Nā Kāleka Moroccan

Nā leka Moroccan.

Nā leka Moroccan.

ʻO Cartas marruecas kahi puke moʻolelo epistolary i kākau ʻia e ka mea kākau Sepania a me ke koa koa José Cadalso. Paʻi ʻia ma 1789, ʻo ia kekahi o nā kia hoʻomanaʻo nui o nā puke Iberian o ke kenekulia XNUMX. Pēlā nō, ua ʻike ʻia kēia hana no ka hoʻomohala ʻana i kāna moʻolelo kumu a wiwo ʻole hoʻi, e waiho ana ma hope o nā hiʻohiʻona o kona wā.

ʻO kaʻoiaʻiʻo, pili ka poʻe ʻepekema he nui i kāna mau laina, i piha i ka prose modernist, a ma mua hoʻi o ko lākou manawa. Hana ʻia ka mea like me ka moʻolelo, e pili ana i ka hoʻololi o nā leka (90 i ka huina) ma waena o ʻekolu mau moʻolelo fiction. ʻOiai ke hōʻike nei ka paio i kahi kālailai ʻole pahuhopu, he kuanaʻike kūpono loa ia i ke kūlana o Sepania i kēlā manawa.

ʻO ka mea kākau, José Cadalso

ʻO kahi ola kūpono i kahi puke a me kahi kiʻi ʻoniʻoni

Ua hānau ʻia ʻo José Cadalso y Vásquez de Andrade ma Cádiz, Andalusia, ma ʻOkakopa 8, 1741. ʻO ke kaumaha, ua make kona makuahine i ka wā hānau hānau a ua hālāwai kona makuakāne iā ia i kona manawa he 13 mau makahiki.. He kanaka kālepa waiwai kēia me nā hoihoi i ʻAmelika, hana nui ʻole e hele i ka ʻAkelanika a kanu i kāna wahine a mālama paha i kāna keiki.

ʻO ka makuakāne Jesuit ʻo Mateo Vásquez, ka ʻanakala a ka ʻēheu makuahine, iā ia ma lalo o kāna mālama ʻana i ka wā kamaliʻi. Ma hope, ua neʻe ʻo ia i Palisa e hoʻomau i kāna aʻo ʻana (i ke kapikala Farani ua hui ʻo ia me kona makuakāne). Ma hope, Ua mākaʻikaʻi ʻo ia i nā Netherlands, ʻItalia a me nā panalāʻau Kelemania, a hiki i kona noho ʻana me kona makuakāne ma Ladana.

He kāne "no ke ao"

ʻO nā huakaʻi hele ma waena o kekahi o nā kūlanakauhale nui o ʻEulopa i hāʻawi iā Cadalso i kahi hihi honua o ke ola. Eia hou, ua ʻike ʻo ia i ka mea mua i ka zenith o ka manaʻo mālamalama. No laila, ua lilo ʻo Iosepa ʻōpio i kanaka noʻonoʻo.

ʻO kēia laina "holomua" i lawe i nā hakakā koʻikoʻi me kona makuakāne.. No ka mea - e like me ke koena o Sepania - ua ʻapo kona makuakāne i nā mana "consla" conservative loa. ʻO ka mea i loaʻa ka ʻike i loaʻa ka ʻike.

Me kahi hana a ka Jesuit?

ʻO ka hakakā mua ma waena o ka makuakāne a me kāna keikikāne ma muli o ke kauoha o ka mua no kāna mau keiki e aʻo ma Seminario de Nobles de Madrid. He hale ia nona ka nuʻukia e hoʻomākaukau i ka poʻe ʻōpio no nā hana bureaucratic, kahi mamao loa mai nā hana noʻeau a me ka hana.

I mea e pakele ai i kēia "hoʻopaʻi", ua hoʻohālikelike ʻo Cadalso e hoihoi i ka hoʻomaʻamaʻa ʻana ma ke ʻano he kahuna pule Jesuit. ʻOiaʻiʻo, he ruse ia; ua hōʻole kona makuakāne i kēia ʻaoʻao haipule a hoʻihoʻi iā ia i ka "mālamalama." No laila, ua ola ʻo ia i kahi pae ʻelua i hoʻokumu ʻia ma ke "kūlanakauhale o ke aloha." Eia kekahi, ua huakaʻi ʻo ia i ka ʻāina e aʻo i nā ʻōlelo ola a me ka Lākina (kahi ʻōlelo i aneane e hoʻohana ʻia i kēlā mau makahiki).

Pau o idyll

ʻO José Cadalso.

ʻO José Cadalso.

ʻO ka make ʻana o kona makuakāne ma 1761, ke 21 makahiki o ke kanaka ʻōpio kiʻi ʻia, he "kāhea i ka Honua". Ua hoʻi ʻo ia i Sepania e ʻike i nā nūhou pīhoihoi: ua nalowale ka waiwai kahiko o kona makuakāne ... Me ka hoʻoilina ʻole, ua hoʻoholo ʻo ia e hui pū me ka pūʻali koa. ʻO kēia kona makemake i kona wā ʻōpio, vetoed i ka manawa mua e kona makuakāne (ʻaʻole ʻo ia i launa pū me nā kāne ma ka lima pū kekahi).

Mai ia manawa ua hui ʻo ia i nā aloha aloha me kāna hana moʻokalaleo a me nā ʻoihana koa. Ma muli o ka hope, Ua make premal ʻo Cadalso i ka makahiki 1782, i loaʻa i ka ʻāpana o ka grenade nāna i hahau iā ia i loko o ka luakini ʻoiai e hakakā ana i ka hana a Gibraltar.

Ka'ikepili o Nā leka Moroccan

Hiki iā ʻoe ke kūʻai i ka puke ma aneʻi: Nā leka Moroccan

Kuhi

Nā Po Pouli y Nā leka Moroccan pani i ka ole plus ultra ma loko o ka moʻomeheu moʻomeheu a José Cadalso. Ma muli o nā kūlana i hōʻike ʻia i ka paukū i hala, ua paʻi ʻia nā hana ʻelua ma ka posthumous a ma nā hoʻoili kālā. ʻO ka pou o ka makapō ʻO de Madrid ka mea i mālama ʻia i ka hōʻike ʻana i kēia mau hana koʻikoʻi i ka honua.

ʻO ke kolonela - ua loaʻa iā ia kēia mau lā kūlana ma mua o kona make ʻana - hana i kāna puke epistolary kaulana ma waena o 1773 a me 1774. Eia nō naʻe. ʻAʻole i hiki iā ia ke lanakila i ka censorship conservative o kēlā manawa a, no laila, ʻaʻohe ona manawa e hauʻoli ai i kāna kūleʻa i ke ola.

Nā ʻōlelo disruptive

Ma hope o ka nui o ka Spanish Golden Age, ma hope ua komo nā puke ʻōlelo Sepania i kahi pothole i haʻi ʻia.. Ma hope o ke akamai o nā mea kākau e like me Lope de Vega, Pedro Calderón de la Barca, Francisco de Quevedo, Tirso de Molina a i ʻole Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz (i ​​waena o nā poʻe ʻē aʻe), he "kūlohelohe" ia ke kahua aʻe i ʻike ʻia ma ke ʻano he "kū ”.

Eia naʻe, Nā leka Moroccan lawelawe ma ke ʻano noi ʻē e hoʻokau hou i nā leka Sepania. Mahalo i kahi hui maikaʻi ʻano epistolary hou wehewehe, me ka maalea loa o ka prose, piha i nā kiʻi moʻolelo.

Nā hāmeʻe

ʻO Gazel ka mea hoʻokūkū, kahi ʻōpio Moroccan mai kahi ʻohana maikaʻi i hōʻea mai i Sepania i ka wā hoʻomaha.. Kūpono ʻo ia i nā kūlana āpau āna e nānā pono ai a me ka hoʻoikaika ʻana e hoʻohoka ʻole ʻia e nā hoʻokolokolo mua. ʻO kēia hana ma muli o ka hapa nui i kāna kumu, ʻo Ben Beley, ka mea āna i mālama ai i nā ʻike āpau.

Quote na José Cadalso.

Quote na José Cadalso.

No kēia kumu, haʻaheo loa ʻo Beley i kā mentee hana e kūleʻa ai i nā manaʻo superficial a i manaʻo mua ʻole ʻia paha. Ma ka lima 'ē aʻe, ʻO Nuño, kahi Paniolo waena waena, hoʻopau i ka trident o nā mea hoʻouna a me nā mea lawe leka. ʻO kēia ke ʻano o ke kūlana holomua o ka mea kākau, kahi mea aloha nui i ka ʻoiaʻiʻo, me ka hilinaʻi liʻiliʻi i kona mau kamaʻāina, akā ʻo ka mea pale ʻole i ka ʻāina.

ʻO ka censorship

ʻO ka mea kākau Andalusian ʻaʻole hiki iā ia ke ʻike i kāna hana i paʻi ʻia i kona wā e ola ana ma ke ʻano he hopena o ka loiloi koʻikoʻi o ke kaiāulu Iberian i hōʻike ʻia i kekahi mau paukū o Nā leka Moroccan. Ma hope o ka noho ʻana ma Palisa a me Lākana, a me ka ʻike maka maka ʻana i ka holomua o ka noʻonoʻo kanaka ma nā kaiāulu ʻItalia a me Kelemania, ua ʻaneʻane ʻino ka hoʻi ʻana i Sepania.

ʻO ka hoʻopili ʻana o ka lāhui Iberia i nā manaʻo i hala - a ʻoi aku i ka ʻaneʻane o ʻEulopa āpau - ʻo ia ka mea hoʻonāukiuki loa no Cadalso. ʻAʻole ia he mea kupanaha, ua hoʻokumu kēia kūlana iā ia e hakakā me kona makuakāne (hoʻolele ʻia i waenakonu o kāna "epistles essay"). Pēlā nō, kahi manaʻo i hoʻowahāwahā ʻia e nā ʻāpana conservative a me nā kuʻuna kuʻuna, ʻoiai ua pau ka manawa i ka hōʻoiaʻiʻo ʻana i ka pono.


E lilo i mea mua e wehewehe

E waiho i kāu manaʻo

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  1. He kuleana no ka ʻikepili: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Ke kumu o ka ʻikepili: kaohi SPAM, hoʻokele ʻōlelo.
  3. Legitimation: Kou ʻae
  4. Ka kamaʻilio ʻana o ka ʻikepili: ʻaʻole e hōʻike ʻia ka ʻikepili i nā ʻaoʻao ʻekolu koe ka mana o ke kānāwai.
  5. Pūnaewele mālama: Pūnaewele i mālama ʻia e Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Nā Kuleana: I kēlā me kēia manawa hiki iā ʻoe ke palena, hoʻōla a kāpae i kāu ʻike.