Wani karkatarwa

Wata karkatarwa.

Wata karkatarwa.

An buga shi a 1898, Wani karkatarwa shine sanannen sanannen kuma wanda akafi magana akan aikin marubucin fitaccen marubucin kuma mai sukar adabi Henry James. Labari ne na fatalwowi da fatalwowi cikin salon amintattun labarai na "gargajiya" na gothic. Amma tare da jimillar sababbin abubuwa waɗanda ke ba masu karatu mamaki kamar yadda suka gamsu.

Marubuci na ɗaya daga cikin fitattun masu fa'idar hangen adabi. A zahiri, yana ɗaukar wannan ra'ayi zuwa iyaka. Ba shi yiwuwa a yi bitar wannan sabon littafin ba tare da bayyana wasu bayanai game da makircin ba (wanda aka fi sani da mugayen abokan gāba). Kodayake a wannan yanayin, sanin wasu fannoni a gaba ba ya haifar da bambance-bambance da yawa.

Game da marubucin, Henry James

Yana ɗaya daga cikin mahimmin sunaye a cikin adabin Anglo-Saxon na zahiri da zamani. Ga mutane da yawa, Wani karkatarwa —Duk da shekarar da aka ƙaddamar da ita - bisa ƙa'ida alama ce ta farkon motsi na zamani. Wanne, mamaye mamaye haruffa a cikin harshen turanci a lokacin rabin farkon karni na XNUMX.

Henry James An haife shi a New York a ranar 15 ga Afrilu, 1843, cikin dangi mai wadata. Mahaifinsa, yana ɗokin ganin yaransa sun gano duniya ta idanunsu, ya tura shi karatu Turai. Ya kasance yana cikin Paris sannan a London. A cikin wannan babban birni na ƙarshe zai shafe mafi yawan rayuwarsa.

Hali mai hankali

Rubutunsa suna kan leɓunan masu karatu da yawa tun bayyanar su. Duk da haka, tallace-tallace da aka ƙirƙira bai isa ba don James ya rayu cikin sauƙi. Koyaya, wannan bai hana shi halarta ba tare da tsangwama ba ga manyan dawarorin Turai na bourgeoisie, galibi Burtaniya.

Dangane da abin da marubucin kansa ya yi furtawa, an sami mafi kyawun maganganu ta hanyar "zugawa." Watau, ta hanyar saurarawa akai-akai ga tattaunawa ta yau da kullun a cikin manyan Ingila, marubucin Ba'amurke ya gama goge wasu fannoni na aikinsa.

"Babu wani annabi a kasarsu"

A Amurka, a cikin shekaru ashirin na farko na karni na XNUMX, rubuce-rubucensa ba su haifar da daɗaɗawa tsakanin masu sukar ba. Koyaya - bayan ƙididdigar adabi - nazarin da aka yi amfani da shi ya kasance mai mahimmancin ra'ayi. Da kyau, asali sun kasance gunaguni ga marubucin saboda shawarar da ya yanke ta zama baƙon ɗan ƙasa.

Bature a karshen

Kafin ya mutu, asalin tabbatar da hutun James tare da kasarsa ta haihuwa. Lokacin da Biritaniya ta zama ƙasa a cikin 1915 a matsayin zanga-zanga bayan shawarar da Amurka ta yanke na kada ta shiga cikin ƙawancen yayin Yakin Warasar. A cikin ramuwar gayya, a cikin shekaru bayan mutuwarsa, littattafansu kusan bacewa daga ɗakunan ajiya daga shagunan sayar da littattafai na Amurka.

Henry James.

Henry James.

A halin yanzu, aikin adabi na Henry James yawanci ana fifita shi da gaske, amma "sulhu" da jama'ar Amurka har yanzu bai cika ba. Kamar yadda yake da wahalar fahimta Har yanzu akwai bangarori a cikin "ƙungiyar" da ke adawa da ba da cancanta. Da yawa sun zo sun watsar da shi a matsayin wani marubucin Ingilishi "mai sanyi".

Analysis of Wani karkatarwa

Kuna iya siyan labari anan: Wani karkatarwa

Taken wannan labarin shine furucin ka'idoji. Labarin sa yana nuna adabin ban tsoro da na sirri na allahntaka ta yadda abin da ya zama al'ada ba haka bane. A cikin mahimmanci, littafi ne mai duhu da gothic plot, an saita shi a cikin babban gidan Victorian a cikin ƙasan London, kewaye da dazuzzuka masu kauri.

Don kammala hadaddiyar giyar, daga cikin mutanen akwai fatalwowi guda biyu, adadi wanda "tarihin rayuwa" ya tabe shi da zunubai wadanda ba za'a gafarta musu ba. Musamman, Laifin babba zai kasance ne don faɗawa cikin jaraba ta jiki ... jima'i mara kyau (jigo ne na yau da kullun a cikin James, yana haifar da ƙiyayya).

Babu wani abu da alama?

'Yan wasan kwaikwayon na Wani karkatarwa 'yan biyu ne "mara laifi" (Flora da Miles). Wanne, a lokacin, yana wakiltar karkatacciyar magana. Hakanan, ci gaba mai cike da fatalwowi, matattu, da jima'i haɗuwa ce "mai ƙarfi". Saboda haka, ga mafi yawan masu karatu da masu sukar adabi a lokacinsa, ba makirci ne mai sauki ba.

A kowane hali, ainihin mahimmancin yanayin James shine amfani da hangen nesa. Inda labarin labarin ya ta'allaka ne kacokan kan halayen mai mulki (mai kula da kula da yaran da muka ambata). Bayan haka, masu karatu (har ma da haruffan) suna da abubuwan da suka faru na wannan yarinyar mai shekaru 20 don tona asirin da suka faru.

Mai ba da labari mai dogaro

James ya sanya wa masu karatun sa wata mawuyacin halin da ba za a iya kaucewa ba, wanda, ya danganta da ƙarshen kowane ɗayan, zai yi tasiri kan fassarar ƙarshe da aka ba labarin. A wannan ma'anar, batun da ke haifar da ƙarin tambayoyi shi ne cewa mai mulki ce kawai za ta iya ganin fatalwowi da fatalwa. Shin al'amuran da ba na al'ada ba suna faruwa da gaske ko duk suna cikin wannan matar?

Henry James ya faɗi.

Henry James ya faɗi.

Bugu da kari, daya daga cikin haruffan sakandare, mai taushin gida da taushin gida, ana jin tsoron abubuwan da suka faru na gidan. Tabbas wannan kuyanga ba ta taɓa shaidar da bayyanar fatalwa ba. Wato, tsoronsa ya ta'allaka ne kawai akan ta'addancin da ya samo asali ta hanyar sauraron labaran ƙaramin malami.

Haramtaccen jan hankali

Addara ƙarin tambaya zuwa adadi na matashiya kuma kyakkyawa mai mulki, tana sha'awar ƙaunataccen jarumi. Wanda kuma yake matsayin mai kula da doka bayan mutuwar iyayen da suka haifa.

A wannan gaba, wani abu ashirin da ire-iren waɗannan nau'ikan motsin zuciyar - wanda a wasu lokuta ake bayyana shi a matsayin abin sha'awa fiye da jin daɗin ciki - ya isa ya sanya shakku kan kyakkyawan hukuncin nata. Jimlar waɗannan da wasu abubuwan suna tayar da shakku ga masu karatu.

Aikin ɗan adam a cikin kowace doka

James ya haɓaka labarinsa kai tsaye, akasin salon da yafi rinjaye a cikin yawancin labarinsa. Saboda haka, bayyani an iyakance shi ne don samar da cikakkun bayanai masu alaƙa da saiti, amma ba tare da ɗaukaka ba. Inda motsin rai (mai firgitarwa) wanda mai mulki ke watsawa yana haɓakawa da haɓaka shafi na tashin hankali ta shafi.

Ko da mutanen da basu karanta ba Wani karkatarwa, tabbas sun sami wani aiki kai tsaye ko kuma kai tsaye ga wannan labarin. Daga cikin wadatattun sauye-sauyen fim, akwai wanda yanayinsa ya dace da yanayin da James ya ƙirƙira: Sauran (2001) na Alejandro Amenábar.


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

Kasance na farko don yin sharhi

Bar tsokaci

Your email address ba za a buga.

*

*

  1. Mai alhakin bayanan: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Dalilin bayanan: Gudanar da SPAM, gudanar da sharhi.
  3. Halacci: Yarda da yarda
  4. Sadarwar bayanan: Ba za a sanar da wasu bayanan ga wasu kamfanoni ba sai ta hanyar wajibcin doka.
  5. Ajiye bayanai: Bayanin yanar gizo wanda Occentus Networks (EU) suka dauki nauyi
  6. Hakkoki: A kowane lokaci zaka iyakance, dawo da share bayanan ka.

bool (gaskiya)