Tafiyar Gulliver

Tafiyar Gulliver

Tafiyar Gulliver

Tafiyar Gulliver is a prose satire, ana ɗaukar sahihin aikin da ɗan ƙasar Ireland Jonathan Swift ya rubuta. An buga shi a cikin Oktoba 1726 kuma tun daga lokacin sanannen sa ya haifar da shi ya zama sanannen adabin duniya. Marubucin ya kirkiri rubutun ne a matsayin izgili da "labaran tafiye-tafiye", yana mai kara kakkausar suka kan al'adu, hanyoyin siyasa, da kuma dabi'ar mutum.

La Nuwamba ne cike da rudu tare da abin dariya da tunani, saboda wannan dalili, da yawa suna ɗauka cewa aikin yara ne. Jarumi na wannan labarin shine Lemuel gulliver, likita wanda, saboda wasu yanayi, ya yanke shawarar tafiya a kan tafiya. Duk cikin tafiyarsa zaiyi rayuwa mai girma kuma zaka hadu da wayewa ta musamman guda hudu, duk sun sha bamban da naka.

Takaitawa na Tafiyar Gulliver (1726)

Labari ne na barkwanci wanda a ciki aka ruwaito tafiye-tafiye hudu na likita, wanda ya gaji da aikin yau da kullun ya yanke shawarar fara wasu al'amuran teku. Wannan aikin zamani ne na adabi kuma an daidaita shi a lokuta da yawa, duka don fim, talabijin, rediyo, da kuma wasan kwaikwayo. Hakanan, marubuta daban-daban sunyi jerin labarai, tare da sabbin tafiye tafiye da shahararren Lemuel Gulliver.

Synopsis

Lemuel Gulliver likita ne likita mai aure da yara, Yar asalin Nottinghamshire. Ya zai yi tafiye-tafiye huɗu wanda zai rayu m e abubuwan ban sha'awa. A cikin kowane ɗayansu zaku ƙare a wani tsibiri daban, inda zaku haɗu da wayewa ta musamman guda huɗu. Waɗannan za su sa ka yi tunani a duk lokacin da ka koma Ingila kuma ka yi tambaya game da rayuwarka.

Tafiya ta farko

A Mayu 1699, Mai kwalliya fara tafiyarsa ta farko, ga abin da yake hau Jirgin Ruwa. Bayan hadari mai karfi, jirgin ya nitse kuma Lemuel dole ne ya yi iyo ba tare da gajiyawa ba har sai da neman ƙasa mai ƙarfi. Bayan yawo ta cikin ruwa mai ta da hankali, ya sami damar zuwa bakin ruwa, inda yayi bacci sakamakon babban kokarin da aka yi. Jarumar ta farka a daure kuma wasu kananan mutane sun kewaye ta: mazaunan Lilliput.

Rana mai zuwa, Gulliver ya sadu da sarkin tsibirin, wanda yake tausaya masa da kuma samun amincewa. Abu ne mai sauki a gare shi ya saba; da sauri koya sabon yare da al'adu. Likita ya zama yana son sarki sosai cewa sai ya yanke shawarar sake shi, amma admiral (tare da wanda baiyi ba) sabotage komai, don 'yantar da ƙaton yana ƙarƙashin wasu sharuɗɗa, waɗanda ba za su ba shi damar komawa gida ba.

Yayin da lokaci ya wuce, yaƙi ya ɓarke ​​tsakanin Lilliputians da masarautar Blefuscu. —Haka kuma tare da ƙananan mazauna. Ta hanyar kashe girmanta, Gulliver ya kama rundunar abokan gaba, yana ba shi taken girmamawa. Bayan ya ƙi juyar da Blefuscu zuwa yankin mulkin mallaka na Lilliput, Lemuel zai yi tsalle tsakanin ɓangarorin har sai ya sami damar dawo da jirgin ruwan da ya yi girmansa wanda ya tsere ya koma Ingila.

Tafiya ta biyu

Watanni biyu bayan dawowarsa ga danginsa, Gulliver ya yanke shawarar shiga sabuwar tafiya, wannan lokacin a cikin Kasada. Bugu da ƙari, hadari ya sa jirgin ya rasa hanya kuma ya ƙare a tsibirin Brobdingnag. A can kowa yana lura da wani katon mutum, wanda ya sa ma'aikatan suka gudu da tsoro, yayin da Lemuel ya ruga zuwa filin.

Kasancewa a can, Manomi mai tsayin mita 22 ya kama Gulliver don nunawa a matsayin jan hankalin circus. Ya shirya don kai shi wurin Sarauniya, wacce nan da nan ta nemi ta kasance tare da shi a matsayin dabbar dabba. Kasancewa a cikin gidan sarauta, Lemuel zai shiga cikin haɗari da yawa saboda ƙarancin girman sa. Godiya ga wani yanayi mai ban mamaki, zai iya isa zuwa tekun, don daga baya rundunar ta Ingila su cece shi.

Tafiya ta uku

Watanni daga baya - wanda wasu matsalolin iyali suka haifar da shi-, Gulliver ya yanke shawarar sake tafiya. A wannan karon, ‘yan fashin teku ne suka afka wa jirgin yayin da yake guduwa zai ƙare a cikin ƙasar da ba a sani ba. Lemuel yana tafiya cikin yankin, lokacin da farat ɗaya, babban inuwa ya lulluɓe shi, lokacin da yake duban sama, sami tsibirin iyo a sama da shi. Bayan sun nemi taimako, wasu mazaje suka jefa igiya suka samu damar hawa ta.

Ana kiran wannan tsibirin mai ban mamaki: Laputa, a cikin wannan al'ummar ana sarrafa komai ta hanyar kiɗa da lissafi. Ba da daɗewa ba Gulliver ya gaji da wannan baƙon al'umma kuma ya nemi a dawo da shi duniya., inda ya ziyarci Balnibarbi na 'yan kwanaki. A ƙarshe ya yanke shawarar komawa Ingila, wucewa ta Glubbdubdrib kafin ya ziyarci mai sihiri, ban da haɗuwa da halittun da ba su mutuwa da ake kira struldbrugs.

Tafiya ta huɗu

Gulliver ya yanke shawarar tsayawa a Ingila kuma ba zai sake tafiya ba. Bayan wani lokaci na gajiya, yanke shawarar komawa cikin teku, a wannan karon a matsayin kyaftin din jirgin. Jim kadan bayan tafiya, rikice-rikice tsakanin ma'aikatan ya haifar da Lemuel a cikin tsibiri. A can zai hadu da wayewa biyu daban-daban: Yahoos da Houyhnhnms, na biyun sune ke mulkin yankin.

Yahoos mutane ne da ke rayuwa a cikin daji, koyaushe ƙazanta ne kuma, ƙari, ba a dogara da shi. A nata bangaren, houyhnhnms suna magana dawakai, mai hankali da aiki bisa cikakken dalili. Gulliver yana haɗuwa sosai da wannan wayewar, kuma kowace rana ƙyamar sa ga ɗan adam tana ƙaruwa; kodayake, a ƙarshe - ba da son ransa ba - an dawo da shi Ingila.

Binciken rayuwar marubucin

Jonathan Swift

Jonathan Swift

A ranar Laraba, Nuwamba 30, 1667, Dublin City (Ireland) ga haihuwar yaro yi baftisma kamar yadda Jonathan Swift. Iyayensa sune Abigail Erick da Jonathan Swift, dukkansu baƙi ne Ingilishi. Jim kadan kafin a haife shi, mahaifinsa ya rasu, hakan ya sa mahaifiyarsa ta koma Ingila. Amma kafin tafiya, matar ta tafi da tarbiyya ta Jonathan a lura daga Kawun Godwin.

Karatu da ayyukan farko

Ya sami ilimi ta hanyar godiya ga kawunsa, tunda ya yi rayuwarsa a farkon shekarunsa cikin matsanancin talauci. Yayi karatu a makarantar Kilkenny kuma yayi karatun digiri na farko a Kwalejin Trinity, Dublin.. A shekarar 1688 ya dawo tare da mahaifiyarsa zuwa Ingila, a can, saboda godiyarta ya sami damar aiki a matsayin sakataren marubucin Ingilishi kuma dan siyasa Sir William Temple, wanda dangi ne na nesa kuma aboki ne ga kawunsa Godwin.

Dangane da ayyukansa a matsayin hawan Haikalin Baronet, Ya ci gaba da karatun jami'a kuma an naɗa shi a matsayin firist na Anglican a 1694. Saboda gajiyar ƙarancin shekaru da rashin ci gaba, ya yanke shawarar komawa Ireland don karɓar Ikklesiyar Kilroot. A cikin 1696, ya koma Moor Park - wanda Haikali ya gamsu da shi - don shirya abubuwan tarihinsa da wasiƙu kafin a buga shi.

Swift yayi aiki tare da Sir Temple har zuwa rasuwarsa a 1699. A cikin waɗannan shekarun sami gogewa sosai a fagen siyasa, addini da kuma adabi na birni, wanda ya jagoranci shi ya zama babban mutum mai tasiri da tasiri. Har ila yau, a cikin cewa lokacin da ya rubuta aikinsa na farko, Yaƙi tsakanin littattafai na dā da na zamani, wanda daga baya aka buga shi a shekara ta 1704.

Gasar adabi

Sannan gabatar da rubutu na farko, a waccan shekarar ya fara ne a cikin rubutun satirical ta littafinsa na biyu: Tarihin wankan wanka (1704). Ya yi aiki a matsayin babban edita a jaridar malamin duba, inda ya buga labarai da yawa don nuna goyon baya ga gwamnatin Tory, wanda ya kasance mai ba da shawara daga 1710 zuwa 1714.

A cikin 1726 ba da gangan ba ya gabatar da abin da zai zama gwanintarsa: Tafiyar Gulliver. Wannan ya sa shi ya zama ɗayan mahimman maɓuɓɓugan ra'ayi game da izgili a duniya. Ta hanyar wannan tatsuniyar falsafa, Swift yayi waƙar litattafan tafiye-tafiye sanannen lokacin, wanda a ciki yake lura da salon ɓataccen yanayi wanda yake nuna ayyukansa da yawa.

Ayyuka na Jonathan Swift

  • Yaƙi tsakanin littattafai na dā da na zamani (1697th)
  • Tarihin ganga(1704)
  • Halin abokai(1711)
  • Tatsuniyar ganga (1713)
  • Harafin Ragman(1724)
  • Tafiya ta Gulliver (1726)
  • Shawara kaɗan (1729)

Mutuwa

Daga 1738 Swift ya fara fama da wata cuta mai ban mamaki, wanda aka ɗauka cewa yanayin halitta ne. Zuwa 1742, ciwon ido ya sa ya kasa karantawa. Lokacin da ya hango mutuwarsa, ya ce: "Lokaci ya yi da zan yi hulɗa da wannan duniyar: Zan mutu cikin fushi, kamar bera mai dafi a cikin raminta."

Jonathan Swift ya mutu a ranar 19 ga Oktoba, 1745 kuma ya bar mafi yawan dukiyarsa ga matalauta. Gawarsa a Katolika na St. Patrick a Dublin.


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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