ʻO Yerma

ʻO Yerma.

ʻO Yerma.

ʻO Yerma komo pū me Kaha male (1933) a ʻO ko Bernarda Alba hale (1936) ka "Lorca trilogy" kaulana. Hoʻokuʻu ʻia ma 1934, ua kapa ʻia ia ma ke ʻano he keu o ka hale kiʻiʻoniʻoni na Federico García Lorca, - malia paha - ʻo ka mea kākau Sepania koʻikoʻi o ka XNUMX kenekulia

Kūkulu ʻia i ʻekolu mau hana o ʻelua mau papa i kēlā me kēia, manaʻo ʻia he ʻāpana pōkole ia. Eia nō naʻe, he 90 mau minuke ka lōʻihi o ke kau ʻana. ʻO ke kumuhana: kahi pōpilikia kaiāulu (ʻano nui i Latin America i nā makahiki 1930). Hoʻohana Sublimely e ka mea pāʻani keaka hānau Granada e hōʻike iā ia iho ma Sepania a me ka hapa nui o Latin America.

ʻO Federico García Lorca, ka mea kākau

Ua hānau ʻia ʻo ia i 1898 ma Fuente Vaqueros, Granada. Keiki o kahi ʻohana waiwai, i ʻae iā ia e ulu i waenakonu o ka māla me ka ʻole o ka kuleana e mahi ai i mea e ola ai. Ua hānai kona makuahine i loko ona i kahi ʻono no nā puke - a me nā hana noʻeau āpau - mai ka wā ʻōpio. No laila, kūpono ia i ka wā ʻōpio lawelawe ʻo ia me kahi pae hoʻohālikelike aesthetic i hana maikaʻi ʻia. Kaha male he laʻana akaka o ia.

Ka hanauna o '27

Huhū ʻia e ka luhi moʻomeheu o ka panalāʻau, hoʻokele e hele i Madrid me ka pahuhopu o ka hoʻomau ʻana i kāna aʻo aʻo ma ka Student Student. ʻO ke kahua i nīnau ʻia he kula hanohano loa ia, kipa pinepine ʻia e ka poʻe kaulana a me nā ʻepekema e like me Albert Einstein lāua ʻo Marie Curie.

Federico Garcia Lorca.

Federico Garcia Lorca.

Ma laila ʻo ia i lilo ai i mau hoaaloha pili loa me Salvador Dalí a me Luis Buñuel, i waena o nā kiʻi ʻē aʻe o ka kaulana aupuni a me ka honua.. Ma kēia ala, ua hoʻokumu ʻia kahi nohona bohemian kūpono a me ka ʻike no ka hoʻomohala piha ʻana i kahi kanaka e like me ka hana a García Lorca. Hoʻopuni ʻia e nā mea pena kiʻi kūikawā; kahi set i iho i lalo i ka mōʻaukala ma lalo o ka inoa o ka hanauna o 27.

ʻO kahi ola i kahakaha ʻia e ka fascism

Akā ʻo ka makahiki ʻehā o ke kenekulia iwakālua, ʻoiai ua lawelawe ia no ka puka ʻana o ka maikaʻi o kā Lorca hana, ʻo ia kekahi o nā manawa pōuliuli loa ma Sepania. No ke Kaua Kivila Sepania i alakaʻi ʻia ai ka mana o Francisco Franco. ʻOiai Lorca ʻaʻole i pili pū me kekahi kumu politika a i hoʻokae ʻē ʻia paha i nā hoaaloha no nā kumumanaʻo ideological, ua ʻike ʻia he hoʻoweliweli.

I mua o kēia kūlana, ua hāʻawi nā ʻelele o Colombia a me Mekiko iā ia i puʻuhonua, eia naʻe, ʻaʻole ia i ʻae. I Iulai 1936 ua hopu ʻia ʻo ia a ua manaʻo ʻia ua kī ʻia ʻo ia i ke kakahiaka o ʻAukake 18 (ʻaʻole ʻike maopopo ʻia ka lā). I waena o nā mea ʻē aʻe, ua hoʻopiʻi ʻia ʻo ia no ka moekolohe.

ʻO Yerma, nā mele ma ka lawelawe ʻana i kahi pōʻino

Inā kū kūleʻa nā keaka ʻo García Lorca i kekahi mea, no ko lākou hāpai ʻana i ka poetic. ʻO nā kamaʻilio, me ke mele - he nui nā mele gipo e lawelawe ma ke ʻano he ʻenekini o kēia hana - hoʻonohonoho i ka wikiwiki. Y, like me ke koena o ka trilogy, ka hoʻomaka o ʻO Yerma he ʻāpana (a kahi ʻano) piha i ka manaʻolana. Akā ʻo ka hōʻiliʻili ʻana o nā ukiuki ka hopena o ka lilo ʻana i kona ola i mea hiamoe maoli.

ʻO kēia iho vertiginous i ka ʻuhane o kāna protagonist māka i ka ulu ʻana o ka hana. Kahi mea hou aʻe, ʻoiai ke alakaʻi ʻia nei ka ʻōlelo e ka ulia pōpilikia, ʻike ka hana i nā hakakā kūlike i ka nohona Sepania. Me ka lilo ʻole o kahi manifesto reactary, mālama ia i ka nui o ke kaupaona kikoʻī i (nā mea nānā) e hala iā lākou me ka ʻike ʻole.

Ke paio

ʻO Yerma, ka wahine protagonist ka wahine a kona makuakāne i kau ai i ka male me Juan, kahi kāne āna e makemake ʻole ai. Eia naʻe, ʻaʻole ia e kūʻē. Mahele ʻokoʻa ʻoiai he kanaka kū pololei a pololei ʻo ia, pili i ke ʻano o ka ʻoiaʻiʻo. Eia hou, ʻike ʻo ia i loko o kēia male i ke ala e hoʻokō ai i kāna kumu hohonu loa: he makuahine.

Akā ʻo ka pā (no laila, me ka hua mua o nā hua liʻiliʻi) kahi huaʻōlelo i hoʻohana ʻia e ʻike ai i kahi mea infertile a maloʻo paha. No laila, hala ka manawa ... Yerma, ʻAʻole hiki i ka mea hoʻokūkū ke hāpai. Pau kou makemake e lilo i kahi obsession a laila hoʻopau i ka hoʻokuʻu ʻana i ka pōʻino hope loa. ʻO ka hoʻohewa ʻana i kahi ao ʻōlohelohe a me kahi mehameha.

Mai ka machismo, nā kuʻina kaiāulu a me (nele o) ka hana

Sepania Kūlapa kahi i hoʻonohonoho ʻia ai macho loa ka ʻāpana. ʻO Juan, ke kāne a Yerma, hōʻike pololei i kēlā. ʻO ke kāne i hoʻokaumaha ʻole me ka hōʻeha ʻole i kāna "wahine". Ma muli wale nō o ke ʻano o ka hana. I ka manawa like he machismo ia i paipai ʻia a hoʻāpono ʻia e nā wahine ponoʻī.

Nā huaʻōlelo na Federico García Lorca.

Nā huaʻōlelo na Federico García Lorca.

Eia kekahi, i loko o nā kuʻikahi kaiāulu i ʻae ʻia, ʻo ka kuleana nui o kēlā me kēia wahine ke lawelawe a hānau hānau, a i ʻole, hoʻowahāwahā ʻia ʻo ia. Akā ʻO Juan ka ʻoluʻolu o kahi noho maluhia a me ka nele o nā keiki i haʻalele iā ia me ka hana ʻole. ʻO ia, me ka ʻole o ke kuko maoli i ke ola. ʻO kēia apathy e alakaʻi i kahi hoʻokaumaha i ka protagonist, nāna e sila i kona hopena.

Hoʻohanohano mua, a laila ke koena

Aia ke kolu o ke ʻano ma waena o ka hakakā; Lanakila kona inoa. He hoa aloha ʻo ia no Yerma mai ko lākou wā kamaliʻi. Pēlā nō, ʻo ia kekahi o nā limahana o Juan. Ua aloha mau loa ʻo Victor lāua ʻo Yerma. ʻO ke kū wale o kēia ʻano e hoʻonāukiuki i kona mau manaʻo āna i ʻike ʻole ai me kāna kāne. ʻAʻole i nā manawa o ka pili aloha.

ʻIke ka poʻe āpau i ke kaona ma waena o Victor a me Yerma. ʻO ka mea ʻino loa: ʻoiai no ka hanohano a me ke kūpaʻa haʻalele lākou i ko lākou aloha, hoʻomaka ka wahine e hawanawana e pili ana i kahi kumakaia hope loa. A laila, ʻaʻohe mea nui nā ʻōlelo a nā mea i hōʻike ʻia ... ua kanu ʻia ka ʻanoʻano kānalua.

ʻO kekahi hōʻike o ke kūpaʻa

I ke kolu o ka hana, kokoke i ka hopena o ka pāʻani, loaʻa iā Yerma kahi manawa e holo aku ai me kahi kāne ʻē aʻe - stocky, hana nui, i ke olakino maikaʻi - nāna e hiki ke hāʻawi iā ia i nā mea āpau āna e makemake ai. Ma waho o ka home a me ka palekana, ke keiki i makemake nui ʻia. Hāʻawi ka makana i kahi huakaʻi huakaʻi, mai ka waha o "ka luahine" (poʻo inoa i hoʻohana ʻia e García Lorca e hoʻomaopopo i ka makuahine o ka moho hou).

Akā ʻaʻole kūlou ʻo Yerma, kūpaʻa mau i kāna mau kumumanaʻo a pili pū me kāna pono. Makemake ʻo ia e loaʻa kahi keiki, ʻo kāna kāne wale nō. ʻO ke kāne i male iā ia a me ka mea āna e kaʻana like ai i kāna moena pili ... inā ʻaʻole hiki i kona ʻaoʻao ke hanu, ʻaʻole ia he pili iā ia.

ʻO ka hopena o Yerma

ʻO ka hiʻohiʻona hope loa o kēia ʻāpana kekahi o nā manawa hiʻohiʻona loa i ka hana keaka Paniolo. Pepehi ka mea protagonist i kāna kāne ma ke ʻoki ʻana iā ia i kāna hoʻāʻo ʻana e loaʻa iā ia. He kipi o ka mea i hoʻokaumaha ʻia i nā mea hoʻokaumaha, ʻaʻole ka hopena ka mea i makemake ʻia.

ʻO ke kaʻina o Yerma e walaʻau nei ma ke kahua ʻo ia iā ia iho i pepehi i kāna keiki (no ka mea me kāna kāne wale nō hiki iā ia ke loaʻa iā ia) he poina ʻole ia no nā poʻe a pau i hele i kahi hana. Ka pōpilikia ma kona ʻano maʻemaʻe loa. Me ka mana i hiki i nā mele wale nō i ka ʻōlelo Sepania ke paʻi. Sublime a ʻeha hoʻi i ke ana like.


Hoʻopili ka ʻike o ka ʻatikala i kā mākou kumumanaʻo o ka hoʻoponopono hoʻoponopono. E hōʻike i kahi kaomi hemahema ʻaneʻi.

E lilo i mea mua e wehewehe

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  1. He kuleana no ka ʻikepili: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Ke kumu o ka ʻikepili: kaohi SPAM, hoʻokele ʻōlelo.
  3. Legitimation: Kou ʻae
  4. Ka kamaʻilio ʻana o ka ʻikepili: ʻaʻole e hōʻike ʻia ka ʻikepili i nā ʻaoʻao ʻekolu koe ka mana o ke kānāwai.
  5. Pūnaewele mālama: Pūnaewele i mālama ʻia e Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Nā Kuleana: I kēlā me kēia manawa hiki iā ʻoe ke palena, hoʻōla a kāpae i kāu ʻike.