Saint Manuel Bueno, shahidi

Saint Michael Good, shahidi.

Saint Michael Good, shahidi.

A ranar 13 ga Mayu, 1931 ya bayyana a karon farko Saint Manuel Bueno, shahidi, a cikin N ° 461 na mujallar Littafin labari na yau. Nivola ce wacce ke taƙaita yawancin halayen halayen babban aikin falsafa da marubuci Miguel de Unamuno. Rubutun ya nuna yawancin damuwar da ke damun tsofaffi mai ilimi.

Wadannan abubuwan da ake gani ana bayyana su ta hanyar babban halayen sa, firist. Hakanan da niyyar marubucin Basque ya girgiza lamirin masu karatunsa don tunzura su zuwa ga bincike na ruhaniya na gaskiya. Bayan haka, gaba tsakanin imani da hankali ya zama gwagwarmayar cikin gida ta dindindin a Unamuno.

Sobre el autor

Miguel de Unamuno (Bilbao, 29 ga Satumba, 1864 - Salamanca, 31 ga Disamba, 1936) ɗayan manyan bayanai ne game da Zamanin 98. Aikinsa yana nuna ɗaukakar ƙwarewa game da nau'ikan salo iri daban daban kamar su makaloli, litattafai, waƙoƙi da zane-zane. A Jami'ar Salamanca ya kasance Farfesa na Girkanci, har ma ya kasance Rector, amma an kore shi saboda dalilai na siyasa.

Ya yi hijira zuwa Faransa a lokacin mulkin kama-karya na Primo de Rivera. Bayan ya dawo Spain, ya sake rike ofishin rector. Bayan ƙaddamarwa a cikin 1931, Saint Manuel Bueno, shahidi An buga shi a ƙarƙashin tambarin Espasa Calpe tare da ƙarin labarai guda biyu a cikin 1993. Waɗannan labaran biyu masu cike da labarai daidai yake da jigogin masu wanzuwa waɗanda suka fi sha'awar Ba da labari.

Halin Unamuno, salon sa da tunanin sa

Tsananin halin sa ya ɗan bambanta da fahimtar wahalar rayuwa, an tsara shi a cikin shawarwari na falsafa na dindindin. Hakanan, yanayin ƙayyadadden ɗan adam ya kasance ra'ayi ne mai yawa a cikin waƙoƙin sa, wanda aka yi masa alama da salon mai daɗi da daidaito, ba tare da annashuwa ba. Duk an bayyana su a cikin salon magana, na magana, wanda aka tuhume shi da adawa, wanda aka yi amfani dashi don bayyana sararin samaniyar sa.

Miguel de Unamuno.

Miguel de Unamuno.

A gefe guda, matsayinsa a kan Spain da Turai alama ce ta tsattsauran ra'ayinsa na ƙarshe. A cikin shekarunsa na farko na rayuwa, Unamuno ya ga ya zama dole a "mayar da Turawan Turai '', saboda ci gaban da al'ummar Iberiya ta samu game da nahiyar. Amma a ƙarshen rayuwarsa ya ɗauka ya zama mafi muhimmanci ga "Spanishize Turai". Da wannan sai ya yi watsi da yabo sau ɗaya don ci gaban Turai.

Hujja daga Saint Manuel Bueno, shahidi

Ángela Carballino edita ce ta labarin Don Manuel Bueno, plebano na ƙaramar garin da take zaune, Valverde de Lucerna. Bayan abubuwa masu zuwa sun sa firist din Ikklesiya ya zama “rayayyen waliyyi, wanda aka yi da nama da jini” kuma ainihin asalin bawan Allah ne. Tare da kauna mara iyaka da sadaukarwa don ta'azantar da mafi rauni, taimakawa "kowa ya mutu da kyau."

Wata rana ɗan'uwan Angela, Lázaro, mai son kyautatawa tare da nuna ƙyamar malanta, ya dawo garin. Kodayake rashin tausayin farko na Lázaro ga Don Manuel da sauri ya zama abin sha'awa bayan jin musun kansa. Amma firist ɗin yana da ɓoyayyen ɓangare: hakika bai gaskanta da Shi ba. Yana marmarin lahira, amma rashin imanin sa ya gagara fahimtar tashin matattu ga jiki.

Tabbatarwa

Don Manuel ya furta sirrinsa daidai ga Lázaro wannan kuma ga Angela. Ya bayyana halayensa na asirce cikin niyyarsa ta kiyaye "aminci tsakanin masu aminci." Ya fi so ya kula da akidar ta'aziya ta rayuwar lahira a tsakanin masu cocin don kar ya dame su. Bayan haka, Lázaro ya yanke shawarar yin murabus daga ra'ayinsa na ci gaba, yana nuna kamar ya tuba kuma yana haɗin gwiwa tare da aikin mahaifin.

Bayan 'yan shekaru, Don Manuel ya mutu - har yanzu ba tare da dawo da imaninsa ba - tare da isassun cancantar a doke shi. Angela da Lázaro ne kawai suka san sirrinta. Aƙarshe, lokacin da Lázaro ya mutu, Angela ta ƙare da mamakin fansar ƙaunatattunta.

Ka’idojin Falsafa

Hakanan, Iguirƙirar wallafe-wallafen Miguel de Unamuno ya wanzu a zahiri. Yana bincika batun yanci na ɗan adam daga hangen nesa na mutum ɗaya, inda kowa ke da alhakin yanke shawarar sa. Sabili da haka, mutumin Unamunia baya bayar da shawarar komai ga mahaɗan da zai iya sanya ko ƙaddara hanyar sa.

Daidaici tsakanin Unamuno da jarumansa

Halin Don Manuel yana son yin imani da lahira kuma ya fanshi kansa cikin imaninsa, domin yana jin tsoron yanayin mutuwarsa. Haka kuma, Unamuno ya kasance mai gamsuwa da tunanin girman kansa ta hanyar ayyukansa, kwarewa da sadaukarwa ga wasu. Amma shubuhar da aka samu daga hankali koyaushe tana bayyana a matsayin babban slab da ba za a iya kauce masa ba a kan tafarkin ruhunsa.

A ƙarshe cewa Unamuno da kansa ya shawo kan matsalar addini a cikin mawuyacin lokacin kwanakinsa ta hanyar fahimta ta hanzari maimakon cikakken. A wannan gaba, ceto zai samu ga waɗanda ke marmarin isa ga Allah. A saboda wannan dalili - duk da shakku mai tushe - maganganun littafi mai tsarki (ko kai tsaye, rubutu ko kai tsaye) suna da matukar dacewa a cikin aikin.

Tambayar ainihi?

Sunayen da Unamuno ya zaɓa a Don Manuel Bueno, shahidi nuna matsayin kowane hali a cikin rubutun. Angela - Angel ne manzo. Don Manuel - Emmanuel, mai ceto. Li'azaru, ana ambatarsa ​​a cikin irin wannan hanyar zuwa adadi na Littafi Mai-Tsarki (wanda ya watsar da aikinsa don ƙaddamar da rayuwar addini). Hatta yanayin garin, tabki da tsauni an keɓance su, suna da ruhi.

In ji Miguel de Unamuno.

In ji Miguel de Unamuno.

Don Manuel yana zaune cikin nutsuwa a cikin mawuyacin halin ainihi, halin ciki game da asalin jama'a wanda aka gina don wasu. Koyaya, godiya ga firist, membobin cocin suna jin cewa babu wani dalili guda ɗaya da zai sa a yi rawar jiki cikin bangaskiya. Amintattun ba sa shakkar cewa suna kan hanya madaidaiciya. Suna da tabbacin cewa sun sami ceto.

Saint Manuel Bueno, shahidi: fitacciyar ma'anar kowace ma'anar magana

Yiwuwar tsarkakewa ya zama abin hawa zuwa rashin mutuwa na Don Manuel. A cikin rikice-rikice, ayyukan babban mutum yana ɗauke da madawwamin madaidaiciya kamar yadda aka sanya su cikin ƙauna mara iyaka. Minoraramar sadaukarwa da sadaukarwa idan aka kwatanta da sakamako mai fa'ida da gaske: kwanciyar hankali na mazauna ƙauyen.

Saboda haka, Amwazon Unamuno ya bayyana lokacin da yake nuna babban saɓani na ɗan adam ta irin wannan hanyar ruwa. Tare da nuna fifikon ruhaniya a matsayin ɗayan ginshiƙan wayewa da ci gaba. Shakka shine babban mahimmin ci gaba na ruhaniya da ruhaniya a matsayin wani muhimmin bangare na yan Adam na zamani.


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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