ʻO Fernando de Rojas: ka mea kākau o nā kānāwai

ʻO Fernando de Rojas

ʻIke ʻia ʻo Fernando de Rojas (c. 1470-1541) ʻo ia ka mea kākau o ʻO La Celestina (1499), ke ao holoʻokoʻa o ka palapala Spanish. Eia naʻe, ua nīnau nui ʻia kona mea kākau a ua noʻonoʻo ʻia ka manaʻo ʻole o kēia hana. ʻOiai ua nui nā kānalua e pili ana i ke ola o kēia mea kākau a me ka mea nāna i kākau e pili ana i ke aloha o Calisto a me Melibea, ua maopopo ʻo Rojas ka mea nāna i hana. ʻO La Celestina.

Eia naʻe, ʻAʻole hiki ke hāʻawi i nā hana moʻokalaleo hou aku iā ia ma mua o kēia. Ka waiwai o ʻO La Celestina ua lilo i mea ʻoi aku ma mua o ka lawa ʻana e hoʻokomo i ka loio ʻo Fernando de Rojas i ka papa inoa o nā mea kākau koʻikoʻi o ka palapala Sepania. A eia mākou e haʻi hou aku iā ʻoe e pili ana i kēia mea kākau.

Fernando de Rojas: pōʻaiapili a me ke ola

Kūkākūkā e pili ana i ke kumu Iudaio o ka mea kākau

Ua manaʻo ʻia ʻo Fernando de Rojas he kumu Iudaio. Hāʻawi ʻia kēia kuhiakau i ka ʻoiaʻiʻo, ʻoiai ʻaʻole ʻo ia wale nō. Pēlā nō, e mamao loa ʻo Rojas mai kona mau hoahānau Iudaio hope loa. A ʻo ia ka mea i hiki i ka mea kākau ke kiʻekiʻe o ka mana i ka lawelawe aupuni hiki ʻole i kahi kanaka mai kahi ʻohana i hoʻohuli hou ʻia. A laila ua manaʻo ʻia ʻo ia paha ka hā o ka hanauna Iudaio.

I ka makahiki 1492, ua kauoha ʻia ka kipaku ʻana o nā Iudaio mai Sepania e nā mōʻī Katolika. Ua koi ʻia nā ʻohana he nui e hoʻohuli i ka hoʻomana Kalikiano, akā ʻoiai ua hana lākou, he kakaikahi ka poʻe i hoʻopiʻi ʻia no ka Judaizing, a i ʻole he crypto-Iudaio, a hoʻomaʻamaʻa i ka hoʻomana Iudaio i loko o ko lākou mau home. Ua kaumaha pū kēia kānalua i ka ʻohana o Fernando de Rojas. ʻOiai aia kekahi manaʻo ʻē aʻe e ʻōlelo ana he hidalgo kona makuakāne i kapa ʻia ʻo García González Ponce de Rojas. ʻOiaʻiʻo, aia nā noi mai ka ʻohana e hōʻoia i ko lākou hanohano.

He nui na kanaka e ae i hoomaauia e na kamaaina Kalikiano ponoi, me ka manao iki, ua holo wikiwiki lakou e hoahewa i ko lakou mau hoalauna. ʻO ia hoʻi ka hihia o ka ʻohana politika o Rojas. No ka mea Ua mare ʻo ia iā Leonor Álvarez de Montalbán, ke kaikamahine a ka mea hoʻohuli i hoʻopiʻi ʻia no ka hana ʻana i ka hoʻomana Iudaio, ʻo Álvaro de Montalbán. Ua hoao keia kanaka e kokua i kana hunona, he loio kaulana. Akā hiki iā Fernando de Rojas ke hana liʻiliʻi no kona makuahōnōwai kāne.

ʻO kēia ke ea i hanu ʻia i ka wā o ka mea kākau, a ʻoiai e like me kā mākou i ʻike ai, ʻaʻole ia he malihini i kēia ʻano o ka hoʻomana hoʻomana. Ua hoʻokō ʻo Fernando de Rojas i ke ola ʻoluʻolu me kona ʻohana ponoʻī, e komo ana i ke ola lehulehu.

Kii Lunakanawai

ke ola o ka mea kākau

Ua hānau ʻia ʻo Fernando de Rojas ma La Puebla de Montalbán, ma Toledo, ma waena o 1465 a me 1470.. E pili ana i kona kumu, ua nui nā kūkākūkā e pili ana i ka ʻohana hidalgos a i hoʻohuli ʻia paha. ʻAʻole liʻiliʻi ka ʻike e pili ana i kona wā kamaliʻi a ʻōpio.. E aʻo hou aʻe e pili ana i kāna hoʻomaʻamaʻa ʻana, a inā paha nona ka haku o ka hana hoʻokahi i hāʻawi ʻia iā ia, ʻO La Celestina, pono kakou e hele i ka heluhelu a me ke ao ana i na palapala o ka manawa.

Eia kekahi laʻana, loaʻa iā ia kahi kēkelē kulanui, ʻoiaʻiʻo, no ka mea, he loio ʻo ia a paʻa i nā kūlana like ʻole o ka lehulehu, e like me ka Meia o Talavera de la Reina (Toledo). Eia kekahi, ma ka kikokikona o ʻO La Celestina aia ke kamaʻilio e pili ana i ka bachelor Fernando de Rojas, i kēia lā ke poʻo inoa o ke kula puka a i ʻole puka. A laila ua manaʻo ʻia ua pau kāna mau haʻawina i ka manawa like i haku ai ʻo ia i kēia hana no ka mea ua puka mua ʻo ia i ka puka ʻana. ʻO La Celestina i 1499. Ma muli o ka ʻike o kēia hana hoʻokahi, ua manaʻo ʻia ua aʻo ʻo ia ma ke Kulanui o Salamanca. I kekahi manawa ma hope mai, hele ʻo ia i Talavera de la Reina.

Ua male ʻo ia i ka makahiki 1512 me Leonor Álvarez de Montalban. a ma mua Ua noho ʻo ia ma Talavera de la Reina kahi i hiki ai iā ia ke hauʻoli i ka ʻoihana ʻoihana. Eia ka nui o nā palapala e pili ana i ka mea kākau i hana ma ke ʻano he loio a me ke kuhina nui ma kēia kūlanakauhale, e lawe ana i nā hana hanohano nui. Me kāna wahine, he ʻehiku kāna mau keiki.

Ua mālama ʻo ia i kahi waihona puke nui, a me kāna hana ʻO La Celestina hōʻike i ko lākou aloha i nā leka a me nā palapala, ma mua o kā lākou hana ma ke kānāwai. Eia naʻe, ʻaʻole pili ia i nā kikokikona ʻē aʻe a i nā mea kākau, nā mea paʻi a i ʻole nā ​​pōʻai palapala. He mea ʻike pehea i hiki ai i kahi kikokikona ke hoʻokiʻekiʻe iā ia ma ka palapala Sepania, ua kākau i kāna hana nui i kona wā ʻōpio.

Ua make ʻo Fernando de Rojas i ka makahiki 1541, me ka hoʻokūpaʻa ʻana i ka manaʻo Kalikiano āna i ʻōlelo ai ma kāna palapala kauoha..

Nā puke kahiko

ʻO kekahi mau manaʻo e pili ana iā La Celestina

ʻO ka haʻi ʻana o kona kanaka i mea kākau o ʻO La Celestina mai nā poʻe a puni lākou. I kekahi hihia, ʻaʻohe mea ʻē aʻe i ʻōlelo nona ka hana, akā ʻaʻole i ʻike ʻia ka inoa ʻo Fernando de Rojas ma ka uhi o nā paʻi mua o kēia puke.

Ua puka mai ka hana ma ka mana mua e like me Kalikimaka ʻo Calisto lāua ʻo Melibea a laila ma kekahi me ke poʻo inoa o Poino o Calisto a me Melibea, ma muli paha o ka hopena pololei o ke ʻano o ka hana, a ma muli o ka ʻuhane o ka hui Sepania. Eia kekahi, ua hoʻololi ʻia ka kikokikona i ke ʻano a me ka ʻike no ka mea ua hoʻonui ʻia mai ka 16 mau hana a hiki i ka 21. He liʻiliʻi loa nā paʻi o ia mau mea a pau i mālama ʻia a ʻokoʻa nā manaʻo a me nā hoʻoholo e pili ana iā lākou. Ke nīnau ʻia nei inā ʻo Fernando de Rojas ka mea nāna i mālama i kēia mau hoʻololi a pau; oiai ua oleloia no ke ola ana o na mea kakau elua.

ʻO ka hua'ōlelo lāʻau kūlike, i hōʻike ʻia ma ka puke wehewehe ʻōlelo me kēia wehewehe ʻana: "pimp (wahine nāna i hoʻonohonoho i kahi pilina aloha)", mai kēia hana i hele i lalo i ka mōʻaukala ʻoiai nā mea pohihihi a pau e pili ana i kāna mea kākau. He pāʻani ia ma ka paukū nona ka holomua mai ka hoʻomaka ʻana me kāna mau unuhi a me nā hoʻopuka hou. ma Italia, Kelemānia, Pelekania, Palani, Holani a me ka Latina.

He moʻolelo ultra-ʻoiaʻiʻo a koʻikoʻi, akā ua ʻae ʻia, ka mea i hoʻopuʻihaʻi i kēlā manawa a hoʻoikaika i nā sequels ʻē aʻe.. Ua hoʻoikaika pū kekahi i nā mea kākau a me nā hana ʻē aʻe. ʻO La Celestina Ua loaʻa iā ia nā hoʻololi he nui i nā ʻano kiʻi like ʻole a ola ʻo ia ma ke ʻano he hana maʻamau i ke ola a me ka moʻomeheu ma mua o 500 mau makahiki ma hope o kona paʻi ʻana.


Hoʻopili ka ʻike o ka ʻatikala i kā mākou kumumanaʻo o ka hoʻoponopono hoʻoponopono. E hōʻike i kahi kaomi hemahema ʻaneʻi.

2 manaʻo, waiho i kāu

E waiho i kāu manaʻo

Kāu leka uila aae? E,ʻaʻole e paʻiʻia.

*

*

  1. He kuleana no ka ʻikepili: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Ke kumu o ka ʻikepili: kaohi SPAM, hoʻokele ʻōlelo.
  3. Legitimation: Kou ʻae
  4. Ka kamaʻilio ʻana o ka ʻikepili: ʻaʻole e hōʻike ʻia ka ʻikepili i nā ʻaoʻao ʻekolu koe ka mana o ke kānāwai.
  5. Pūnaewele mālama: Pūnaewele i mālama ʻia e Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Nā Kuleana: I kēlā me kēia manawa hiki iā ʻoe ke palena, hoʻōla a kāpae i kāu ʻike.

  1.   ʻO Luciano nui loa ia

    ʻO ka naʻaupō ʻo Sepania e pili ana i kēlā-a-peia a i ʻole, ʻo ia hoʻi nā protagonists o ka mōʻaukala, e like me ka mea kākau o La Celestina, he mau Iudaio ...

    1.    Belen Martin ia

      ʻAe, pololei kēlā, e Luciano. Hoʻopuka mau i ka moʻolelo like. Mahalo no ka ʻōlelo!