Yin nazarin lalata tunanin, daga Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o

Wani ɓangare na duniya yana ɗaukar Afirka a matsayin wurin da launuka, haɗuwa da ɗabi'a suka mamaye, amma har da talauci, datti da kuma jahilci sakamakon mulkin mallaka wanda tsawon shekaru ya cinye fatan al'ummomin da ke da wata dama ta daban. Wadannan da sauran batutuwan ana magance su ne daga reshen al'adu, musamman ta hanyar Adabin Kenya, shayari da wasan kwaikwayo a cikin littafin Rarraba tunanin, daga Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o, ɗayan manyan masu tunani da marubuta na babbar nahiyar a duniya.

Rushewar hankali: Bayyana Tushen Matsalar Afirka

Bautar da hankali shine ɗayan litattafai mafi kyau akan matsalolin Afirka waɗanda zaku iya karantawa, wani bangare saboda yana magance rikice-rikicen daga asalinsa, dogaro da fasaha da ilimi kamar yadda dabi'u biyu suke hade kuma a lokaci guda ana murkushe shi ta hanyar mulkin mallaka wanda har yanzu ba mutanen Afirka kawai suke rike dashi ba. Asiya ko Turai. Latin Amurka, wanda marubucin ya ambace shi a matsayin "wanda aka la'anta a duniya." Amma bari mu shiga cikin sassa.

Decolonize hankali shine Takardar da ta tattara laccoci guda huɗu da Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o ya gabatar tsakanin 1981 da 1985, wani malami ne na mutanen Gikuyu, a cikin Kenya, an yi ƙaura zuwa ƙasashen waje sama da shekaru ashirin da biyar saboda gaskiyar ƙarfin halin ƙalubalantar mulkin mallaka daga al'adun, babban batun littafin.

Mulkin mallaka a Afirka yayin ƙarni na XNUMXIngilishi, Faransanci, Jamusanci ko Fotigal, abu ne da bai dace da mallakar ƙasashen Afirka ba kawai, amma kuma ya tilasta musu su kalli al'adunsu da kunya tare da mai da hankali ga abubuwan da suke so na neman na yamma zuwa ga abin da ba za su taɓa samu ba. . Tabbas, a cikin wannan sabon hangen nesa ya kasance an cire adabin adabin Afirka gaba ɗaya (misali na wannan shi ne Majalissar Marubutan Afirka na Maganganun Ingilishi da aka yi a Uganda a cikin 1962 kuma wanda mawaƙin Tanzanian Shabaan Robert, ɗayan sanannen duniya a Afirka. , ba a gayyace shi ba saboda gaskiyar cewa ya buga dukkan aikinsa a cikin Swahili). A cikin Decolonizing the Mind Thiong'o yayi ma'amala da wannan da sauran gaskiyar da aka samo daga mulkin mallaka da kuma mulkin mallaka, babbar matsalar yanzu a Afirka.

Afirka nahiya ce da ta kunshi mutane da yawa, kabilu da yare, na musamman wajan magana da waka. A saboda wannan dalili, ɗayan matakan farko na mulkin mallaka na al'adu wanda ƙasashen yamma suka yiwa Afirka shine ya rinjayi sabbin ƙarnuka ta hanyar maye gurbin yarensu da Ingilishi ko aiwatar da tsarin ilimi wanda Shakespeare ko TSElliot suna maye gurbin tatsuniyoyin Afirka, don littattafan da hangen nesan Turai game da Duniya ta Uku shine na mutumin da ba shi da wayewa. Wannan "wankin kai" a cikin 'yan Afirka ya kasance babbar matsala ga yawan jama'ar Afirka a cewar Thiong'o, wanda tun kafin hijirarsa ya rubuta wani wasan kwaikwayo wanda yayi nazarin irin wannan matsalar kuma nasarar da ta samu a tsakanin jama'a ita ce dalili isa ya ƙare a kurkuku.

Thiong'o: Gikuyu a matsayin makami

Hakkin rubutu a yarenku

An haifi Thiong'o a cikin 1938 a Limuru (Kenya), kasancewa mai bayar da shaida kai tsaye tawayen Mau Mau don samun 'yancin kasarsa, wanda aka samu a shekarar 1963. A lokaci guda, kuma godiya ga kyakkyawan sakamakonsa, ya sami damar samun damar zuwa matsayin malami ga wannan rukunin fitattun masarautar da suka yi (kuma yake ci gaba da yin haka) mafi mahimmancin yanke shawara a ƙasar, matsayin da ya ba shi damar yin aiki don kare yarukan tsiraru da al'adun marasa rinjaye. Daga cikin litattafan Thiong'o da muka samu Kogin tsakanin (1965), hatsin alkama (1967) ko, kwanan nan, Raven Witcher (2006). Koyaya, ginshikin aikinsa shine rubutun wasan Ngaahika Ndeenda, wanda aka gabatar a Cibiyar Al'adu da Ilimi ta Kamiriitu a cikin 1977 kuma wannan shine dalilin da ya sa, bayan shekara ɗaya, za a kai Thiong'o gidan yari. A can ne zai rubuta aikinsa na gikuyu na farko, Caitaani Mutharabaini, a cikin takarda mai bayan gida mai kauri sosai, mai cikakken iko ne na masarautar da zai sa fursunonin cikin gida su wahala koda lokacin da suka shiga bandaki. Bayan an sake shi daga kurkuku, Thiong'o da danginsa sun koma Amurka, daga inda marubucin ya ci gaba da kare dalilinsa.

Lalata Zuciya shine littafin marubuci mafi bayyane game da matsalolin Afirka. A zahiri, zan kawo maganganun kalmomin wasu daga littafin a matsayin hujja akan ainihin asalin halin yanzu:

Nazarin cigaban al'adu na tarihi: me yasa ba zai zama na Afirka ba? Me ya sa adabin Afirka ba zai iya kasancewa a tsakiya ba, ta yadda za mu yi la’akari da sauran al’adun dangane da hakan?

Hakanan, daga wannan kiran zuwa aiki ya haifar da babbar matsala a Afirka a yau, a cewar Thiong'o:

Mulkin mallaka shine musun ci gaban da cigaban Afirka. Rashin nasara na mulkin mallaka da mulkin mallaka, sabili da haka, 'yantar da albarkatun ƙasa da na mutane da na dukkanin ƙarfin ƙasa zai kasance farkon ci gaban Afirka da ci gabanta.

Kwanaki kafin fara littafin da na shirya labari akan tsarin mulkin mallaka wanda aka saita a Cape Verde wanda kalmomin Thiong'o suka sami tasiri sosai.

Mutumin da ya jefa rayuwarsa cikin haɗari don sauya harshe da al'adun da suka samo asali daga gare ta zuwa mafi kyawun makami don neman zaman lafiya, na daidaito tsakanin mutanen Afirka dangane da duniyar zalunci.

 

 


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  1.   Piper valca m

    Abinda kawai zan iya musantawa shine farkon budewarka: shara da rashin sani? Ina tsammanin yana da haɗari sosai don ayyana kowace ƙasa a ƙarƙashin waɗannan kalmomin. Na mayar da tambayar: me kuke gani lokacin da kuka kalli Turai? Tsabta da al'ada? Kuna tsammanin cewa a Afirka babu wata al'ada ba tare da wata hujja da ta goyi bayan sa ba kuma ta ba shi inganci, ya ci gaba da ɗaukar hoton ta na dabbanci, kawai saboda al'adunta ya bambanta da na ku, kuma a cikin sa matsalar take.

    Kuna yin kuskuren yin dogaro da gaskiyar cewa yanayin zamantakewarku da / ko al'adunku ƙa'idodi ne na duniya, kuma duk abin da ya bambanta ko daga waccan ƙa'idar ba ta da kyau.

    Menene nassoshinku? Shin ya zama dole a ba da wannan hoton na Afirka don buɗe labarin (wanda yake da kyau sosai)?

    Yi haƙuri idan na ji m.

bool (gaskiya)