ʻO Abdulrazak Gurnah

ʻO ke kai ʻo Zanzibar

ʻO ke kai ʻo Zanzibar

ʻO Abdulrazak Gurnah kahi mea kākau Tanzania i lanakila i ka Nobel Prize in Literature 2021. Ua ʻōlelo ka Swedish Academy ua koho ʻia ka mea kākau no ka "hōʻike hoʻoneʻe ʻana i nā hopena o ka colonialism a me ka hopena o ka mea mahuka i ke āpau ma waena o nā moʻomeheu a me nā ʻāina ... " . He 18 mau makahiki mai ka manawa i lanakila ai ka ʻApelika hope loa - ʻo John Maxwell Coetzee i ka makahiki 2003 - i kēia makana koʻikoʻi.

Kūʻē ʻo Gurnah no ka wehewehe ʻana ma ke ʻano koʻikoʻi a me ke ʻano ʻino i ka neʻe ʻana o ka poʻe i hoʻoneʻe ʻia e ka pōloli a me ke kaua mai nā kahakai ʻo ʻApelika a hiki i ʻEulopa, a pehea e hiki ai i ka "'āina i hoʻohiki ʻia" pono lākou e lanakila i ke kai o ka manaʻoʻiʻo, nā pilikia a me nā pahele. . I kēia lā, ua paʻi ʻo ia i nā puke he ʻumi a me ka nui o nā moʻolelo a me nā moʻolelo pōkole, nā mea i kākau ʻia ma ka ʻōlelo Pelekania. —ʻOiai ʻo Swahili kāna ʻōlelo ʻōiwi. Mai ka makahiki 2006, ua lilo ʻo ia i lālā o ka Royal Literature Society, he hui ma Great Britain i hoʻolaʻa ʻia no ka noiʻi ʻana a me ka hoʻolaha ʻana i nā palapala.

Nā kikoʻī biographical o ka mea kākau, ʻo Abdulrazak Gurnah

ʻO ke kamaliʻi a me nā haʻawina

Ua hānau ʻia ʻo Abdulrazak Gurnah ma Dekemaba 20, 1948 ma ka mokupuni ʻo Zanzibar (archipelago o Tanzania). I ka makahiki 18, pono ʻo ia e haʻalele i kona ʻāina hānau i United Kingdom ma muli o ka hoʻomaʻau ʻana i ka poʻe Muslim. Aia ma ka lepo Pelekania, Ua alualu ʻo ia i nā haʻawina kiʻekiʻe ma ke Kulanui ʻo Christ Church a ma 1982 ua hoʻopau i ke kauka ma ke Kulanui o Kent.

Kumu Kula Nui

No nā makahiki he nui, Ua hoʻolaʻa ʻo Gurnah i kona ola i ke aʻo ʻana ma ke kulanui ma kahi o ka Haʻawina Pelekane.. No ʻekolu mau makahiki (1980-1983) ua aʻo ʻo ia ma Nigeria, ma ke Kulanui ʻo Bayero Kano (BUK). He loea ʻo ia no ka puke Pelekania a me ka moʻomanaʻo postcolonial, a ʻo ia hoʻi ke alakaʻi o ka ʻohana Pelekane ma ke Kulanui o Kent, nā kuleana āna i mālama ai a hiki i kona haʻalele ʻana.

ʻO Abdulrazak Gurnah

ʻO Abdulrazak Gurnah

ʻO kāna mau hana noiʻi e pili ana i ka postcolonialism, a me ka colonialism i kuhikuhi ʻia ma ʻApelika, ka Caribbean a me India. I kēia manawa, hoʻohana nā kula nui i kāna mau hana ma ke ʻano he kumu aʻo. Kūʻokoʻa nā kumuhana i aʻo ʻia e nā kumu akamai, e like me: Patricia Bastida (UIB), Maurice O'Connor (UCA), Antonio Ballesteros (UNED) a me Juan Ignacio de la Oliva (ULL), e inoa i kekahi.

ʻIke kākau

I kāna ʻoihana ma ke ʻano he mea kākau ua hana ʻo ia i nā moʻolelo pōkole a me ka moʻolelo, akā naʻe. ʻO kāna mau moʻolelo ka mea i hāʻawi i ka mahalo nui iā ia. Mai 1987 a hiki i kēia manawa, ua paʻi ʻo ia i 10 mau hana moʻolelo ma kēia ʻano. ʻO kāna mau hana mua ʻekolu -Hoʻomanaʻo o ka haʻalele (1987), Alahele Pilgrims (1988) a Dottie (1990) - loaʻa nā kumuhana like: hōʻike lākou i nā nuances like ʻole o nā ʻike o nā malihini ma Great Britain.

I ka makahiki 1994 ua paʻi ʻo ia i kekahi o kāna puke moʻolelo i ʻike nui ʻia, Paradise, ʻo ia ka mea hope loa no ka makana Pelekane Booker hanohano ma 2001. ʻO kēia hana ʻo ia ka mea mua i lawe ʻia ma ka ʻōlelo Sepania -He aha Paradaiso-, ua paʻi ʻia ma Barcelona ma 1997 a ua unuhi ʻia e Sofía Carlota Noguera. ʻElua mau inoa inoa ʻē aʻe o Gurnah i lawe ʻia ma ka ʻōlelo a Cervantes: Hāmau hilahila ʻole (1998) a Ma kahakai (2007).

ʻO Gurnah - i manaʻo ʻia ʻo "ka leo o ka poʻe i haʻalele ʻia" - ua kū i waho no nā moʻolelo ʻē aʻe, e like me: Na ke Kai (2001), Haʻalele (2005) a Puʻuwai ʻiliʻili (2017). Ma ka 2020 ua hōʻikeʻo ia iā ia hana haʻi moʻolelo hope loa: Mahope iho, i manaʻo ʻia e ka poʻe ʻōlelo Pelekane penei: "He hoao e haawi i ka leo i ka poina."

Ke ʻano o ka mea kākau

Ua kākau ʻia nā hana a ka mea kākau i kahi prose me ka ʻōpala ʻole; i loko o lākou ʻIke ʻia ko lākou hoihoi i nā pilikia e like me ke pio ʻana, ka ʻike a me ke kumu. Hōʻike kāna mau puke i nā hopena o ka noho ʻana o ʻApelika Hikina a me ka pilikia o kona poʻe noho. ʻIke ʻia kēia ma ke ʻano he hiʻohiʻona o kona ola ma ke ʻano he malihini, kahi mea nui e hoʻokaʻawale iā ia mai nā mea kākau ʻē aʻe o ʻApelika o ka diaspora e noho ana ma ka moku Pelekane.

Pēlā nō, manaʻo ʻo Anders Olsson - Luna Hoʻomalu o ke Kōmike Nobel - ua kūkulu maikaʻi ʻia nā kiʻi i hana ʻia e Gurnah. E pili ana i kēia mea, ua ʻōlelo ʻo ia: "Ma waena o ke ola a lākou i haʻalele ai a me ke ola e hiki mai ana, kūʻē lākou i ka hoʻokalakiko a me ka hoʻokae, akā hōʻoiaʻiʻo lākou iā lākou iho e hāmau i ka ʻoiaʻiʻo a i ʻole hana hou i kā lākou moʻomeheu e pale i nā hakakā me ka ʻoiaʻiʻo."

ʻO kahi Nobel i hoʻopūʻiwa i ka honua

ʻO ka Makana Nobel ma ka Palapala

ʻO ka Makana Nobel ma ka Palapala

ʻOiai i loko o ka honua palapala, nīnau ka poʻe he nui "ʻO wai ʻo Abdulrazak Gurnah?" a i ʻole "No ke aha i lanakila ai kahi mea kākau ʻike ʻole i ka makana?" ʻO ka ʻoiaʻiʻo, aia kekahi mau kumu kūpono i lilo ai ʻo Gurnah 2021 ka lima o ʻApelika i lanakila i ka No nā puke Nobel. Eia naʻe, hōʻike nā mea a pau ua hoʻoholo ke kiure ma muli o ke kumuhana i haʻi ʻia e ka mea kākau.

Mana o Gurnah

ʻO ka ʻike ʻole o ka poʻe he nui i ke ala o kahi mea kākau Tanzanian ʻaʻole ia e hoʻemi i kāna mau talena ma ke ʻano he mea kākau. ʻO kāna ʻōlelo aʻoaʻo waiwai, hui pū ʻia me ka naʻau i hoʻopaʻa ʻia i kēlā me kēia laina, lilo ia i mea kākau kokoke i ka mea heluhelu.. I kāna mau hana i kāna hoʻokō i ka ʻoiaʻiʻo o kona ʻāina hānau a hōʻike ʻia kāna mau hoa makaʻāinana, kahi e hoʻonui ai i ke ʻano kanaka o kāna peni a me ka loulou ma waena o kāna mau ʻike a me kāna hana moʻokalaleo. Hōʻike kēlā me kēia moʻolelo i kahi pōʻaiapili i hōʻailona ʻia e nā kaua i pilikia ma ka ʻāina.

Akā, no ke aha i ʻokoʻa ai ʻo Gurnah? ʻAe, hōʻole ka mea kākau e hana hou i nā moʻolelo e pili ana i nā mea i hana ma waena o ʻEnelani a me ʻApelika. Me kāna mau puke ua hōʻike ʻo ia i kahi ʻike hou o ka ʻāina ʻApelika a me kona poʻe, me nā nuances kikoʻī i lawe ʻia e kekahi mea, i haki i nā stereotypes a hōʻoia i ke kiʻi o ka poʻe hoʻoneʻe i nā maka o ka poʻe heluhelu. Hoʻokiʻekiʻe ʻo Abdulrazak i ka ʻoiaʻiʻo o ka colonialism a me nā hopena i kēia lā - ʻo ka neʻe ʻana kekahi o lākou, akā no ka ʻiʻo a me ke koko.

He makana i hoʻomalu ʻia e nā lāhui ʻē aʻe

ʻAʻole ia he mea kupanaha ma muli o ka hoʻokumu ʻia ʻana o ka Nobel Prize for Literature i 1901, ka hapanui o nā mea lanakila he Europa a ʻĀkau ʻAmelika paha. Kū mua ʻo Palani me 15 mau mea kākau lanakila, i ukali pono ia e Amerika Huipuia me 13 a me Beritania Nui me 12. A, e like me ka mea i olelo mua ia, elima wale no Aferika i hoohanohanoia i keia manawa kaulana.

Ua hala na makahiki he umikumamawalu mai eʻO ka hope ʻApelika se hāpai ʻia me kēia makana nui: John Maxwell Coetzee. Ma mua o ka ʻApelika Hema, ua loaʻa iā ia ma 1986 e ka Nigerian Wole Soyinka, ma 1988 e ka Egyptian Naguib Mahfouz a me ka wahine ʻApelika mua, ʻo Nadine Gordimer, ma 1991.

Ano, No ke aha i nui ai ka like ole ?; me ke kanalua ole mea paʻakikī e pane. Eia nō naʻe, manaʻo ʻia e ʻike kēia mau makahiki e hiki mai ana i nā loli i ka Kuekene Suetena, ma muli o ka hapa nui, i nā hōʻino e pili ana i ke kaulike ʻole a me ka hoʻomāinoino i kū ʻia i ka makahiki 2018. No laila, hoʻokahi makahiki ma hope mai ua hoʻokumu ʻia kahi kōmike hou me ka manaʻo e hoʻololi ka hihiʻo a pale i nā hiʻohiʻona hilahila ʻole. Ma kēia mea, ua hōʻike ʻo Anders Olsson:

“Ua hāmama ko mākou mau maka i nā mea kākau i hiki ke kapa ʻia he postcolonial. Hoʻonui ko mākou nānā i ka manawa. A ME ʻO ka pahuhopu o ka Academy ʻo ia ka hoʻoikaika ʻana i kā mākou ʻike palapala i ka hohonu. ʻO kahi laʻana, nā puke i ka honua postcolonial ”.

ʻO kēia mau kauoha hou i ala mai ka ʻApelika e ʻike ʻia ma mua o nā inoa nui. ʻO kāna mau hana kūikawā —Me nā kumuhana paʻakikī akā maoli maoli nō - ʻae i ke Kōmike Nobel e hoʻokaʻawale iā ia ma ke ʻano "kekahi o nā mea kākau postcolonial kaulana loa ma ka honua… ”.

Hoʻokūkū ikaika

I kēia makahiki he mau inoa o ka literati kaulana i ke kaiapuni. Nā mea kākau e like me: Ngugi Wa Thiongʻo, Haruki Murakami, ʻO Javier Marias, Scholastique Mukasonga, Mia Couto, Margaret Atwood, Annie Ernaux, a me na mea e ae. ʻAʻole i makehewa ka haʻohaʻo ʻana i ka lanakila ʻana o Gurnah, ʻoiai ʻo ia ka mea i kū pono i loko o kahi ululāʻau paʻa o nā kiʻi hoʻolaʻa.

ʻO Javier Marías.

ʻO Javier Marías.

Nā manaʻo o ka mea kākau ma hope o ka lanakila ʻana i ka Nobel

Ma hope o ka loaʻa ʻana o ka makana, ʻAʻole manaʻo ka mea kākau Tanzania e haʻalele i ke kumuhana i loaʻa iā ia Loaʻa ka Nobel. Me ka hoʻomaopopo ʻana ua ʻoi aku ka ikaika e hōʻike i kou manaʻo i nā kumuhana like ʻole a me kou ʻike ʻana i ka honua ma ke ʻano pololei.

Ma kahi hālāwai ninaninau ma Ladana, ua ʻōlelo ʻo ia: “Kākau wau e pili ana i kēia mau kūlana no ka mea makemake wau e kākau e pili ana i ka pilina kanaka a me nā mea e hele ai ka poʻe i ke kūkulu hou ʻana i ko lākou ola ".

Paʻi manaʻo

ʻO ka koho ʻana iā Abdulrazak Gurnah ma ke ʻano he Nobel laureate kahaha i ka ʻāina ʻo Suedena a me ka honua holoʻokoʻa. ʻAʻole ka mea kākau i waena o nā mea lanakila hiki, ʻoiai ʻaʻole i hoʻopiʻi ʻia kāna mau hana e nā loea ma ka palapala. ʻO kahi noʻonoʻo o kēia nā ʻōlelo i puka mai i ka nūpepa ma hope o ke koho ʻana, ma waena o kēia mau mea hiki iā mākou ke hōʻike:

  • "He koho mystical o ke Kuekene Suedena". ʻO ka express (Hōʻike)
  • "Panic a huikau i ka manawa i hōʻike ʻia ai ka inoa o ka mea lanakila o ka Nobel Prize in Literature." Ka Laina ahiahi (Aftonbladet)
  • "Aloha ʻo Abdulrazak Gurnah! Ua kūpono ka 2021 Nobel Prize in Literature ”. Lahui EN (Jorge Ivan Garduño)
  • "ʻO ka manawa kēia e hoʻomaopopo ai hiki i nā poʻe ʻole keʻokeʻo ke kākau." Nūpepa Kuekene (Svenska Dagbladet)
  • "ʻO Abdulrazak Gurnah, he hōkū ʻaʻohe kanaka e pili i kahi peni" Lelatria Magazine (Javier Claure Covarrubias)
  • "ʻO ka nūhou o ka Nobel Prize for Gurnah i hoʻolauleʻa ʻia e nā mea kākau moʻolelo a me nā loea i hoʻopaʻapaʻa lōʻihi e pono kāna hana i ka poʻe heluhelu ākea." The New York Times

Paraíso, Ka hana maikai loa a Gurnah

I ka makahiki 1994 ua hōʻike ʻo Gurnah iā Paraíso, kāna puke ʻehā a ʻo ka mea mua i unuhi ʻia kāna mau kikokikona i ka ʻōlelo Sepania. Me kēia moʻolelo, ua loaʻa i ka mea kākau ʻApelika ka mahalo nui ʻia ma ke kahua palapala, ʻo ia ka mea i hana ʻia ma hope loa. Hōʻike ʻia ka moʻolelo me ka leo omniscient; he huikau o nā fiction me nā hoʻomanaʻo o ka wā kamaliʻi o Gurnah i kona ʻāina hānau.

Ma waena o nā laina, Ua hoʻohalahala loa ʻo Gurnah i nā hana kauā weliweli i kuhikuhi ʻia i nā keiki, i hana ʻia i mau makahiki ma ka ʻāina ʻo ʻApelika. Hoʻopili pū ʻia nā mea a pau me nā nani maoli, nā holoholona a me nā moʻolelo i ʻāpana o ka moʻomeheu o ka ʻāina.

No ka ʻike ʻana, neʻe ka mea kākau i Tanzania, ʻoiai ʻo ia e ʻōlelo ana ma laila. "ʻAʻole wau i huakaʻi e hōʻiliʻili i ka ʻikepili, akā e hoʻihoʻi i ka lepo i koʻu ihu”. Hōʻike kēia i ka hōʻole ʻana i kāna kumu. aia kahi hoʻomanaʻo a me ka hoʻomaopopo ʻana i kahi nani o ʻApelika, akā naʻe, ma lalo o kahi mea maoli piha i nā hakakā koʻikoʻi.

Ua ʻae kekahi poʻe loea e hōʻike ana ka manaʻo i ka «lka ʻōpio a me ke oʻo ʻana o kahi keiki ʻApelika, kahi moʻolelo aloha kaumaha a me ka moʻolelo hoʻi o ka palaho o ka kuʻuna ʻApelika no ka colonialism ʻEulopa ”.

Hōʻuluʻulu

Kahua o ka moʻolelo nā hōkū ʻo Yusuf, he keiki kāne 12 makahiki i hānau ʻia i ka makahiki 1900 mua ma Kawa (kaona moʻokalaleo), Tanzania. Kona makuakāne ʻO ia ka luna o ka hōkele a aie ia i kekahi kanaka kalepa, o Aziz kona inoa, he aliʻi ʻArabia ikaika. Ma ka hiki ole ke alo i keia hoohiki, koi ʻia ʻo ia e pawn i kāna keiki ma ke ʻano he uku.

Ma hope o kahi huakaʻi neʻe, hele ke keiki i kahakai me kona "anakala 'o Aziz". Ma laila e hoʻomaka ai kona ola ma ke ʻano he rehani (kauā kauā uku ʻole ʻia), i ka hui o kāna hoaaloha Khalil a me nā kauā ʻē aʻe. ʻO kāna hana nui ka hana a me ka mālama ʻana i ka hale kūʻai ʻo Aziz, kahi i kū mai ai nā huahana i kūʻai ʻia i ka periphery e ka mea kālepa.

Ma waho aʻe o kēia mau hana, Pono ʻo Yusuf e mālama i ka māla paʻa o kona haku, he wahi hanohano kahi i manaʻo nui ai. I ka pō, holo ʻo ia i kahi Edenic kahi e ʻimi ai ʻo ia ma nā moeʻuhane e ʻike i kona mau aʻa, nā mea o ke ola i kāʻili ʻia mai ona aku. Ua ulu ʻo Yusuf i kanaka ʻōpio maikaʻi a makemake nui i ke aloha manaʻolana, ʻoiai makemake ʻia e nā poʻe ʻē aʻe.

I ka makahiki 17, hoʻomaka ʻo Yusuf i kāna huakaʻi lua me ka huakaʻi kalepa ma waena o Aferika waena a me ka Basin Congo. I ka wā o ka huakaʻi he nui nā ālai e hopu ai ka mea kākau i kahi ʻāpana o ka moʻomeheu ʻApelika. ʻO nā holoholona hihiu, nā nani maoli a me nā lāhui kūloko kekahi o nā mea ʻōiwi e kū nei i loko o ka hoʻolālā.

I ka hoʻi ʻana i ʻApelika Hikina, ua hoʻomaka ke Kaua Honua Mua a ua hui kona luna ʻo Aziz me nā koa Kelemania. ʻOiai ka mana o ka mea kālepa waiwai, ua kiʻi ʻia ʻo ia a me nā ʻApelika e lawelawe i ka pūʻali koa Kelemania. I kēia manawa, e hana ʻo Yusuf i ka hoʻoholo nui loa o kona ola.

Synopsis o nā puke moʻolelo Gurnah ʻē aʻe

Hoʻomanaʻo o ka haʻalele (1987)

ʻO ia ka puke a ka mea kākau mua, ua hoʻonohonoho ʻia la kahakai o ʻApelika Hikina. ʻO kāna protagonist he kanaka ʻōpio, ma hope o ke alo ʻana i kahi ʻōnaehana kūʻokoʻa i kona ʻāina, ua hoʻouna ʻia i Kenya me kona ʻanakala opulent. I loko o ka mōʻaukala e ʻike ʻia kāna huakaʻi a me ke ʻano o ka ulu ʻana o ka hānau hou ʻana i ka ʻuhane.

Na ke Kai (2001)

ʻO ia ke ono o ka puke a ka mea kākau, ua paʻi ʻia kona mana ma ka ʻōlelo Paniolo ma Barcelona i ka makahiki 2003 (me kahi unuhi na Carmen Aguilar).  Ma kēia moʻolelo, ʻelua mau moʻolelo i ulana ʻia i ka wā e hui ai ka poʻe protagonists ma kahakai o ke kai Pelekane. ʻO kēia ʻo Saleh Omar, ka mea i waiho i nā mea āpau ma Zanzibar e neʻe i ʻEnelani, a ʻo Latif Mahmud, he kanaka ʻōpio i pakele i ka wā kahiko loa a ua noho ʻo ia ma Ladana no nā makahiki.

Haʻalele (2005)

He moʻolelo ia i hana ʻia ma ʻelua mau pae, ʻo ka mua ma 1899 a laila 50 mau makahiki ma hope. I ka makahiki 1899, ua hoʻopakele ʻia ka Pelekane ʻo Martin Pearce e Hassanali, ma hope o ka hele ʻana i ka wao nahele a hōʻea i kekahi kūlanakauhale ʻo ʻApelika Hikina.. Nīnau ka mea kālepa i kona kaikuahine ʻo Rehana e hoʻōla i nā ʻeha a Martin a mālama iā ia a hiki i kona ola ʻana. Ma hope koke iho, ua hānau ʻia kahi hoihoi nui ma waena o lāua a loaʻa iā lāua kahi pilina malū.

ʻO nā hopena o kēlā aloha pāpā ʻia e hōʻike ʻia 5 mau makahiki ma hope, ke aloha ke kaikunāne o Martin i ka moʻopuna a Rehana. Hoʻohui ka moʻolelo i ka hele ʻana o ka manawa, nā hopena o ka colonialism i nā pilina a me nā pilikia e hōʻailona ai ke aloha.

E pili ana i kēia moʻolelo, kākau ʻo Mike Phillips no ka nūpepa Pelekane Ka kiaʻi: 

«Ka hapa nui o ka Desertion Ua kākau maikaʻi ʻia a ʻoluʻolu e like me nā mea āu i heluhelu ai i kēia manawa, kahi hoʻomanaʻo nostalgic momona o kahi wā kolone a me kahi moʻomeheu Muslim i nalowale, i wehewehe ʻia e kāna ʻano noʻonoʻo a me nā ʻano maʻamau, i uhi ʻia e kāna kalena o nā ʻahaʻaina a me nā hoʻomana haipule.

Nā hana piha na Abdulrazak Gurnah

Novelas

  • Memori o ka Haʻalele (1987)
  • Alahele Pilgrims (1988)
  • Dottie (1990)
  • Paradise (1994) - Paraíso (1997).
  • Mahalo i ka Hamau (1996) - Hāmau hilahila ʻole (1998)
  • Na ke Kai (2001) - Ma ke kahakai (2003)
  • Haʻalele (2005)
  • Ka Makana Hope (2011)
  • Puʻuwai ʻiliʻili (2017)
  • Mahope iho (2020)

Nā ʻatikala, nā moʻolelo pōkole a me nā hana ʻē aʻe

  • ʻSylelo (1985)
  • Pāpale (1992)
  • Nā Haʻiʻōlelo e pili ana iā ʻApelika Kākau 1: He loiloi hou (1993)
  • Nā Kūlana Hoʻololi i ka moʻolelo o Ngũgĩ wa Thiongʻo (1993)
  • ʻO ka moʻolelo o Wole Soyinka ”ma Wole Soyinka: He loiloi (1994)
  • ʻO ka huhū a me ke koho politika ma Nigeria: He Noʻonoʻo ʻana o Soyinka's Madmen and Specialists, Ua make ke kanaka, a me ke kau o Anomy. (1994, paʻi ʻia ka ʻaha kūkā)
  • Essays on African writing 2: Contemporary Literature (1995)
  • ʻO ka waena waena o ka uē ': Ka kākau ʻana o Dambudzo Marechera (1995)
  • ʻO ka neʻe ʻana a me ka hoʻololi ʻana i ka Enigma of Arrival (1995)
  • Kaʻi ukali (1996)
  • Mai ka Pilgrim's Way (1988)
  • E noʻonoʻo ana i ka mea kākau Postcolonial (2000)
  • He manaʻo no ka wā i hala (2002)
  • ʻO nā moʻolelo i hōʻiliʻili ʻia a Abdulrazak Gurnah (2004)
  • Noho koʻu makuahine ma kahi mahiʻai ma ʻApelika (2006)
  • ʻO ka Cambridge Companion iā Salman Rushdie (2007, introduction to the book)
  • Nā kumumanaʻo a me nā hana i loko o nā keiki o ke aumoe (2007)
  • He Huapalaoa na Ngũgĩ wa Thiongʻo (2012)
  • ʻO ka moʻolelo o ka hōʻea ʻana: e like me ka haʻi ʻana iā Abdulrazak Gurnah (2016)
  • ʻO ke koi i kahi ʻē: Wicomb a me Cosmopolitanism (2020)

Hoʻopili ka ʻike o ka ʻatikala i kā mākou kumumanaʻo o ka hoʻoponopono hoʻoponopono. E hōʻike i kahi kaomi hemahema ʻaneʻi.

E lilo i mea mua e wehewehe

E waiho i kāu manaʻo

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  1. He kuleana no ka ʻikepili: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Ke kumu o ka ʻikepili: kaohi SPAM, hoʻokele ʻōlelo.
  3. Legitimation: Kou ʻae
  4. Ka kamaʻilio ʻana o ka ʻikepili: ʻaʻole e hōʻike ʻia ka ʻikepili i nā ʻaoʻao ʻekolu koe ka mana o ke kānāwai.
  5. Pūnaewele mālama: Pūnaewele i mālama ʻia e Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Nā Kuleana: I kēlā me kēia manawa hiki iā ʻoe ke palena, hoʻōla a kāpae i kāu ʻike.