Metonymy

Abun birni a cikin waƙar Pablo Neruda.

Abun birni a cikin waƙar Pablo Neruda.

Mahimmanci ko sarauta wani adadi ne na azanci wanda aka bayyana a matsayin abin da ke faruwa na canjin canjin yanayi. A ciki, wani abu ko ra'ayi an tsara shi da sunan wani saboda haɗin dogaro ko sanadiyyar abubuwa biyu. Wadannan dangantakar gabaɗaya suna haifar da tasiri. Hakanan ƙila akwai hanyar haɗin kwantena - abun ciki, mahalicci - aiki ko alama - ma'ana.

Kalmar "metonymy" samu daga ƙungiyar kalmomin Girka biyu: Ƙari- (meta-) ko “bayan”, da Ƙari (onomazein) wanda ma'anar sa shine "suna". Tare za'a iya fassara shi azaman "karɓar sabon suna." A saboda wannan dalili, wata ma'anar da ke tattare da kalmar metonymy ita ce "trope wanda ya kunshi bayyana bangaren ta bangare (pars pro bangare) ". (A. Romera na tashar Rikici). Zamu iya cancantarsa ​​a matsayin zanga-zangar kera harshe. Za a iya yaba da wannan ƙimar sosai a cikin amfani daban-daban da mazaunan garuruwa a yankuna daban-daban na duniya suka ba ta.

Bambance-bambance da kamanceceniya tsakanin taurari da haɗuwa

Abubuwan haɗin kai da ma'ana suna da kamanceceniya da yawa, saboda, a zahiri, suna amfani da hanya ɗaya. Bambanci kawai shine synecdoche koyaushe yana samo asali daga rubutu [abun ciki - sassan abun ciki] ko [duka da sassan gabaɗaya]. Wato, ana amfani da shi a ilimin kimiyyar halitta, ya zama alaƙar da ke tsakanin jinsi da jinsi.

Maimakon haka, a cikin rikice-rikice haɗin haɗari ne kuma maye gurbin yana faruwa. Koyaya, a yawancin hanyoyin da aka keɓe don adabi da kuma nazarin harshe, synecdoche ya bayyana a matsayin nau'in metonymy. An tabbatar da wannan a cikin jumla mai zuwa: "jujjuyawar kumfa ya jawo shi zuwa gaɓar tekun." A wannan yanayin, "kumfa" na iya nufin tasirin raƙuman ruwa ko wani ɓangare na shi.

Bambanci tsakanin misalai da raɗaɗi

Kodayake ana amfani da siffofin magana biyu don alaƙa da abubuwa biyu, a cikin kwatanci isharar tana faruwa tsakanin wani abu mai ma'ana da ainihin. Sakamakon haka, ɓangaren siffa baya ƙunshe ko yana cikin ɓangaren ainihin abin. Misali: lokacin da marubuta ke amfani da kalmar "ebony" don bayyana haske da launin fata na mutanen asalin Afirka.

Nau'o'in haɗuwa, tare da misalai

Dalili ta sakamako

  • "Rana ta shafe shi." Dangane da zafin rana ko hasken rana (mai walƙiya).
  • "Jam'iyyar daga aiki mai yawa." Kalmar "ƙungiya" tana nufin gajiyar da ta wuce kima.
  • "Wadannan furfura suna da daraja sosai." "Grey" na nufin kai tsaye ga kwarewar da mutum ya samu saboda yawan shekarunsa.
  • "An yi nasara a kan rami a filin wasa." A wannan yanayin, "ratsi" lokaci ne na soja (na matsayi) wanda aka keɓe shi zuwa wasanni. Masu sharhi galibi suna amfani da shi don nuna girmamawa ko matsayin da ɗan wasa ko ƙungiya suka samu saboda yanayin yadda suke.
  • "Rigarsa ta auna". Wannan wani jumla ne da masu watsa labarai ke amfani dashi sosai. A zahiri, mai kunnawa baya auna rigar sa ta zahirin magana. Adadin yana nufin raguwa a aikin da ake tsammani na ɗan wasa lokacin da aka canza shi zuwa ƙungiyar da ta fi daraja (idan aka kwatanta da ƙungiyar da ta gabata).

 Tasirin dalilin

  • "Tana da rabe-raben mukamin." Kalmar "galan" ta nuna iyawa (ko manhaja). A lokaci guda, "matsayi" yana nufin taken aiki, ba kujera ba.
  • "Dole ne ku fita ku sami dankalin turawa." Maganar "neman dankalin turawa" ta maye gurbin "aiki."
  • "Wannan yaron girgizar ƙasa ce mai tafiya." A wannan yanayin, kalmar "girgizar ƙasa" tana nuna halin rashin ƙarfi da / ko mummunan ɗabi'a.

Kwantena da abun ciki

  • "Ka sha kofi." Dangane da shan abin da ke cikin kofi.
  • "Zaki ci kwano daya ko biyu?" Hada da abincin da ke cikin jita-jita.
  • "Ya dauki kwalba." Ya nuna cewa abubuwan da ke cikin kwalbar sun bugu.

Alamar alama ce ta alama

  • "Ya yi rantsuwa da biyayya ga tuta." Idan aka ce "tuta" muna nufin takamaiman ƙasa.
  • "Red sun mamaye Cuba, Nicaragua da Venezuela." Kalmar '' ja '' tana nuna alamar halaye na gwamnatocin da suka kware a tsarin kwaminisanci.
  • "Gidan farin ya yi sarauta a Gasar Zakarun Turai na uku a jere yanayi". A wannan yanayin, "farin gidan" yana nufin launi na (na gida) Real Madrid CF ɗin uniform.. A cikin jargon wasanni, ana amfani da launuka iri iri ko siffofin da ke cikin alamun ƙungiyar don maye gurbin sunan ƙungiyar kanta. Misali: blaugrana (Barcelona FC), jan aljannu (Manchester United), mai ja (kungiyar Spain) ...

Marubuci don aikin

  • "A cikin baje kolin akwai Rembrandts da yawa." Dangane da zane-zane da yawa daga Rembrandt.
  • "Me yasa akwai rawaya sosai a cikin Van Gogh?". Ta wata hanyar kama da jumlar da ta gabata, nuna zane-zanen Van Gogh.
  • "Ya ɗauki dogon lokaci kafin ya karanta Cervantes." A wannan yanayin, yana iya komawa ga littafi ko zuwa cikakken aikin Miguel de Cervantes.
  • "Slayer yayi min nauyi." Sunan "Slayer" yana nufin kiɗan wannan rukunin dutsen.
  • "Yanayin Burton na yau da kullun." Hada da fina-finan fasalin darakta Tim Burton.
  • "Johnny Deep alamar kasuwanci ce mai tarihi." Jumlar tana nufin ayyukan mai fassara.

Kayan aiki ta ɗan wasa ko marubuci

  • "Babban wakilin alkalami na ainihin sihiri shine Garcia Marquez".
  • "Kafa na hagu na Messi kawai ya dace da na Maradona." A wannan yanayin, kalmar "hagu-hagu" tana nufin dabararsa ta buga ball da wannan kafa.
  • "Kida na biyu na band." Abinda ake nufi da shi shine mutumin da ke kunna kayan aikin.

Wurin asalin samfurin

  • "Ina son samun Bordeaux bayan abincin dare." A cikin wannan misalin, "Bordeaux" yana nufin ruwan inabi. Hakanan yakan faru yayin amfani da kalmomi kamar: Rioja, Jerez, Montilla, Provenza ...

Al'amarin ga abu

  • "A zane". Yana nufin zane.
  • "Wasan motsa jiki". Yana yin ishara da wasu ladaran wasannin motsa jiki.
  • "Tabloids din." Kalma ce wacce take da alaƙa da nunin wasan kwaikwayo (wasan kwaikwayo, fim ko talabijin).
Mahimmanci a cikin shayari na Gabriela Mistral.

Mahimmanci a cikin shayari na Gabriela Mistral.

Sunan abin ta wani kusa ko rikitarwa gare shi

  • "Wankawar rigar."

Sashin gaba ɗaya

  • "Kwalla ta huda raga." Kalmar "net" tana nufin manufa a ƙwallon ƙafa.
  • "Babu wani wuri don rai a cikin wannan walimar" (babu wuri ga ƙarin mutane).

Dukkanin don ɓangaren

  • "Goge motar" (shagon jiki).

Misalan raɗaɗɗa a waƙa

Gutsurewar "Mawaki ga ƙaunataccensa" na César Vallejo

«Vedauna, daren yau ka giciye kanka
game da biyun masu lankwasa katako na sumbata;
kuma baƙin cikinku ya gaya mini cewa Yesu ya yi kuka,
da kuma cewa akwai Jumu'a mai kyau daga wannan sumbar ».
  • "Masoyi" da sunan soyayyar ta.
  • "Bent katako" don "lebe."

Gutsure na "Sonnet 22" na Pablo Neruda

«Sau nawa, soyayya, na ƙaunace ku ba tare da ganin ku ba kuma watakila ba tare da ƙwaƙwalwa ba,

ba tare da sanin kallon ka ba, ba tare da kallon ka ba, centaury,

a gaban yankuna, da tsakar rana konawa:

Kun kasance kawai ƙanshin hatsin da nake so.

  • "Centaura" da sunan masoyin sa.
  • "Konawa" don "zafi."

Gutsure na «Desvelada», na Gabriela Mistral

«Kamar yadda ni sarauniya ce kuma na kasance mai bara, yanzu

Ina rayuwa cikin tsarkaka tremor ka bar ni,

kuma ina tambayar ku, kodadde, a kowace awa:

Har yanzu kuna tare da ni? Oh, kada ku tafi! »»

  • "Rawar jiki" daga "tsoro" ko "tsoro."

Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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    Haƙiƙa, yarenmu yana da ban mamaki kuma yana da mahimmin abu wanda ya sa nake ƙara mamakin yawan albarkatun adabin da na samo.

    - Gustavo Woltmann.