Nā mea kākau Kile o kēia wā

ʻO Metonymy i nā mele a Gabriela Mistral.

ʻO Metonymy i nā mele a Gabriela Mistral.

Ua haʻalele ka hapa nui o nā mea kākau Kile o kēia wā i kahi waiwai nui ma nā palapala honua. I nā kenekulia ʻelua i hala, ua ʻike kēia ʻāina Lākina ʻAmelika i ka hānau ʻana o nā mea kākau nui, i ʻike nui ʻia ma ka honua. Ua loaʻa i kekahi o lākou nā makana nui, e like me ka Nobel Prize, a Gabriela Mistral lāua ʻo Pablo Neruda i loaʻa ai ka hanohano o ka loaʻa ʻana.

Ma o nā ʻano palapala like ʻole, Ua hiki i kēia mau mea kākau ke hoʻopio aku i nā miliona o ka poʻe heluhelu a puni ka honua. Hana e like me: Nā mākaʻi hihiu (Roberto Bolaño) a Iwakālua aloha i nā mele a me kahi mele desperate (Pablo Neruda) he ʻāpana wale nō lākou o ka repertoire o ka hoʻoilina nui loa. A laila, e hōʻike ʻia kahi ʻāpana o nā mea i manaʻo ʻia ʻo nā mea kākau Kile me ka hopena nui loa o ka honua.

Gabriela Mistral

Ua hānau ʻia ʻo Lucila de María del Perpetuo Socorro Godoy Alcayaga ma ka lā 7 ʻApelila 1889 ma ke kūlanakauhale ʻo Vicuña (ka moku ʻo Elqui, Chile). Ua hele mai ia mai kahi ʻohana haʻahaʻa, me nā kūpuna Sepania a me Basque. Ua lilo kona wā kamaliʻi i nā wahi like ʻole ma ka panalāʻau ʻo Elqui, ʻoiai ʻo Montegrande ia i noʻonoʻo ai i kona ʻāina hānau.

Me ka loaʻa ʻole o ka ʻimi naʻau ʻoihana, mai ka makahiki 1904 ua hana ʻo ia ma ke ʻano he kumu, ma ka Escuela de la Compañía Baja, a laila ma La Cantera a me Los Cerritos.. Ma 1910 ua ʻike ʻia kona ʻike a me kona ʻike e ka Normal School No. 1 o Santiago, kahi i loaʻa ai iā ia ke poʻo inoa o Professor State.

E like me kāna mau hana aʻo, ua kākau ʻo ia no nā nūpepa ʻO Coquimbo a iloko Ka Leo o Elqui o Vicuña. Mai ka makahiki 1908 ua hoʻohana ʻo ia i ka inoa pseudonym Gabriela Mistral, hoʻohana ʻia no ka manawa mua i ka mele "Ka hala". Ua hele mai kāna ʻike koʻikoʻi mua Nā sonnets o ka make, me kahi mea i loaʻa i ka mea kākau Kile ka makana o ka Pāʻani Floral (1914).

I kāna huakaʻi, Ua hana ʻo Mistral i mau mele he haneli, i hoʻopili ʻia i nā ʻano hui like ʻole. Pākuʻi ʻia kēia mau mea: Neoneo (1922), Kālā (1938) a ʻO ke kikowaena (1954). Pēlā nō, ua hoʻokaʻawale ʻia ka mea kākau me nā laurela koʻikoʻi, e like me: ka Nobel Prize for Literature (1945) a me ka National Prize for Literature of Chile (1951). Ua make ʻo Mistral ma New York no ka maʻi ʻaʻai pancreatic ma Ianuali 10, 1957.

Pablo Neruda

ʻO Ricardo Eliécer Neftalí Reyes Basoalto i hiki mai i kēia ao i ka lā 12 o Iulai 1904. ʻO kona ʻāina hānau ʻo Parral, ma ka moku Maule, Chile. ʻO ia ke keiki a José del Carmen Reyes Morales lāua ʻo Rosa Neftalí Basoalto Opazo. Ua make kona makuahine i ka maʻi puʻu i hoʻokahi mahina ma hope o ka hānau ʻana o ka haku mele. Pablo Neruda —Aa kapa ʻo ia iā ia iho ma hope iho— Ua noho ʻo ia ma Temuco mai kona wā kamaliʻi a hiki i kona wā ʻōpio. I loko o kēlā kūlanakauhale ua hana ʻo ia i kāna mau aʻo mua ʻana, a ʻo kēia, ma hope, ka mea i hoʻoulu ʻia no ka nui o kāna mau hana mele.

ʻO kāu ʻatikala mua, ʻO ka hoihoi a me ka hoʻomanawanui (1917), i paʻi ʻia ma ka nūpepa Ke Alaula o Temuco. I ʻelua mau makahiki ma hope mai, ua launa ʻo ia me ka haku mele ʻo Gabriela Mistral, nāna i hoʻolauna iā ia i ka heluhelu ʻana a paipai iā ia e hānai iā ia iho me nā hana a nā mea kākau Lūkini kaulana. Mai ka 1921 ua kau inoa ʻo ia i kāna mau hana ma ke ʻano ʻo Pablo Neruda, ʻoiai ʻaʻole ia a hiki i ka 1946 ke hoʻolaha ʻia kēia ma kona ʻano kū kānāwai.

I ka makahiki 1924 ua paʻi ʻo ia i ka hōʻiliʻili o nā mele e hoʻōla iā ia i kaulana: Iwakālua aloha i nā mele a me kahi mele desperate. Mai laila mai, Ua hōʻike ʻo ia ma mua o 40 mau hana i kona wā e ola ana a he 20 mau hana posthumous. I kāna ʻoihana, ua hāʻawi ʻia ʻo Neruda i nā manawa he nui, i waena o lākou e kū nei i waho: ka National Prize for Literature of Chile (1945), ka Lenin Peace Prize (1966) a me ka Nobel Prize for Literature (1971).

Quote na Pablo Neruda.

Quote na Pablo Neruda.

Ua male ʻia ʻo Neruda ʻekolu mau manawa. ʻO kāna kaikamahine hoʻokahi, ʻo Malva Marina Trinidad, i hānau ʻia mai kāna male mua, a ua make ʻo ia i 8 mau makahiki ma muli o ka hydrocephalus. Ua hala nā lā hope loa o ko Pablo Neruda ola ma Santiago, kahi i make ai ma Kepakemapa 23, 1973. mai ka maʻi ʻaʻai prostate holomua.

Roberto Bolaño

Ua hānau ʻia ʻo Roberto Bolaño ma ka lā 28 ʻApelila 1953 ma Santiago de Chile. Ua lilo kona wā kamaliʻi ma waena o Valparaíso, Viña del Mar a me ke kaona ʻo Los ángeles, kahi i hoʻopau ai ʻo ia i kāna aʻo mua. Ma ka makahiki 15 ua neʻe ʻo ia me kona ʻohana i Mekiko. I ka ʻāina Aztec ua hoʻomau ʻo ia me kāna mau haʻawina ʻelua, kahi āna i waiho ai i hoʻokahi makahiki ma hope e hoʻolaʻa iā ia iho i ka heluhelu a me ke kākau ʻana.

Ma Mexico City, Ua hui ʻo Bolaño i ka haku mele ʻo Mario Santiago a me nā mea kākau ʻōpio ʻē aʻe. Ua kaʻanalike ka hui i nā hoihoi moʻokalaleo, no laila, ʻuʻuku a pili loa lākou. Mai kēia aloha ua hānau ʻia ka neʻe poetic o infrarealism, hoʻokumu ʻia ma 1975. I hoʻokahi makahiki ma hope mai, ua hoʻopuka ʻo Roberto i ka hana Aloha hou. ʻO kēia hōʻiliʻili o nā mele ka mea mua o nā ʻeono āna i hōʻike ai i loko o kāna ʻoihana, a me ʻelua mau mana mana. ʻO kāna mau puke pū kekahi: Nā ʻīlio pilialoha (1993), Ekolu (2000) a Ke Kulanui Unknown (2007).

ʻO kāna puke mua, 'Lelo aʻoaʻo mai kahi haumāna Morrison i kahi mea pākani Joyce (1984), ua hāʻawi ʻia ka makana Field Literary. Eia nō naʻe, a me kāna ʻoihana lōʻihi, ʻo ka hana i catapult i kēia mea kākau e kaulana ʻo ia kāna ono o ka paʻi ʻana. Nā mākaʻi hihiu (1998). Ua hoʻolilo kēia puke iā ia i mea lanakila i ka makana Herralde de Novela (1998) -ʻo Kili mua ka mea i loaʻa- a me ka makana ʻo Rómulo Gallegos (1999).

Ua make ʻo Roberto Bolaño i ka makahiki 50 ma Barcelona (Sepania), ma Iulai 15, 2003, ma hope o ka ʻeha ʻana i ka ʻeha o ka ate no kekahi manawa lōʻihi. Ua waiho ka mea kākau Kile i nā puke he nui i hoʻopau ʻole ʻia, i paʻi ʻia i mau makahiki ma hope o kona make ʻana. Ua puka mai kahi mea nui mai loko mai o kēlā hōʻuluʻulu, ka puke 2666 (2004), a ua lanakila ʻo ia i nā makana nui e like me: Salambó, Ciudad de Barcelona a me Altazor.

Alejandra Costamagna

Ua hele mai ʻo Alejandra Costamagna Crivell i ka honua ma Malaki 23, 1970, ma Santiago de Chile. Mai kona wā liʻiliʻi, makemake ʻo ia e kākau, akā ʻaʻole ia a hiki i kona mau makahiki ʻōpio ʻoi aku kona koʻikoʻi i ka hana. Nui nā mea a kāna kumu ʻo Guillermo Gómez e pili ana i kēia kuko. I kēlā manawa o kona ola ua hoʻomaka ʻo ia e heluhelu iā Mistral, Neruda, Shakespeare lāua ʻo Nicanor Parra; ua lilo nā mea āpau i mea nui loa iā ia.

Ua aʻo ʻo Costamagna i ka puke pai ma ke Kulanui ʻo Diego Portales. Ma hope o kekahi manawa, ua pau kāna kekelē laeoʻo ma ka palapala ma kēia pā kula like. I loko o kāna ʻoihana, ua hoʻolaʻa ʻo ia iā ia iho i ke aʻo ʻana i nā hālāwai aʻo moʻokalaleo, a ua hana pū ʻo ia ma ke ʻano he hoʻoponopono, mea haʻi ʻōlelo keaka a me ka mea kākau moʻolelo no kekahi mau makasina lāhui.

Ma ke ʻano he mea kākau, ua hōʻike ʻo ia i kāna hana mua ma 1996, Mālie, i loaʻa nā ʻōlelo maikaʻi loa a lanakila i ka makana ʻo Gabriela Mistral Literary Games (1996). ʻO Costamagna ua hōʻike i nā puke moʻolelo kūleʻa, e like me: Nā pō maikaʻi ʻole (2000), Nā ahi hope loa (2005), a Nā holoholona home (2011). Ua hoʻokomo kekahi mau loiloi i kekahi o kāna mau hana i ka mea i kapa ʻia Palapala a nā keiki.

ʻO Alberto fuguet

Ua ʻike ʻo Santiago de Chile i ka hānau ʻana o Alberto Felipe Fuguet de Goyeneche ma Malaki 7, 1964. Ua lilo kona wā kamaliʻi i United States, a ʻaʻole ia a hiki i ka makahiki 1975 i kona hoʻi ʻana i kona ʻāina hānau. Ua kaupalena ʻia e ka ʻōlelo, ua hoʻomaka ka mea kākau e hiki mai ana e heluhelu i nā puke ma Sepania e hoʻomaʻamaʻa iā ia iho me kāna ʻōlelo makuahine. ʻLelo ʻia kēlā Mea kākau na Marcela Paz i hoʻohua nui ma luna ona, kahi e ʻike ʻia ai i loko o kāna puke mua.

Ua aʻo ʻo ia ma ke Kulanui o Chile. ʻO kāna koho mua loa he ʻoihana i ka sociology, āna i aʻo ai no hoʻokahi makahiki, eia naʻe, a laila hoʻololi ʻo ia i ka journalism, a puka mai ʻo ia mai luna mai a lilo i hoʻokahi o kāna mau kuko. Ma waho o kāna hana ma ke ʻano he mea kākau, ua kūkulu ʻo ia i kahi ʻoihana i ʻike ʻia ma ke ʻano he kolamu, kākau moʻolelo, kākau kākau moʻolelo, mea hoʻokani pila mele a me nā kiʻi ʻoniʻoni. Hoʻomaopopo ʻia ia ma muli o kāna mana i nā mea kākau o kēia au, no ka pili ʻana i nā palapala moʻomeheu a me nā kaona.

I ka makahiki 1990 ua hōʻike ʻo ia i kāna moʻolelo mua, Hoʻopiʻi loa, a ua lanakila 'o ia i ka makana kulanakauhale no ka palapala o Santiago. I ka makahiki aʻe ua paʻi ʻo ia i ka puke i alakaʻi iā ia i ka kūleʻa. Nalu ʻino. Hoʻolālā pū kāna hana: Inika ʻulaʻula, puke i hoʻololi ʻia no ke kinima i 2000. I ʻekolu mau makahiki ma hope mai, ua hoʻokuʻu ʻo ia i kahi semi-autobiography i kapa ʻia ʻO nā kiʻi ʻoniʻoni o koʻu ola, kāna mau puke hou loa: Niʻole wale (2015) a Hoʻoulu (2016).


Hoʻopili ka ʻike o ka ʻatikala i kā mākou kumumanaʻo o ka hoʻoponopono hoʻoponopono. E hōʻike i kahi kaomi hemahema ʻaneʻi.

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  1. He kuleana no ka ʻikepili: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Ke kumu o ka ʻikepili: kaohi SPAM, hoʻokele ʻōlelo.
  3. Legitimation: Kou ʻae
  4. Ka kamaʻilio ʻana o ka ʻikepili: ʻaʻole e hōʻike ʻia ka ʻikepili i nā ʻaoʻao ʻekolu koe ka mana o ke kānāwai.
  5. Pūnaewele mālama: Pūnaewele i mālama ʻia e Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Nā Kuleana: I kēlā me kēia manawa hiki iā ʻoe ke palena, hoʻōla a kāpae i kāu ʻike.