Sherlock Holmes littattafai

Arthur Conan Doyle ya faɗi.

Arthur Conan Doyle ya faɗi.

Lokacin da mai amfani da Intanet ya buƙaci “littattafan Sherlock Holmes” akan Google, labaran labaran (mai yiwuwa) shahararren ɗan sanda mai binciken kowane lokaci sun bayyana akan allon. Shi - tare da Edgar Allan Poe's Dupin da Agatha Christie's Poirot - ɗayan halayen "kafa" na ƙwararren jami'in bincike. Bugu da ƙari, mahimmancin sunansa ya wuce filin adabi.

A gaskiya ma, Wannan shahararren al'adun gargajiyar wanda mai fasaha Sir Arthur Conan Doyle ya kirkira abin kwatance ne wanda ba za a iya kauce masa ba a cikin zane-zanen audiovisual. Ba abin mamaki bane, ya haifar da taken sama da talatin tsakanin fina-finai da jerin talabijin. A wannan bangare, wasan kwaikwayon shahararrun 'yan wasan duniya (R. Downey Jr. ko Jeremy Brett, alal misali) sun mai da Holmes wani adadi na duniya.

Game da marubucin, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle

Haihuwa, dangi da karatun farko

Ofan masu fasaha Charles A. Doyle da Mary Foley, Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle An haife shi a Edinburgh, Scotland, ranar 22 ga Mayu, 1859. Ya girma a ƙarƙashin kulawar mawadaci, mai ra'ayin mazan jiya mai ra'ayin Katolika. Dangane da haka, saurayi Arthur ya shiga cikin makarantun Jesuit a Ingila (firamare da ɓangare na sakandare) da Austria (makarantar sakandare).

Ilimi mafi girma

A cikin 1876, Doyle ya fara karatun likita a Jami'ar Edinburgh. Can tsaya a waje saboda cancantar sa da a cikin wasanni daban-daban (dambe, rugby, wasan kurket)… Hakanan, a cikin wannan gidan karatun ya zama almajirin shahararren likitan nan mai suna Joseph Bell, wanda ya burge matashi Arthur da daidaitattun ayyukan nasa.

Labaran farko

Bell yana da tasiri mai mahimmanci wajen gina halin da ya ba Doyle shahararren adabi: Sherlock Holmes. Daidai, Sirrin kwarin Sasassa (1879) - gajeren labarin da aka buga a cikin Chambers's Edinburgh Journal— wakiltar farkon sa. A shekara mai zuwa ya kammala karatunsa a matsayin likitan fida a cikin mahalarta Fata, A cikin Arctic.

Daga baya, ya shiga cikin SS Mayumba, wani jirgi wanda a ciki ya yi tafiya zuwa babban yanki na gabar yammacin Afirka. Wadannan tafiye-tafiye sun ba da labarai kamar J. Bayanin Habakuk Jephson (1884) y Kyaftin ɗin Pole-Star (1890). A cikin 1889 ya sami digirin digirgir a sakamakon karatunsa Taboshin Dorsal.

Canja wuri zuwa haruffa

A cikin 1882, Doyle yayi ƙoƙari don neman kuɗi daga magani a ofishin tsohon abokin karatunsa a kwaleji, George T. Budd. Amma, kamar ofisoshinsa na gaba a Portsmouth da London, wannan yunƙurin bai yi nasara ba. Saboda haka, fara ƙirƙirar matani akai-akai, gami da, Sirrin Cloomber (1888) y Nazarin a cikin Scarlet (1887), wanda ya fara fim a Holmes.

Hakanan, Conan Doyle yana da lokacin da zai ba da kansa ga yin wasan golf, ƙwallon ƙafa (ya kasance mai tsaron gidan Portsmouth AFC) da kuma wasan kurket (yana ɗaya daga cikin mashahuran Marylebone CC). A wannan bangaren, Ya yi aure daga 1885 zuwa Louise Hawkins, wacce ta haifa masa yara biyu, har zuwa mutuwarta a 1906 (tarin fuka). Daga baya, marubucin ya sake samun 'ya'ya uku a aurensa na biyu da Jean E. Leckie.

Doyle na ƙiyayya da ƙiyayya da Sherlock Holmes

A cikin 1891 Arthur Conan Doyle ya bayyana a cikin wasika zuwa ga mahaifiyarsa que halin Holmes yana "sanye da hankali". Koyaya - duk da zargin mutuwar mai binciken, an ruwaito a ciki Matsalar ƙarshe-, marubucin Scotland ya saki labarai game da Holmes har zuwa 1927 (Taskar Sherlock Holmes). A zahiri, Doyle ya mutu a Ingila shekaru uku kawai bayan wannan littafin, a ranar 7 ga Yul, 1930.

A kowane hali, Doyle an nuna shi kar ya "dogara" akan Holmes don ƙirƙirar labarai masu kyau da nasarorin edita. Daga cikin wa ɗ annan, fitattun littattafai shida da ke cikin Farfesa Challenger, litattafan tarihinsa masu yawa -Dutse Rodney (1896), misali - da kuma gabatarwa irin su Babban yakin Boer (1900). Wannan karshen ya sami marubucin Edinburgh taken Sir.

Holmesian Canon

Labarai hamsin da shida da aka tara cikin tarin abubuwa biyar tare da litattafai huɗu sun zama abin da ake kira kundin tsarin Holmesian wanda Sir Arthur Conan Doyle ya kirkira. Game da umarni don karanta labaran da Sherlock Holmes ya gabatar, akwai hanyoyi biyu da aka gabatar.

Na farko yana nufin tarihin mai binciken, gami da daidaitaccen tsari don lalacewarsa da sake bayyana. Na biyun hanyar kusantar kundin tsarin mulkin holmesian es dangane da lokacin fitarwa wanda aka nuna a ƙasa (taken da ba a nuna su a matsayin littattafai sun dace da tarin labarai):

  • Nazarin a cikin Scarlet (1887). Labari.
  • Alamar su hudun (1890). Labari.
  • Kasadar Sherlock Holmes (1892)
  • Tunawa da Sherlock Holmes (1903)
  • Wasan baskerville (1901-1902). Labari.
  • Dawowar Sherlock Holmes (1903)
  • Kwarin ta'addanci (1914-1916). Labari.
  • Bakansa na karshe (1917)
  • Taskar Sherlock Holmes (1927)

Tarihin rayuwar Sherlock Holmes

Dangane da jagororin rubuce-rubucen Doyle, Sherlock Holmes an haifeshi a shekarar 1854. Shi ɗa ne ga maigidan Ingilishi kuma mace ta fito ne daga masu fasaha na Gallic. Har ila yau yana da 'yan'uwa maza biyu: Sherrinford (wanda ba a ambata a cikin duka kundin tsarin Holmesian) da Mycroft.

Ya sami karatun boko a fannonin ilmin sunadarai, likitanci, shari'a da ilimin kade-kade a wasu manyan jami'o'in Burtaniya (Doyle baya nuna takamaiman wacce). Daidai ne a wancan matakin a matsayin ɗalibin jami'a cewa Holmes ya fara aikin sa jami'in bincike, tare da ayyukan wasan kwaikwayo.

Halayen mutum

Bayan zamansa a jami'a, Holmes ya koma kusa da Gidan Tarihin Burtaniya don haɓaka karatunku na kimiyya. A halin yanzu, ya sadu da Dr. Watson —Da wanda ya raba musu shekaru goma sha bakwai daga cikin shekaru ashirin da uku na aikinsa - a dakin gwaje-gwaje na asibitin Saint Bartholomew a lokacin 1881. A nasa bangaren, abokin Sherlock aka bayyana shi da wadannan halaye:

  • Tabloid adabin fan. Kodayake lokaci-lokaci yakan ambaci marubuta kamar Goethe, La Rochefoucaud ko Jean-Paul.
  • Hujja ta lalace game da ilimin taurari da Falsafa, ɗan haske game da siyasa da ra'ayoyi na asali game da dokar Biritaniya.
  • Ya kasance ƙwararren masanin ilmin sunadarai kuma ya buga goge a cikin kyakkyawar hanya.
  • Ya tabbatar da cewa yana da cikakken bayani akan ilimin tsirrai (musamman a al'amuran da suka shafi guba da kwayoyi), kodayake ya jahilci al'amura kamar noma.
  • Ya nuna ilimin asali game da ilimin ƙasa da abubuwan da ke ƙasa.
  • Kwararren ɗan dambe da fencer.

Sauran haruffa da wasu son sani

Zuwa ƙarshen karni na XNUMX, Holmes ya ƙi bambancin sir (Knight of the Empire), amma ya yarda da ionungiyar Daraja ta hanyar da aka tanada. Game da mata, jami'in binciken ya kasance yana yawan shakkar su tare da maganganu na nuna so, girmamawa da sha'awa. Musamman zuwa ga ƙaunataccen Irene Adler.

Nemo tare da ƙwarewar ilimi na ban mamaki

Professorwararren Farfesa Moriarty shine ƙin jinin Holmes, da kuma dalilin mutuwarsa (a bayyane) a Reichenbach waterfall, Switzerland. Koyaya, fitaccen mai binciken ya sake bayyana shekaru uku bayan haka Dawowar Sherlock Holmes (1903), musamman game da Gidan wofi.

Ritaya

Bayan ya yi ritaya daga aikin bincikensa, Holmes ya koma Sussex, Ingila, domin ya dukufa ga karatun falsafa da kiwon zuma. (Har ma ya rubuta littafi mai cikakken bayani game da kiwon zuma.) Ko ta yaya, yana da lokacin da zai warware kusan kwatsam wani mahimmin lamari a ciki Kasada na aikin zaki (1907).

A ƙarshe, Holmes ya halarci shirin kirkirar wata manufa mai cike da rudani a cikin shekarun da suka kai ga Babban Yaƙin.. Bayan 1914 babu rikodin (a cikin kundin tsarin Holmesian) na rayuwar mashahurin mai binciken ɗan sanda a tarihin adabi.

Karatun tsari na kundin tsarin Holmesian bisa ga tarihin mai binciken

- A corvette Gloria Scott

- Ibadar Musgrave

- Nazarin a cikin Scarlet

- Dotungiyar polka dot

- Mazaunin mai haƙuri

- Aristocrat bachelor

- Kasada na tabo na biyu

- Reigate's Squires

- Badakala a Bohemia

- Namiji mai murza lebe

- 'Ya'yan lemu biyar

- Shari'ar ainihi

- Ofungiyar Redheads

- Kasadar Mai Gano Mutuwa

- Gwanin shuɗin shuɗi

- Kwarin Ta'addanci

- Fuskar rawaya

- Mai fassarar Girkanci

- Alamar su hudun

- Wasan baskerville

- Sirrin Maciji

- Babban sirrin kwarin Boscombe

- Magajin kamfanin Stockbroker

- Yarjejeniyar sojojin ruwa

- Kartani

- Babban yatsan Injiniya

- Mutumin da ya yi hundu

- Wisteria Lodge Adventure

- Tauraruwa ta azurfa

- Gwanin beryl

- Matsalar ƙarshe

- Kasada na gidan fanko

- Kasada na Gilashin Gilashi

- Kasadawar daliban uku

- Kasada mai keken keke

- Kasada na Peter "El Negro"

- Norwood Builder's Kasada

- Tsarin Bruce-Partington

- Kasada mai Hayar Mayafi

- Sussex Vampire Adventure

- Kasada na ɗan wasan da ya ɓace

- Abbey Grange's Kasada

- Shaidan Kafa na Balaguro

- Kasada na ppan tsana

- Mai yin launi mai ritaya

- Charles Augustus Milverton

- Kasadar Napoleons shida

- Matsalar gadar Thor

- Kasada na makarantar Priory

- Shoscombe Old Place Kasada

- Kasadawar Gargajiya Uku

- Bacewar Lady Frances Carfax

- Hadaddiyar Abokin Ciniki

- Kasada na Red Circle

- Sojan mai fatar fata

- Kasada na Tres Frontons

- Kasadar Mazarin Dutse

- Mutumin da yayi rarrafe

- Kasada na aikin zaki

- Gaisuwa ta karshe


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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