Tarihin rayuwa da ayyukan Nicanor Parra

Nicanor Parra ne ya dauki hoton.

Nicanor Parra, tsohon littafin.

Niconor Segundo Parra Sandoval (1914-2018) Ya kasance masanin ilmin lissafi, lissafi kuma mawaƙi na ƙasar Chile, yayi la'akari da ɗayan marubutan da suka fi tasiri ga adabi a cikin Sifaniyanci, kuma a cewar masana: mafi kyau a yankin yamma.

An sha gabatar da shi takarar Nobel a Adabi, bai samu ba. Duk da haka an bayar da shi tare da Adabin Adabin Gargajiya da na Musamman. Marubucin yana da kyakkyawar dangantaka da Michelle Bachelet, tsohon shugaban Chile, wanda ya ziyarce shi har zuwa ƙarshen kwanakinsa.

Tarihin Rayuwa

Haihuwa da dangi

Nicanor Parra an haife shi a ranar 5 ga Satumba, 1914 a San Fabián de Alico, Chile. Ya fito ne daga dangin da ke da ɗan albarkatun tattalin arziki. Mahaifinsa shine: Nicanor Parra Alarcón, mawakiyar bohemian kuma malami; da nasa mahaifiya: Rosa Clara Sandoval, Mai adon kayan kwalliyar gargajiya na kasarta.

Yara takwas aka haifa daga wannan ƙungiyar, Nicanor shine babba. Koyaya, tana da yayye mata rabin mahaifiya, daga auren da ya gabata. Gidansu shi ne wurin koyarwar mahaifin, sun ƙaura a lokacin mulkin kama karya na Carlos Ibáñez, kamar yadda Alarcón ya yi wa gwamnati aiki a birane da yawa.

Matasa da karatu

Nikanar ya yi karatun digirinsa na farko a Liceo de Hombres a Chillán, wurin da daga karshe dangin suka zauna. Ya fara rubuta shayari, wannan saboda tasirin da ya samu daga yawancin littattafan da ya sami damar zuwa: ayyukan waƙoƙin zamani na waƙoƙi, sanannun waƙoƙi da kuma tarihin da wani farfesa ya ba shi.

Shi kadai ne a cikin danginsa da ya shiga karatun boko. An ba shi tallafin karatu don kammala karatunsa na farko lokacin da ya koma Santiago, kuma a 1933 ya fara karatun lissafi da lissafi a Jami'ar Chile. A lokacin da yake karatun jami'a ya buga Sabon Tarihin Waƙar Chile; sauke karatu a 1937.

Farkon adabi

Shekarar kammala karatunsa ya wallafa kundin wakoki na farko, Littafin waƙa ba tare da suna ba, kuma ya yanke shawarar komawa Chillán don yin aikin sa. Aikin da aka buga ya karɓi Kyautar Gasar unicipungiyar Municipal ta Santiago. A shekarar 1939, bayan girgizar kasa, ya koma babban birni kuma a 1943 ya sami gurbin karatu a Amurka.

A shekarar 1949 ya sake samun gurbin karatu, a wannan karon a Oxford. A wannan lokacin, Parra ya koyi abubuwa da yawa game da wallafe-wallafen Turai. Ya auri Inga Palmen kuma suka tafi Chile, a 1955 ya buga Wakoki da tsoffin wakoki, cakuda al'adunsa da na Turai, saboda wannan aikin ya zama sananne a duk duniya.

Ganewar duniya

Antipoetry, akasin al'ada, halayyar da ta ja hankalin masu karatu. A cikin shekaru sittin, Parra ya wallafa waƙoƙi daban-daban, ciki har da Waƙoƙi Rashanci. A cikin 1967 Jorge Elliott ya fassara samarwar da ta ba ta babban ci gaba; take a turanci ya Wakoki da tsoffin wakoki.

Nicanor Parra, a cikin kwanakin ƙarshe na rayuwarsa

Nicanor Parra a cikin tsufansa.

Parra yayin Yakin Cacar Baki

An gayyaci mawaƙin zuwa bikin Shayari na ofasa na Amurka. Wannan ziyarar ta ba Fadar White House dama, ta hanyar yaudara, don juya wa Cuba baya ga marubucin, suna ɗaukar hoto tare da Pat Nixon. Wannan matsalar ta bata sunan Parra.

Bayan yakin ya kare, sai ya buga Rubutun kalmomi A matsayin zanga-zangar adawa da waɗannan ƙasashen biyu, tabbas, ba ta da haɗari, tunda ba ta dogara da kowace irin akida ba. A cikin shekarun XNUMXs ya tsaya kyam a cikin rashin gamsuwa da tsarin jari hujja da gurguzu.

Nunin Nobel

Lokacin da mulkin kama-karya a cikin kasar sa ya kare, marubucin ya sake samun yabo. A lokacin 1990s nade-nadensa uku don kyautar Nobel a cikin Adabi ya faru, na farko a 1995, sannan a 1997 kuma na karshe a 2000. Abin takaici bai yi nasarar samunta ba kuma an kara shi cikin jerin marubutan da ba su ci kyautar Nobel ba.

Shekaru ɗari da mutuwa

A cikin 2014, Nicanor Parra yayi bikin cika shekaru 100 da haihuwaA cikin wannan watan an gudanar da ayyukan girmama shi, duk da haka, mawakin bai halarci ko daya ba. Michelle Bachelet ita kadai ce mutumin da ta yi maraba da ita a gidanta, saboda ba kasafai take karɓar baƙi. Tun da ya gano Juan Rulfo, Parra ya ce ya sake samun kansa tare da wasiƙun, ba a banza ba littattafan Rulfo suke mafi kyawun ayyukan Mexico da duniya.

Nicanor Parra ya mutu a gidansa da ke Santiago de Chile yana da shekara 103, a ranar 23 ga Janairu, 2018; An yanke hukuncin makoki na kasa na kwana biyu don girmama shi. Washegari bayan rasuwarsa, an yi jana'izarsa a gidansa, yayin bikin dangin da tsohon shugaban ya halarta.

Hoton marubucin Meziko Juan Rulfo.

Juan Rulfo, marubuci mai tasiri sosai akan aikin Nicanor Parra.

Gina

- Waƙa ba tare da littafin waƙa ba (1937).

- Ayoyin falo (1962).

- Wa'azozi da wa'azin Almasihu na Elqui (1977).

- Waka da waƙoƙi daga Eduardo Frei (1982).

- Litattafan labarai (1982).

- Ayoyin Kirsimeti (antivillancico)  (1983).

- Bayanin abincin dare (2006).


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