Sama'ila Beckett

Yanayin Irish.

Yanayin Irish.

Samuel Barclay Beckett (1906-1989) sanannen marubuci ɗan Irish ne. Ya yi fice a fannoni daban -daban na adabi, kamar wakoki, litattafai da wasan kwaikwayo. A cikin aikinsa a wannan reshe na ƙarshe, aikinsa Jiran Godot ta sami babban nasara, kuma a yau ita ce ma'auni a cikin gidan wasan kwaikwayo na wauta. Ƙoƙari mai ban mamaki a cikin dogon aikinsa - wanda ya bambanta da asali da zurfin rubutunsa - ya ba shi lambar yabo ta Nobel don Adabi a 1969.

An nuna becket ta hanyar yin kwatankwacin yanayin ɗan adam, duhu da taƙaitacciyar hanya, yana jaddada rashin dalilin kasancewar su. Don haka, masu suka da yawa sun tsara shi a cikin nihilism. Kodayake rubutun sa gajere ne, marubucin ya yi nasarar bayar da zurfin zurfin ta hanyar amfani da albarkatun adabi daban -daban, inda hotunan suka yi fice fiye da komai. Wataƙila babbar gudummawar da ya bayar ga wallafe -wallafen ta ɓarke ​​tare da yawancin ƙa'idodin da aka kafa har zuwa isowarsa.

Cikakken bayanin tarihin marubucin, Samuel Beckett

An haifi Samuel Barclay Beckett ranar Juma'a 13 ga Afrilu, 1906 a unguwar Dublin na Foxrock, Ireland. Shi ne ɗa na biyu na aure tsakanin William Beckett da May Roe - mai binciken da kuma jinya, bi da bi. Na mahaifiyarsa, marubucin koyaushe yana tunawa da sadaukar da kai ga sana'arsa da kuma alamar ibadarsa.

Yara da karatu

Tun daga ƙuruciyarsa, Beckett ya ɗanɗana ɗanɗanar abubuwan jin daɗi. Kuma shine, sabanin ɗan'uwansa Frank, marubucin yana da kauri sosai kuma yana amfani da rashin lafiya kullum. Game da wancan lokacin, ya taɓa cewa: "Ina da ɗan baiwa don farin ciki."

Yayin halartar karatun farko yana da taƙaitacciyar hanya tare da koyar da kida. Babban koyarwarsa ta gudana ne a Makarantar Gidan Earlsford har sai da ya kai shekara 13; daga baya An yi rajista a Makarantar Sarauta ta Portora. A wannan rukunin yanar gizon ya sadu da Frank, babban ɗan'uwansa. Har zuwa yau, wannan makarantar ta ƙarshe tana jin daɗin ƙima, tun shahararren Oscar Wilde kuma ya ga azuzuwan a cikin azuzuwarsa.

Beckett, polymath

Mataki na gaba a samuwar Beckett ya faru Yin Karatu a Trinity College, Dublin A can, fuskokinsa da yawa sun fito, sha’awar harsuna na ɗaya daga cikinsu. Game da wannan shaƙatawa, ya zama dole a nanata cewa marubucin an koyar da shi cikin Turanci, Faransanci da Italiya. Ya yi ta musamman tsakanin 1923 zuwa 1927, daga baya kuma ya kammala digiri a fannin ilimin zamani.

Biyu daga cikin masu koyar da harshensa sune AA Luce da Thomas B. Rudmose-Brown; Na karshen shi ne wanda ya buɗe masa ƙofofin adabin Faransa kuma ya kuma gabatar da shi ga aikin Dante Alighieri. Duk malaman biyu sun bayyana mamakin su kan kyawun Beckett a aji, duka a ka'ida da a aikace.

A cikin wannan harabar karatun an kuma lura da kyaututtukan sa na wasa sosai, tunda Beckett ya yi fice a wasan chess, rugby, tennis, kuma - sosai, sosai - a wasan kurket.. Ayyukansa a cikin wasan jemage da ƙwallon ya kasance sunansa ya bayyana akan Wisman Cricketers 'Almanack.

Baya ga abin da aka ambata, marubucin kuma bai kasance baƙo ga zane -zane da al'ada gaba ɗaya. Game da wannan, a cikin ayyukan James Knowlson - ɗaya daga cikin sanannun marubutan tarihin marubucin - polymathy na Samuel yana da ƙarfi. Kuma shi ne cewa ɗimbin ɗabi'un Beckett ya kasance sananne, musamman saboda kyakkyawar hanyar da ya bi da kansa a cikin kowace sana'ar da ya yi.

Beckett, gidan wasan kwaikwayo da kusancinsa da James Joyce

A Kwalejin Trinity, Dublin, wani abu ya faru wanda ya yanke hukunci a rayuwar Beckett: haduwarsa da ayyukan wasan kwaikwayo na Luigi pirandello. Wannan marubucin Yana da wani yanki mai mahimmanci a cikin ci gaban Samuel daga baya a matsayin marubucin wasan kwaikwayo.

Daga baya, Beckett ya fara tuntuɓar James Joyce. Ya faru yayin ɗayan ɗayan tarurrukan bohemian da yawa a cikin birni, godiya ga roƙon Thomas MacGreevy - Abokin Sama'ila - wanda ya gabatar da su. Ilimin sunadarai tsakanin su ya kasance nan da nan, kuma hakan al'ada ce, tunda dukkan su masoyan aikin Dante ne kuma masu son son jama'a.

Haɗuwa da Joyce ya kasance mabuɗin aikin Beckett da rayuwarsa. Marubucin ya zama mataimaki ga marubucin da ya ci lambar yabo, kuma mutum kusa da danginsa. Sakamakon haɗin gwiwa, Samuel har ma yana da wani irin alaƙa da Lucia Joyce - 'yar Jame.Haka ne - amma bai ƙare sosai ba - a zahiri, ta ƙare da wahala daga schizophrenia.

Nan take, sakamakon wannan “karancin soyayya”, an samu rarrabuwa tsakanin marubutan biyu; duk da haka, bayan shekara guda sun yi izinin wucewa. Dangane da wannan abota, godiya da jin daɗin juna da Joyce ta zo yi sananne ne. game da aikin fasaha na Beckett.

Buga da rubutu

Dante… Bruno. Wace… Joyce shi ne rubutu na farko da Beckett ya buga. Ya bayyana a cikin 1929 kuma marubuci ne mai mahimmanci wanda zai zama ɓangaren layin littafin Ƙarfafawarmu Ta Zagaya Fuskarsa don Gurɓatar Aiki A Ci gaba - Rubutu game da nazarin aikin James Joyce. Wasu fitattun marubutan suma sun rubuta wannan taken, gami da Thomas MacGreevy da William Carlos Williams.

A tsakiyar wannan shekarar, ya bayyana Labarin gajeren labarin Beckett: zato. Mujallar mi shine dandalin da ya dauki nauyin rubutun. Wannan sararin adabi na avant-garde ya kasance mai mahimmanci a cikin haɓakawa da haɓaka aikin ɗan Irish.

A cikin 1930 ya buga waƙar Whoroscope, wannan ƙaramin rubutu ya ba shi lambar yabo ta gida. A shekara mai zuwa ya koma Kwalejin Trinity, amma yanzu a matsayin farfesa. Kwarewar koyarwa ba ta daɗe ba, yayin da ya ba da shekara kuma ya sadaukar da kansa don yawo Turai. A sakamakon wannan hutu, ya rubuta waƙar GNOME, wanda aka buga a hukumance bayan shekaru uku a cikin Mujallar Dublin. A shekara mai zuwa aka buga littafin farko, Ina mafarkin mata cewa fu ko fa (1932).

Mahaifin mahaifinsa

A cikin 1933 wani lamari ya faru wanda ya girgiza kasancewar Beckett: mutuwar mahaifinsa. Marubucin bai san yadda za a magance lamarin da kyau ba kuma dole ne ya ga masanin halayyar ɗan adam - Dr. Wilfred Bion.. Wasu rubuce -rubucen da marubucin ya rubuta su ma an san su daga wancan lokacin. Daga cikin waɗannan, akwai wani musamman wanda yayi fice: Kwanciyar hankali na ɗan adam (1934), wanda a cikin layinsa yayi bincike mai zurfi game da tarin waƙoƙi ta Thomas MacGreevy.

Gwajin "Sinclair v. Gogarty" da gudun hijira na Beckett

Wannan taron yana nufin babban canji a rayuwar marubucin, saboda ya kai shi ga wani irin gudun hijira. Rigima ce tsakanin Henry Sinclair - kawun Samuel - da Oliver St. John Gogarty. Na farko ya ɓata na biyu, yana zarginsa da cin riba, kuma an ba da Beckett a matsayin shaida a shari'ar ... babban kuskure.

Lauyan Gogarty ya yi amfani da wata dabara mai ƙarfi a kan marubucin don ɓata masa suna da lalata zarginsa. Daga cikin illolin da aka fallasa, rashin yarda da Beckett da lalata lalatarsa ​​sun yi fice. Wannan aikin ya yi babban tasiri ga rayuwar marubucin da rayuwar sa, saboda haka ya yanke shawarar zuwa Paris., kusan tabbatacce.

Paris: soyayya ta daji, saduwa da mutuwa da gamuwa da soyayya

Eiffel Tower

Eiffel Tower

Wani abu da ke nuna Beckett lokacin da ya shiga shekaru talatin, ban da babban fitowar adabinsa, shine lalatarsa. A gare shi, Paris ita ce wuri mafi kyau don buɗe fara'a da mata. Ofaya daga cikin sanannun abubuwan da aka sani game da wannan ya taso tsakanin ƙarshen 1937 da farkon 1938, a cikin cikakken bukukuwa kafin da bayan ƙarshen shekara.

Tun daga wannan lokacin an san cewa Beckett yana da alaƙar soyayya tare da mata uku. Daga cikin waɗannan, ɗayan musamman ya shahara, tunda, ban da kasancewa mai ƙauna, ta kasance majiɓincin marubucin: Peggy Guggenheim.

Wani abin tashin hankali da ya faru lokacin da nake sabon shiga a Paris ya kasance wanda aka kashe (1938). Raunin ya yi zurfi kuma ya taɓa zuciyar Beckett, wanda ya sami ceto ta hanyar mu'ujiza. Maharin wani mutum ne mai suna Prudent, dan damfara na gida wanda daga baya a kotu - kuma marubucin ya fuskanci - ya yi ikirarin cewa bai san abin da ya same shi ba a wannan lokacin, kuma ya yi nadama sosai.

An sami ceto Beckett godiya ga matakin gaggawa na James Joyce. Marubucin da ya ci lambar yabo ya motsa tasirinsa kuma cikin sauri ya ba abokinsa daki a asibiti mai zaman kansa. A can, a hankali Samuel ya warke.

Suzanne Dechevaux-Dumesnil —Ya san mawaƙa da ɗan wasa- san abin da ya faruDon haka, a cikin ɗan gajeren lokaci, lamarin ya zama sananne a kusan dukkan Paris. Ita ya yi kusanci da Beckett hakan zai zama tabbatacce, to basu sake rabuwa ba.

Bayan shekaru biyu, a 1940, Beckett ya sadu na ƙarshe -ba sani ba- con mutumin da ya ceci rayuwarta, ƙaunatacciya kuma mai ba ta shawara James Joyce. Marubucin Irish wanda ya lashe kyautar ya mutu jim kaɗan bayan haka, a farkon 1941.

Beckett da yakin duniya na biyu

Beckett ba bako bane ga wannan rikicin yaƙin. Da zarar Jamusawa sun mamaye Faransa a 1940, marubucin ya shiga Resistance. Matsayinsa na asali ne: ɗaukar mai aikawa; Koyaya, duk da kasancewa aiki mai sauƙi, har yanzu yana da haɗari. A zahiri, yayin da yake wannan aikin, Samuel ya yi ikirarin cewa yana kan gab da kama shi da Gestapo a lokuta da yawa.

Bayan an fallasa naurar da aka makala, lallai marubucin ya tsere da sauri tare da Suzanne. Sun tafi kudu, musamman zuwa villa de Roussillon. Lokacin bazara ne na 1942.

A cikin shekaru biyu masu zuwa, duka - Beckett da Dechevaux - sun yi kamar su mazaunan al'umma ne. Duk da haka, cikin hanyar ɓarayi sun sadaukar da kansu ga ɓoye makamai don ci gaba da haɗin gwiwar su da Resistance.; Bugu da ƙari kuma, Sama’ila ya taimaka wa ‘yan daba a wasu ayyuka.

Matakinsa na ƙarfin hali bai wuce banza a idon gwamnatin Faransa ba, don haka Beckett Daga baya an ba shi Croix de Guerre 1939-1945 da Médaille de la Résistance. Duk da cewa daga cikin sahabbansa guda tamanin kawai aka bari a raye, kuma suna cikin hadarin mutuwa a lokuta da dama, Beckett bai dauki kansa a matsayin wanda ya cancanci irin wannan yabo ba.. Shi da kansa ya bayyana ayyukansa a matsayin “abubuwa na yaro Scout".

Samun cikakken bincike na sunan Samuel Beckett

Samun cikakken bincike na sunan Samuel Beckett

A cikin wannan lokacin - tsakanin 1941-1945 - Beckett ya rubuta Wata, labari wanda aka buga shekaru 8 bayan haka (1953). Daga baya a takaice ya koma Dublin, inda - tsakanin aikinsa da Red Cross da sake saduwa da dangi- ya rubuta wani daga cikin sanannun ayyukansa, wasan kwaikwayo Karshen Karatun Krapp. Masana da yawa sun ce rubutu ne na tarihin rayuwa.

40s da 50s da ingantaccen adabin Beckett

Idan wani abu ya bambanta aikin adabin Irishman a cikin XNUMXs da XNUMXs bi da bi, wannan shine yawan amfanin su. Ya buga adadi mai yawa na matani a cikin nau'ikan daban -daban - labarai, labarai, labarai, wasan kwaikwayo. Daga wannan lokacin, don ba da suna kaɗan, fito da labarinsa "Suite", labari Mercier da Camier, da wasa Jiran Godot.

Bugun na Jiran Godot

Wannan yanki ya zo shekaru ashirin bayan “farkawar adabi” a cikin mujallar miƙa mulki. Jiran Godot (1952) - neaya daga cikin mahimman bayanan gidan wasan kwaikwayo mara kyau kuma wanda ya nuna alamar kafin da bayan aikinsa, an rubuta shi ƙarƙashin rinjayar rinjayar yaƙe -yaƙe, har yanzu babban rashi na mahaifinsa da sauran rashin jituwa a rayuwa kanta.

Siyarwa Ana jiran Godot: ...
Ana jiran Godot: ...
Babu sake dubawa

Beckett: ɗan adam mai kuskure

A bayyane yake, duk mai hazaka yana da alama ta wuce gona da iri da ƙetare ƙa'idodin da aka kafa. Beckett bai tsere wannan ba. An san shaye -shayensa da lalata. A gaskiya udaya daga cikin sanannun alakar soyayya fue la que tare da Barbara Bray. A lokacin tana aiki da BBC a London. Ta kasance kyakkyawar mace mai haruffa da aka sadaukar don gyara da fassara.

Za a iya cewa, saboda halayen duka biyun, cewa jan hankalin su ya kasance nan take kuma ba a iya tsayawa. Game da wannan dangantaka, James Knowlson ya rubuta: "Da alama Beckett ya shaku da ita, daidai da ita gare shi. Ganawar tasu tana da matukar mahimmanci ga su biyun, tunda shine farkon dangantakar da ke daidai da ta Suzanne, wacce zata kasance tsawon rayuwa ”.

Kuma hakika, duk da kasancewar Suzanne, Beckett da Bray koyaushe suna kiyaye alaƙa. Koyaya, mahimmancin Suzanne a rayuwar Beckett ba abin mamaki bane - wannan marubucin ya bayyana shi fiye da sau ɗaya -; Ko da jim kaɗan bayan haka, a cikin 1961, ma'auratan sun yi aure. Hadin gwiwar su ya kusan kusan shekaru uku bayan haka.

"Na bashi Suzanne duka," ana iya samun sa a cikin tarihin rayuwar ta; An faɗi wannan magana mai ƙarfi lokacin mutuwarsa ta kusa.

Samuel Beckett da Suzanne Dechevaux

Samuel Beckett da Suzanne Dechevaux

Nobel, tafiya, ganewa da tashi

Sauran lokacin rayuwar Beckett bayan an yi aurensa tsakanin tafiya da fitarwa. Daga cikin dukkan ayyukansa masu yawa, kamar yadda aka bayyana,Neman Godot shi ne daya ya wakilci mafi yawan duk nasarorin da ya samu, ciki har da kyautar Nobel ta Adabi a 1969. Wani abin da ba mamaki a cikin halayen marubucin shine abin da ya aikata bayan ya koyi cewa ya sami babbar kyauta: ya raba kansa da duniya kuma bai bar su san komai game da shi ba. Bari mu ce Beckett ya fita daga mataki tare da irin waɗannan tarurrukan.

Bayan shekaru 28 na aure, jigon da suka yarda da shi a cikin aure ya cika: "Har mutuwa ta raba ku." Suzanne ita ce ta fara mutuwa. Mutuwar ta faru ya mutu ranar Litinin, 17 ga Yuli, 1989. Beckett, a halin yanzu, ya bar a ƙarshen dwannan shekarar, Jumma'a, Disamba 22. Marubucin yana da shekaru 83 a duniya.

Ragowar ma'auratan suna hutawa a makabartar Montparnasse da ke birnin Paris.

Sharhi kan aikin Becket

  • “Beckett ya lalata yawancin tarurrukan da almara da wasan kwaikwayo na zamani suka dogara da su; an sadaukar da shi, a tsakanin sauran abubuwa, don ɓata kalmar a matsayin hanyar nuna fasaha kuma ya ƙirƙira mawakan hotuna, duka wasan kwaikwayo da labari ”Antonia Rodríguez-Gago.
  • "Duk ayyukan Beckett suna nuna mummunan yanayin yanayin ɗan adam a cikin duniya ba tare da Allah ba, ba tare da doka ba kuma ba tare da ma'ana ba. Sahihiyar hangen nesa, hazakar harshe (cikin Faransanci da Ingilishi) ya yi tasiri ga matasa marubuta a duniya" Encyclopedia na Adabin Duniya a karni na 20.
  • "Beckett ya yi watsi da ka'idar Joycean cewa sanin ƙarin hanya ce ta fahimtar fahimta da sarrafa duniya. Daga can Aikinsa ya ci gaba a kan tafarkin elemental, na gazawa, gudun hijira da asara; na jahili da kebewa ”, James Knowlson.
  • Game da Jiran Godot: "Ya aiwatar da rashin yiwuwar ka'idar: wasan kwaikwayo wanda babu abin da ke faruwa, wanda duk da haka yana sa mai kallo ya manne akan kujera. Menene ƙari, tunda aikin na biyu kusan ba komai bane illa kwaikwayon na farko, Beckett ya rubuta wasan kwaikwayo wanda, sau biyu, babu abin da ke faruwa ”, Vivian Mercier ne adam wata.

Ayyuka na Samuel Beckett

Gidan wasan kwaikwayo

  • Eleutheria (rubuta 1947; buga 1995)
  • Jiran Godot (1952)
  • Yi aiki ba tare da kalmomi ba (1956)
  • Ƙarshen wasan (1957)
  • Tef na ƙarshe (1958)
  • Rough for Theater I (karshen 50s)
  • Rough for Theater II (karshen 50s)
  • Kwanakin farin ciki (1960)
  • Play (1963)
  • Ku zo ku tafi (1965)
  • Breath (wanda aka saki a 1969)
  • Ba ni ba (1972)
  • Wannan lokacin (1975)
  • Ƙafar ƙafa (1975)
  • Wani yanki na Monologue (1980)
  • Rockaby (1981)
  • Ohio Impromptu (1981)
  • Masifa (1982)
  • Wani wuri (1983)

Novelas

  • Mafarkin Adalci ga Mata Masu Tsaka (1932; buga 1992)
  • Murphy (1938)
  • Watt (1945)
  • Mercier da Camier (1946)
  • Molloy (1951)
  • Malone ya mutu (1951)
  • Mara sunan (1953)
  • Yaya (1961)

Gajeren labari

  • Wanda aka Fitar (1946)
  • Mai Kwanciyar Hankali (1946)
  • The End (1946)
  • The Lost anu (1971)
  • Kamfanin (1979)
  • Ciwon Gani Mara Lafiya Yace (1981)
  • Mafi muni Kuma (1984)

Tatsuniyoyi

  • Ƙarin Tricks Fiye da Kicks (1934)
  • Labarun da Rubutu don Babu Komai (1954)
  • Na farko soyayya (1973)
  • Fizzles (1976)
  • Stirrings Har yanzu (1988)

Mawaƙa

  • Whoroscope (1930)
  • Kasusuwa na Echo da sauran Ruwa (1935)
  • Tarin Waƙoƙi da Turanci (1961)
  • Wakokin da aka tattara cikin Ingilishi da Faransanci (1977)
  • Menene kalmar (1989)

Rubutun, colloquia

  • Proust (1931)
  • Tattaunawa Uku (1958)
  • Jira (1983)

Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

Kasance na farko don yin sharhi

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