ʻO Dostoyevsky

ʻO Fyodor Dostoyevski.

ʻO Fyodor Dostoyevski.

ʻO Fyodor Dostoyevsky (1821 - 1881) he mea kākau moʻolelo Lūkini nona ka hohonu o ka noʻonoʻo i hana iā ia - maliʻa paha - ka mea kākau moʻolelo koʻikoʻi o ka moʻolelo kenekulia XNUMX. ʻO ia kekahi mea kākau moʻolelo pōkole kaulana, hoʻoponopono, a me ka mea kākau moʻolelo, hiki ke hoʻololi i nā akaʻeleʻele o ka puʻuwai kanaka me nā manawa like ʻole o ka mālamalama.

Ua kahakaha nui kona mau manaʻo i ka neʻe ʻana o ka modernism, existentialism, theology a me nā loiloi palapala, a me nā kula o ka psychology he nui. Pēlā nō, ua manaʻo ʻia kāna hana wānana ma muli o ke kikoʻī āna i wānana ai i ka piʻi ʻana o ka Lūkini kipi i ka mana.

Ke ala ʻana o kekahi o nā mea kākau nui o nā manawa āpau

ʻO nā hanana nui loa i ko Dostoyevsky ola - ua hoʻokō ʻia ka make, lawe pio ʻia ma Siberia a me nā ʻāpana o ka maʻi epilepsy - e like me kāna mau hana.. ʻO ka ʻoiaʻiʻo, ua hoʻohana ʻo ia i nā hanana o nā hanana i loko o kona ola e hoʻohui i ka paʻakikī paʻakikī i kāna ʻano.

Ka pōʻaiapili o kāu hana

Wahi a Gary Saul Molson (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2020) mau ka hanana o nā mea kākau Lūkini. I ka hoʻohālikelike ʻana, ua ʻae ʻia kekahi mau manaʻo manaʻo hewa ʻole e like me nā ʻike pono o kona ola. Ma ka ʻaoʻao ʻokoʻa, ʻokoʻa ʻo Dostoyevsky mai nā mea kākau Lūkini ʻē aʻe (e like me Tolstoy a me Turgenev) i ka pōʻaiapili o kāna hana i ʻelua ʻano kumu.

ʻO ka mea mua, hana mau ʻo ia ma lalo o ke kaomi mai nā ʻaiʻē he nui i loaʻa no kāna piliwaiwai a me nā pilikia ʻohana.. ʻO ka lua, ua haki ʻo Dostoyevsky mai ka ʻano wehewehe o nā ʻohana nani a paʻa hoʻi; ma kahi o ia, ua hōʻike ʻo ia i nā hui pōʻino, i hoʻopuni ʻia e nā pōpilikia. Pēlā nō, ua nānā ʻo Dostoyevsky i nā pilikia - controversial i kēlā manawa - e like me ka like ʻole o ka nohona a me ka hana a nā wahine ma waena o ka hui Lūkia.

ʻOhana, hānau a me kamaliʻi

Ua hānau ʻia ʻo Fyodor Mikhaylovich Dostoyevsky ma Moscow, Lūkia, ma Nowemapa 11, 1821 (ʻOkakopa 30 ma ka kalena Julian). ʻO ia ka lua o nā keiki ʻehiku ma waena o Mikhail Dostoyevsky (kahi aliʻi mai Darayóve), no Belarusian, a me Maria Fiódorovna, kahi wahine moʻomeheu mai kahi ʻohana kalepa Lūkini. ʻO ke ʻano mana o ka makuakāne - he kauka ma ka haukapila ʻo Moscow no ka poʻe ʻilihune - i hakakā ikaika me ka ʻono a me ka mehana o kahi makuahine hoʻopulapula.

ʻŌpio

Ma mua o 1833, ua kula ʻia ʻo Fyodor ʻōpio i ka home. I ka makahiki 1834, ua komo ʻo ia me kona kaikaina ʻo Mikhail i ke kula hānai Chermak no ke kula kiʻekiʻe. Ua make kona makuahine i ka maʻi puʻupuʻu ma 1837. ʻElua mau makahiki ma hope mai, ua pepehi ʻia kona makuakāne e kāna mau kauā ponoʻī (ua haʻi ʻo Dostoyevsky ma hope) no ka hoʻopaʻi no kāna hana hoʻomāinoino. ʻO kahi hanana me nā ʻano kaʻao he nui i ka malamalama o kekahi poʻe kākau moʻolelo.

Hoʻomaʻamaʻa i ka hale kākela o ka Academy Academy

I kēlā manawa, he haumana nā kaikaina Dostoyevsky ma ka Saint Petersburg Military Academy for Engineers., ke ukali nei i ke ala a kona makuakāne i huli ai. ʻIke ʻo Fyodor he mea hōʻoluʻolu ʻole i kāna aʻo kiʻekiʻe ʻana. Me ka hōʻoluʻolu o kona kaikaina - ʻo ia kāna hoaaloha pili loa - ua hoʻomaka ʻo ia e komo i ka piliona a me ka fiction Gothic.

ʻOiai ʻo kāna wili palapala, ʻaʻole pilikia ʻo Dostoyevsky me nā kumuhana helu i kāna hoʻomaʻamaʻa ʻana. ʻAʻole nō hoʻi he mau pilikia i ka loaʻa ʻana o kahi hana ke puka ʻo ia; ua loaʻa i kahi kūlana ma ka 'Oihana Hana Hana Koa. Eia nō naʻe, e like me ke kuhikuhi a kāna kaikamahine ʻo Aimée Dostoyevsky (1922), me ka ʻole o ke kaomi a ka makuakāne hoʻomāinoino, ua hoʻokuʻu ʻia he Fyodor he iwakāluakūmākahi mea e hoʻohana i kāna hana.

Nā hopena

ʻIke ʻia ka mana o ka haku mele Kelemania ʻo Friedrich Schiller i kāna hana mua (ʻaʻole mālama ʻia), Maria stuart y ʻO Boris Gudunov. Eia kekahi, i kēlā mau anuu mua, He predilection ʻo Dostoyevsky no nā mea kākau e like me Sir Walter Scott, Ann Radcliffe, Nikolay Karamzim, a me Aleksandr Pushkin. ʻOiai, ʻo ko Honoré Balzac kipa ʻana iā Saint Petersburg i ka makahiki 1844 he hanana nui ia, no kona hanohano ua unuhi ʻo ia Eugenia Nui.

Nā paʻi palapala mua

Nā huaʻōlelo na Fyodor Dostoyevski.

Nā huaʻōlelo na Fyodor Dostoyevski.

I kēlā makahiki hoʻokahi ua haʻalele ʻo ia i ka pūʻali koa e hoʻolaʻa iā ia iho no ka kākau ʻana. I ka makahiki 24, ua hehi ʻo Dostoyevsky i ka ʻaoʻao kākau Lūkia me kāna puke moʻolelo epistolary Kanaka hune (1845). I kēia paʻi ʻana, ua hoʻomaopopo ka mea kākau o Moscow i kona ʻano nohona a me kāna kaila ʻoiaʻiʻo. Ua loaʻa iā ia ka mahalo o ka loiloi loea kaulana ʻo Belinsky, nāna i hoʻolauna iā ia i ka ʻepekema ʻepekema a me aristocratic o St.

ʻO ka huhū a Dostoyevsky i ulu mai ka inaina mai nā mea kākau moʻolelo Lūkini ʻē aʻe (e like me Turgenev, no ka laʻana). No kēia kumu, hana ka mea nāna ka hope -Ka pāpālua (1846), Nā Po Keʻokeʻo (1848) a Nietochka Nezvanova (1849) - loaʻa i kekahi mau loiloi maikaʻi ʻole. Ua pilikia kēia kūlana iā ia; ʻo kahi ʻāpana o kāna hopena i ke kaumaha e hui pū me nā hui o nā ideology utopian a me libertarian, nā nihilists i kapa ʻia.

Ka ulia pōpilikia me he wahie

Paukū Epilepsy

Ua ʻeha ʻo Dostoyevsky i kāna kaʻi mua ʻana i ka makahiki ʻeiwa. He mau ʻāpana sporadic lākou i loko o kona ola. Eia nō naʻe, kūlike ka hapa nui o nā mea kākau moʻolelo i ke kuhikuhi ʻana i ka make o ka makuakāne ma ke ʻano he hanana hoʻonāukiuki i kāna kiʻi maʻi. Ua hoʻopuka ka mea kākau Lūkini i ka paʻakikī o kēia mau ʻike e wehewehe i kāna mau ʻano o Prince Myshkin (Ka hūpō, 1869) a me Smerdiákov (ʻO nā kaikuaʻana Karamazov, 1879).

Siberia

Aʻo 1849, ʻO Fyodor Dostoyevsky ua hopu ʻia ʻo ia e nā luna Lūkini. Ua hoʻopiʻi ʻia ʻo ia ma ke ʻano he kipi kipi ʻo Petrachevsky, kahi neʻe politika e kūʻē iā Tsar Nicholas I. ʻO nā mea āpau i hoʻopaʻi ʻia i ka make, me nā ʻōlelo hoʻopaʻi - ma ke ʻano maoli - i mua o ka paia. I ka hoʻihoʻi, ua kipaku ʻia ʻo Dostoyevsky i Siberia e hana i nā hana hoʻoikaika no ʻelima mau makahiki lōʻihi, septic a lokoʻino.

Wahi a Aimée Dostoyevsky, "ua hoʻolaha kona makuakāne no kekahi kumu ʻo kāna mau kumu i hoʻopaʻa ʻia nā lawehala." Ua hoʻohana iki ʻo Dostoyevsky i kāna mau taleni i ka lawelawe ʻana i ka nui Lūkini. He aha hou aʻe, ua manaʻo ʻo ia iā ia iho he haumāna na Kristo a me kahi mea hōʻoki koʻikoʻi o nihilism. No laila, ʻaʻole ʻimi hou ʻo Dostoyevsky i ka ʻae o ke koena o ʻEulopa (ʻoiai ʻaʻole hoʻowahāwahā iā ia), akā ua hoʻonui ʻo ia i ka hoʻoilina Slavic-Mongol o ka ʻāina.

ʻO ka male mua

Ua lawelawe ʻo Dostoyevsky i ka ʻāpana ʻelua o kāna hoʻopaʻi ma Kazakhstan ma ke ʻano he pilikino. Ma laila, ua hoʻomaka ʻo ia i kahi pilina me Mariya Dmítrievna Isáyeva; i ka makahiki 1857 ua male lāua. I ka manawa pōkole ma hope, ua hāʻawi ʻia ke kala aloha e Tsar Alexander II i kāna poʻo hanohano, no laila, ua hiki iā ia ke hoʻopuka hou i kāna mau hana. ʻO ka mea i hōʻike mua ʻia Moemoeā ka muliwai y ʻO Stenpánchikovo a me nā mea e noho ana (ʻelua mai 1859).

ʻO nā kaikuaʻana Karamazov.

ʻO nā kaikuaʻana Karamazov.

ʻO ka pilina ma waena o Dostoyevsky a me kāna wahine mua i ʻino e haʻi iki. Ua inaina ʻo ia iā Tver, ke kūlanakauhale a lākou i noho ai no ka hapanui o ko lākou makahiki ʻekolu a ʻehā o ka male. ʻOiai ua maʻa ʻo ia i ka aristocratic elite o ka ʻāina, ʻo ia - i ka hoʻopaʻi - hoʻomaka i kahi hihia me kahi kanaka ʻōpio o nā leka. I ka hopena, ua haʻi ʻo Mariya i nā mea āpau i kāna kāne (me kāna mau mea waiwai), hoʻohaʻahaʻa iā ia i waenakonu o kahi pāʻina.

ʻO ka pāʻani kālā a me ka ʻaiʻē

Ma 1861, hoʻokumu ʻo Fyodor Dostoyevsky i ka makasina ʻO Vremya () me kona kaikuaʻana ʻo Mikhail, ma hope o ka ʻae ʻana iā ia e hoʻi i Saint Petersburg. Ma laila ʻo ia i paʻi ai ʻO ka mea hoʻohaʻahaʻa a me nā mea hōʻeha (1861) a Nā mea hoʻomanaʻo o ka hale o ka poʻe i make (1862), me nā manaʻo paio e pili ana i kāna ʻike ma Siberia. I ka makahiki aʻe ua hana ʻo ia i kahi huakaʻi ma o ʻEulopa ma o Kelemania, Palani, ʻEnelani, Kuikilana, ʻItalia a me ʻAsuria.

I loko o kāna huakaʻi, ua hoʻowalewale ʻia ʻo Dostoyevsky e kahi pāʻani manuahi hou i kū aʻe i nā casino o Palisa: roulette. No laila, ua hoʻi ʻo ia i Moscow i ke kauwela o 1863 panakalupa loa. E hoʻohui i ka hōʻino i ka hōʻeha ʻO Vremya ua pāpā ʻia ma muli o kahi ʻatikala e pili ana i ke kipi Polani. ʻOiai, i ka makahiki aʻe ua paʻi ʻo ia Nā hoʻomanaʻo o ka ʻāina i lalo ma ka puke ʻEpoja (Epoka), he makasina hou kahi i hana ai ʻo ia ma ke ʻano he hoʻoponopono me Mikhail.

Nā pōʻino i kū aʻe

Akā ua lilo hou ka pōʻino iā ia, ʻoiai ua wahine kāne make ʻo ia i ka hopena o 1864 a ma hope iki iho o ka hala ʻana o kona kaikuaʻana ʻo Mikhail. No laila, ua hina ʻo ia i loko o kahi kaumaha hohonu a ʻoi aku ka nui o ka pāʻani, e ʻohi ana i nā aie ʻē aʻe (ma kahi o 25.000 rubles, i manaʻo ʻia no ka make o Mikhail) No laila ua hoʻoholo ʻo Dostoyevsky e holo i kahi ʻē, kahi i loaʻa hou ai iā ia ka huila roulette.

Hoʻokūkū ka hana ʻana i nā puke

ʻO ka pāʻani kālā a Dostoyevsky (a naivety) i alualu i nā mea hōʻaiʻē e alualu iā ia a hiki i ka hopena o kāna mau lā. Ua hoʻi ʻo ia i Saint Petersburg i 1865 e paʻi i kekahi o kāna mau hana i ʻike nui ʻia, Ka Hewa a me ka hoʻopaʻi. I ka hoʻāʻo ʻana e hoʻoponopono i kāna mau moʻokāki, ua kau inoa ʻo ia i kahi ʻaelike me ka mea hoʻopuka Stellovski i ka makahiki 1866. ʻO ka mea i hoʻopaʻa ʻia he ʻekolu kaukani rubles i hele pololei i ka lima o ka mea nāna i hōʻaiʻē.

Mare ʻelua

Hoʻoweliweli ka ʻaelike paʻi i nā kuleana o kāna mau hana ponoʻī inā hoʻolohi ʻo ia i ka lawe ʻana i kahi puke i kēlā makahiki. Ma Pepeluali 12, 1867, ua male ʻo ia iā Anna Grigórievna Snítkina, he 25 ona mau makahiki. ʻO ia ka stenographer hoihoi i hoʻolimalima ʻia e kuhikuhi ʻO ka mea pāʻani (1866) i nā lā he 26 wale nō. I ka manawa o kā lākou honeymoon (a me ka pale aku i nā mea hōʻaiʻē), noho ka wahine ma Geneva, Kuipena.

Ma muli o kēlā hui ʻana, ua hānau ʻia ʻo Sonia ma Pepeluali 1868; kaumaha, ua make ka pēpē i ʻekolu mau mahina. Ua hina hou ʻo Dostoyevsky i ka pāʻani a ua hoʻoholo ʻo ia e hele me kāna wahine ma kahi huakaʻi pōkole o ʻItalia. Ma 1869 ua neʻe lākou i Dresden, kahi home o kā lāua kaikamahine ʻelua, ʻo Liuvob. Ua ʻike ʻia kēlā makahiki i ka hoʻolana o Ka hūpōEia naʻe, ʻo ka hapa nui o ke kālā i hōʻiliʻili ʻia e ka puke moʻolelo kaulana i hele e uku i nā ʻaiʻē.

Nā makahiki i hala

Ma nā makahiki 1870, ua paʻi ʻo Dostoyevsky i kahi nui o nā hana i hōʻoia iā ia ma ke ʻano he mea kākau nui o ka mōʻaukala. ʻAʻole wale mai Russia, akā mai nā wahi a puni o ka honua. Ua hoʻoulu ʻia kekahi o nā hoʻolālā a me nā huapalapala e nā hanana autobiograpy a me nā hanana politika i hoʻoluliluli iā Lūkia.

Koe Ke kāne mau (1870), ua kākau ʻia nā puke ʻē aʻe a paʻi ʻia ma hope o ka hoʻi ʻana o Dostoyevsky i Saint Petersburg ma 1871. Ma laila, hānau kāna keiki ʻekolu, ʻo Fyodor. ʻOiai ʻo nā makahiki e hiki mai ana ka noho maluhia o ka hoʻokele waiwai, ua nui aʻe nā pilikia epilepsy a Fyodor M. ʻO ka make ʻana o kāna keiki ʻehā, ʻo Aleksei (1875 - 1878) i hoʻopili hou aʻe i ke kiʻi hopohopo o ka mea kākau Lūkini.

Ka hūpō.

Ka hūpō.

Nā paʻi hou o Fyodor Dostoyevsky

  • Ka daimonio. Novel (1872).
  • ʻO ke kamaʻāina. ʻO kēlā me kēia pule (1873 - 1874).
  • Palapala kākau a kahi mea kākau. Nūpepa (1873 - 1877).
  • Ke ʻōpio. Novel (1874).
  • ʻO nā kaikunāne Karámazov. Novel - hiki iā ia ke hoʻopau wale i ka ʻāpana mua - (1880).

Legacy

Ua make ʻo Fyodor Mikhaylovich Dostoyevsky ma kona home ma Saint Petersburg ma Pepeluali 9, 1881, ma muli o ka pulmonary emphysema e pili pū ana me ka maʻi epilepsy. Ua hele ʻia kona hoʻolewa e nā mea kaulana a me nā mea kālaiʻāina mai nā wahi a puni ʻo ʻEulopa, a me nā mea kākau moʻolelo Lūkia kaulana loa o ia manawa. ʻOiai - ma hope ua wehewehe i kāna wahine kāne make, ʻo Anna Grigorievna Dostoyevsky - ua hōʻuluʻulu ke ʻano i nā nihilists ʻōpio.

I kēia ala, ʻo kāna mau ʻenemi ideological i uku i ka loea Lūkini. ʻAʻole he mea kupanaha, ua hoʻokele ʻo Dostoyevsky e hoʻohuli i ka nui o nā akeakamai, nā ʻepekema a mea kākau paha o ka transcendence o Friedrich Nietzsche, Sigmund Freud, Franz Kafka a me Stefan Zweig, a me nā mea ʻē aʻe ʻē aʻe. ʻO kāna hana ākea āpau, me kahi hoʻoilina e like me Cervantes, Dante, Shakespeare a me Víctor Hugo.


Hoʻopili ka ʻike o ka ʻatikala i kā mākou kumumanaʻo o ka hoʻoponopono hoʻoponopono. E hōʻike i kahi kaomi hemahema ʻaneʻi.

E lilo i mea mua e wehewehe

E waiho i kāu manaʻo

Kāu leka uila aae? E,ʻaʻole e paʻiʻia.

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  1. He kuleana no ka ʻikepili: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Ke kumu o ka ʻikepili: kaohi SPAM, hoʻokele ʻōlelo.
  3. Legitimation: Kou ʻae
  4. Ka kamaʻilio ʻana o ka ʻikepili: ʻaʻole e hōʻike ʻia ka ʻikepili i nā ʻaoʻao ʻekolu koe ka mana o ke kānāwai.
  5. Pūnaewele mālama: Pūnaewele i mālama ʻia e Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Nā Kuleana: I kēlā me kēia manawa hiki iā ʻoe ke palena, hoʻōla a kāpae i kāu ʻike.