug xaiv los ntawm Vajtswv.

Thiab txawm hais tias Txoj Kev Txawj Ntse txhawb nqa ntau yam kev hloov pauv, lawv tau ua rau muaj kev cuam tshuam txuas ntxiv uas txuas ntxiv cais cov neeg txiav txim siab los ntawm tib neeg. Yog li ntawd, lub hwj chim tau xeeb vertically dua. Lawv xav ua txoj hauv kev txhim kho rau txhua tus, tab sis tsis suav nrog txhua txheej txheej hauv zej zog. Vim li no, nws yuav muaj tseeb ua haujlwm nyob rau lub sijhawm kom ua tiav kev hloov pauv kev coj noj coj ua thiab kev sib raug zoo tom qab. Yog li ntawd, lub xyoo pua puv XNUMX yuav coj cov kev hloov pauv tshiab hauv ntau yam kev hloov pauv ntau yam kev coj noj coj ua.

Madame Geoffrin lub salon

Madame Geoffrin's Salon (1812), kos duab los ntawm Charles Gabriel Lemonnier.

Nta

  • Enlightened Despotism: lub hwj chim poob rau hauv ib hom paternalism nrog cov neeg. Lawv xav qhia tib neeg los ntawm kev txiav txim ntawm Kev Txawj Ntse nrog kev txiav txim siab ua qhov zoo tshaj plaws rau pej xeem, tab sis tsis koom nrog lawv. Thiab lub hwj chim tseem muaj tseeb rau vaj ntxwv.
  • Anthropocentrism: Vajtswv yog neeg hloov chaw.
  • Meej Meej: vim li cas yeej muaj kev ntseeg.
  • Pragmatism thiab cov kab lus philosophical ntawm Utilitarian. Txuas nrog rau pedagogy thiab qhov tseem ceeb ntawm kev kawm tsuas yog cov kev kawm uas tuaj yeem coj mus rau hauv kev xyaum.
  • Xyaum Zam Txim: sim rov qab mus rau cov kws sau ntawv classical (neoclassicism).
  • Lub tswv yim: los ntawm kev ua txuj ua kom deb ntawm lawv tus kheej los ntawm kev muaj tiag thiab qhov tsis zoo thiab nrhiav kev zoo nkauj, lawv kuj nyob deb ntawm cov neeg thiab lawv cov kev xav tau tiag tiag. Nws yog qhov tsis lees paub ntawm cov neeg nyiam.
  • Universalism: rov qab mus rau lub hauv paus chiv keeb ntawm cov ntaub ntawv thiab kev xav. Dab tsi yog universal rau Western kab lis kev cai, tab sis dua tsis hais qhov tseeb ntawm cov neeg.

Lub Enlightenment nyob teb chaws Europe

Hais txog Enlightenment yog hais txog tus Cov Encyclopedia (encyclopedia) Denis Diderot thiab Jean le Rond d'Alembert, uas yog tus saib xyuas kev sib koom tes. Kuj hu ua Yog vim li cas phau ntawv txhais lus ntawm sciences, kos duab thiab crafts Nws yog cov ntawv dav dav uas sim ua kom nkag siab txog kev paub ntawm cov tsiaj ntawv thiab ntawm qhov kev tshawb fawb los ntawm qhov pom ntawm pragmatic.. Cov cim zoo xws li Voltaire lossis Rousseau tau koom tes hauv cov ntawv no. Nws tau luam tawm xyoo 1751 hauv Fab Kis thiab yog qhov tseem ceeb tshaj plaws ntawm lub xyoo pua XNUMXth.

Lus Fab Kis yog lub tsheb xa cov tswv yim nyob rau lub sijhawm no.. Xav zoo heev, tej hauj lwm zoo tau sau ua lus no. Txawm li cas los xij, ntxiv rau Fabkis, Txoj Kev Pom Zoo kuj tseem muaj qhov tshwj xeeb hauv tebchaws Askiv thiab lub teb chaws Yelemees. Lus Askiv, German, lossis Spanish yog saturated nrog Gallicisms.

Nyob rau hauv cov ntaub ntawv, feem ntau ib hom ntawv muaj nyob rau classicism: xwm txheej thiab comedy nyob rau hauv ua yeeb yam thiab ntau zaj dab neeg thiab satire uas txhawb kev kawm los ntawm kev coj ncaj ncees qhia. Txawm li cas los xij, ntau yam haujlwm ntawm qhov tob tob tau hais txog Economy thiab Philosophy; ntawm nws cov kws sau ntawv tseem ceeb tshaj plaws yog Adam Smith (Lub Ntiaj Teb Wealth), Immanuel Kant, David Hume, Montesquieu, thiab Voltaire thiab Rousseau, tau kawg. René Descartes lossis John Locke yog qhov kev tshoov siab rau txhua tus.

European illustrated narrative

Nws kuj yog qhov ncaj ncees rau npe rau lwm tus kws sau ntawv uas sau ntawv tseeb thiab leej twg nrog lawv cov haujlwm kuj tau pab txhawb rau lub xyoo pua kaum yim thiab tom qab ntawd. Vim lawv yog cov tsim cov tshiab tshiab:

  • Daniel defoe: Robinson Crusoe (1719). Nws yog ib zaj dab neeg uas paub zoo txog ib tug txiv neej uas siv sij hawm yuav luag 30 xyoo nyob rau hauv ib tug suab puam kob tom qab lub nkoj uas nws mus rau hauv yog shipwrecked.
  • Jonathan Swift: Gulliver Lub Taug Kev Mus (1726). Ib qho kev lom zem tshiab, lub teb chaws ntawm Lilliput, qhov chaw ua haujlwm thiab nws cov neeg nyob, Lilliputians, kuj muaj npe nrov heev.
  • Laurence Sterne: Vida thiab kev xav ntawm tus txiv neej yawg Tristram Shandy (1759) yog ib qho classic uas sawv cev rau cov txheej txheem piav qhia nws siv nrog kev sib tham sab hauv thiab cov lus nug tsis zoo.
  • Pierre Choderlos ntawm LaclosUa phooj ywg zoo (1782) yog ib qho tshiab epistolary.
  • Donatien Alphonse Francois de Sade, zoo dua lub npe hu ua Marquis de Sade: yog ib tus kws sau ntawv tsis sib haum xeeb txhua lub sijhawm. Nws lub npe tau ua haujlwm ntxiv rau lo lus tshiab rau hauv phau ntawv txhais lus, tu siab (adjective: sadistic), vim yog cov ntsiab lus tsis txaus ntseeg ntawm nws cov ntawv, nrog rau nws cov lus sib cav tag nrho ntawm perversions. Tab sis nws cov phau ntawv, txawm hais tias muaj teeb meem, nrog irony los yog tsis muaj nws, kuj sim nyob rau hauv lawv tus kheej txoj kev qhia tus nyeem ntawv. Lawv sawv tawm: Justine los yog hmoov phem ntawm kev tsim txiaj (1791), Philosophy ntawm lub rooj hnav khaub ncaws (1795) lossis Lub 120 hnub ntawm Sodom los yog lub tsev kawm ntawv ntawm debauchery sau nyob rau hauv 1785, tab sis luam tawm ntau xyoo tom qab.
Royal Academy Academy

Lub tsev hauv paus hauv Madrid ntawm Royal Spanish Academy.

Lub Enlightenment hauv Spain

Cov ntsiab lus ntawm kev nom kev tswv hauv Spain thaum lub sijhawm thib ob ntawm xyoo pua 1759th yog raws li nram no: Bourbon reigns ntawm Carlos III (1788-1788) thiab Carlos IV (1808-XNUMX). Absolutist monarchs nyob rau hauv uas nws regencies lub enlightened thiab kev vam meej lub tswv yim ntawm cov teb chaws Europe siab tshaj plaws tsis permeate nrog txaus quab yuam. Tsis zoo li hauv Fabkis, tsawg kawg. Hauv Spain, cov lus qhuab qhia tshaj plaws thiab kev ntseeg Catholic tau dhau los ua qhov kev xav thiab kev coj noj coj ua ntawm cov neeg Spanish., leej twg yeej tsis txhawb qhov kev hloov.

Peb yuav tsum tau tos kom txog rau thaum xyoo pua XNUMXth rau qhov tseeb abdication ntawm Carlos IV kom muaj qhov chaw, thiab kom muaj kev vam meej huab tais nyob rau hauv Spain nrog ib tug Fabkis kov, rau cov feem ntau refined Spanishs los ua Frenchified thiab rau txhua yam mus rau thaum kawg nyob rau hauv. kev ua tsov ua rog ntawm kev ywj pheej thiab rov qab los ntawm cov hlau tsis muaj zog tshaj plaws los ntawm txhais tes ntawm "Lub Siab", Fernando VII.

Rau lwm cov tes, Hauv kev coj noj coj ua, kev tsim ntawm Royal Spanish Academy (1713) sawv tawm, txij thaum ntawd los nws tau ua tus saib xyuas "kev tu, kho thiab muab kev zoo nkauj" rau peb cov lus., nrog rau Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando (1752), Academy of History (1738) lossis niaj hnub no National Museum of Natural Sciences, ntawm lwm lub koom haum tseem ceeb thiab muaj koob meej. Ib yam li ntawd, Lub Koom Haum Kev Lag Luam ntawm Cov Phooj Ywg ntawm Lub Tebchaws yog ib pab pawg neeg txawj ntse thiab txawj ntse tsim los ntawm qee cov nom tswv ntawm lub sijhawm thiab uas tau dhau los ntawm ntau theem, tab sis tsis tau tso tseg nws tus cwj pwm aristocratic.

Jovellanos los ntawm Goya

Painting ntawm GM de Jovellanos (1798), los ntawm Goya.

Cov kws sau ntawv Spanish ntawm xyoo pua XNUMXth

  • Fray Benito Jeronimo Feijoo (1676-1764). Ib tug yawg Benedictine, nws yog ib qho tseem ceeb rau kev sau ntawv thiab kev xav. Nws tej hauj lwm tseem ceeb tshaj plaws yog Universal Critical Theatre (1726) y Scholarly thiab Curious Letters (1742).
  • Gregory Mayans (1699-1781). Raws li ib tug paub txog keeb kwm, nws tseem ceeb heev nyob rau hauv keeb kwm sau ntawv thiab nws tej hauj lwm sawv tawm rau lawv nruj. Nws txoj haujlwm tseem ceeb tshaj plaws: Keeb kwm ntawm lus Spanish (1737).
  • Gaspar Melchor tsib Jovellanos (1744-1811). Ntxiv nrog rau kev sau ntawv ntau yam ntawm kev lag luam lossis kev ua liaj ua teb (tseem ceeb heev yog nws txoj haujlwm Daim Ntawv Tshaj Qhia Txoj Cai Agrarian), pab txhawb rau Spanish illustrated tam sim no ib tug classic comedy sau nyob rau hauv prose, Tus neeg siab tsis ncaj ncaj (1787), framed nyob rau hauv no refined ua yeeb yam ntawm lub Enlightenment.
  • Jose de Cadalso (1741-1782). Tus kws qhia lus Spanish zoo tshaj plaws ntawm xyoo pua XNUMXth. Lawv highlight lawv Cov Ntawv Npav Fas Las Oiv (1789), ib qho zoo heev treatise nyob rau hauv daim ntawv epistolary los ntawm tus tswv tsev Spanish thiab tus neeg txawv teb chaws zoo nkauj ntawm Moroccan keeb kwm uas sim kawm txog kev xav paub thiab qee yam kev cai ntawm Spanish. Nws tseem yog qhov tseem ceeb tsaus ntuj (1789-1790), ib zaj nkauj zoo nkauj thiab tu siab heev, txawm tias ze rau Spanish pre-romanticism.
  • Juan Melendez Valdes (1754-1814), tus neeg sawv cev zoo ntawm Spanish paj huam ntawm lub xyoo pua kaum yim.
  • Thomas ntawm Iriarte (1750-1791) thiab Felix Maria Samaniego (1745-1801) sawv cev rau pedagogical zaj dab neeg ntawm Spanish illustrated cov ntaub ntawv.
  • Leandro Fernandez tsib Moratin (1760-1828) yog tus kws sau ntawv tseem ceeb tshaj plaws ntawm lub xyoo pua XNUMXth hauv Spain. Nws comedies sawv tawm Tus laus thiab tus ntxhais (1790), Yog lawm ntawm cov ntxhais (1805), ib tus tshiab comedy (1792)

Cov ntsiab lus ntawm tsab xov xwm ua raws li peb cov ntsiab cai ntawm kev tswj hwm kev ncaj nceesCov. Tshaj tawm ib qho yuam kev nyem no.

2 lus, tawm koj li

Tso koj saib

Koj email chaw nyob yuav tsis tsum luam tawm.

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  1. Lub luag haujlwm rau cov ntaub ntawv: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Lub hom phiaj ntawm cov ntaub ntawv: Tswj SPAM, kev tswj xyuas tawm tswv yim.
  3. Sau raws cai: Koj kev tso cai
  4. Kev sib txuas lus ntawm cov ntaub ntawv: Cov ntaub ntawv yuav tsis raug xa mus rau lwm tus neeg thib peb tsuas yog los ntawm kev txiav txim siab raug cai.
  5. Cov ntaub ntawv khaws cia: Cov Ntaub Ntawv khaws tseg los ntawm Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Txoj Cai: Txhua lub sijhawm koj tuaj yeem txwv, rov qab thiab tshem tawm koj cov ntaub ntawv.

  1.   Vladimir Portela: koj puas xav tau ntau tus thwjtim? said

    Ua tiav overrated. Lub sijhawm ntawd nws tsis tau paub tias kev txawj ntse (iq) feem ntau faib. Vim li no, niaj hnub no peb paub tias nws yog ib pab pawg neeg Fabkis txoj nerds uas xav tias dhau los ntawm kev xam pom lub neej zoo dua tuaj yeem ua tau. Cia peb ua kev zoo siab hnub no qhov peb paub tias tsis yog li ntawd. Peb Hispanics tsis muaj Teeb. Qhov ntawd yog imported trinkets.
    Txhob ntseeg Fab Kis. Tsis txhob.

    1.    Belen Martin said

      Nyob zoo Vladimir! Ua tsaug rau koj cov lus pom. Qhov tseeb tiag, kuv tau sim tshaj tawm cov lus hais tias Txoj Kev Txawj Ntse tsis yog kev txav mus los rau txhua tus thiab qhov ntawd, zoo li txhua yam, nws tuaj yeem ua tau zoo dua. Tsis tas li ntawd, Lub Teeb hauv Latin America tau dim heev! Tau kawg. Txhua yam zoo tshaj plaws.