Rosalía de Castro, marubucin Mutanen Espanya Romanism

Hoton Rosalía de Castro

Rosalia de Castro aka haife shi a Santiago de Compostela a cikin shekara 1837 kuma tare da mawaƙin Sevillian Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer, ya kirkiro ma'auratan da suka ba da sabuwar tursasawa da jinkirtawa zuwa mataki na Mutanen Espanya Romanticism. A cikin wannan labarin na musamman da aka sadaukar da ita, ba mu shiga cikin rayuwarta kawai ba, rashin alheri gajere ne, har ma a cikin aikinta na adabi, wanda ya cika cikakke fiye da abin da aka bayyana a priori, misali a makarantun Sifen, inda mahimmancinsa ke da wuya wanda aka ambata a cikin adabin ƙasarmu, kuma idan haka ne, to kawai rubutattun waƙoƙin da yake magana ne akan Romanism ake dangantawa da shi.

A cikin wannan labarin, za mu cire wannan ƙaya kuma za mu ba ta wuri ga wannan babbar marubuciyar Galiciya ... Muna fatan ba za mu bar komai a cikin bututun ba, kuma mu aika da ku zuwa Rosalía de Castro gaba ɗaya da duka ainihinta.

vida

Gidan Rosalía de Castro cikakke

Rosalía de Castro ya kasance diya mace daya da na wani saurayi da aka yi firist. Yanayinku na 'yar shege ya jagoranci yin rajista a matsayin 'yar iyayen da ba a sani ba, kamar haka:

A watan Fabrairu ashirin da huɗu daga dubu ɗaya da ɗari takwas da talatin da shida, María Francisca Martínez, maƙwabciyar San Juan del Campo, ita ce uwargidan wata yarinya da na yi baftisma sosai kuma na sa tsarkakakkun mai, na kira ta María Rosalía Rita, 'yar iyayen da ba a san su ba, 'yarsu Baiwar Allah ta ɗauka, kuma ba ta da lamba don ba ta wuce Inclusa ba; Kuma don rikodin, na sanya hannu. Takaddar baftisma da firist José Vicente Varela y Montero ya sanya wa hannu.

Samun girma irin wannan zai kuma ƙarfafa yanayinsa ƙwarai da gaske saboda haka rayuwarsa da aikin adabinsa. Duk da haka, mun san sunayen iyayen: María Teresa de la Cruz de Castro y Abadía da José Martínez Viojo. Kodayake mutumin da ya fara kula da jaririn tun da farko itace mahaifiyarsa kuma baiwar mahaifiyarta, María Francisca Martínez, wani ɓangare na yarinta za a kashe tare da dangin mahaifinta, a garin Ortoño, daga baya su koma Santiago de Compostela, inda a cikin kamfanin mahaifiyarsa, ya fara karɓar ra'ayoyi na asali game da zane da kiɗa, yana halartar al'adun yau da kullun wanda zai iya hulɗa da wani ɓangare na Matashin mai ilimin Galician na lokacin, kamar Eduardo Pondal da Aurelio Aguirre. Kodayake kawai mun san daga lokacin karatunsa cewa ya fara rubuta waƙoƙi tun yana ƙarami, amma kuma mun san dandanorsa ga ayyukan wasan kwaikwayo, wanda ya kasance yana da hannu dumu-dumu a lokacin yarinta da samartaka.

A daya daga cikin tafiye-tafiyensa zuwa babban birnin Spain, Madrid, hadu da duk wanda mijinta ya kasance, Manuel Murguía, Marubucin Galician kuma shahararren mutum 'Sake ramawa'. Rosalía ta buga wani ɗan ƙaramin littafin waƙoƙi da aka rubuta a cikin Mutanen Espanya, wanda ta kira «Furen ", kuma Manuel Murguía ya amsa kuwwa, wanda ya ambace shi a ciki Iberiya. Godiya ga abokiyar kawance, su biyun sun hadu akan lokaci, zuwa ƙarshe aure a shekara ta 1858, musamman a ranar 10 ga Oktoba, a cocin Ikklesiya na San Ildefonso. Suna da yara 7.

Kodayake wasu masu sukar adabi sun tabbatar da cewa Rosalía ba ta da abin da ake cewa farin ciki ne a aure daidai duk da cewa tana matukar son mijinta, amma sananne ne cewa Manuel Murguía ya taimaka mata sosai a harkar adabin ta, har zuwa lokacin da aka buga aikin ya kasance sananne. mashahurin shahararren Galiziyan «Wakokin Galician», kasancewar matsakaicin nauyi bayan mawallafin kanta, tabbas, cewa wannan aikin sananne ne a yau kuma yana da tsammani sake farfaɗo da adabin Galician a cikin karni na sha tara.

Idan a cikin kanta, rubuce-rubuce ya kasance da wahala ga mata a wannan lokacin, kada ma muyi magana game da wahalar yin hakan a cikin Galician kuma a karanta muku su. Yaren Galilanci ya kasance wulakantacce sosai, yana da nisa daga wancan lokacin wanda ya kasance shine harshen da aka riga aka kafa na ƙirƙirar waƙar Galician-Portuguese. Dole ne ku fara daga farko, daga farko, tunda duk al'adun sun ɓace. Ya zama dole a karya rashin kulawa da rainin hankali da aka yiwa yaren, amma kaɗan ne waɗanda suka yi la'akari da aikin, tunda wannan zai haifar da dalilin ɓata gari kuma ba ya ɗaukar mahimmancin idan ka aikata hakan a ciki Sifeniyanci Saboda haka, Rosalía de Castro ya ba da daraja ga Galiziyan lokacin amfani da shi azaman harshe don «Wakokin Galizia», don haka ƙarfafa al'adun farkawa na yaren Galician.

A lokacin aurenku, Rosalía da Manuel sun canza adireshinsu a lokuta da yawa: sun bi ta Andalusia, Extremadura, Levante kuma a ƙarshe, ta hanyar Castile, kafin su koma Galicia, inda marubucin ya kasance har zuwa ranar mutuwarta. An yi imanin cewa wannan zuwan da zuwa daga wannan wuri zuwa wancan, galibi don dalilai da dalilai na tattalin arziki, shi ne abin da ya haifar da kasancewar Rosalía cikin rashin tsammani koyaushe. A ƙarshe, ya mutu a 1885 saboda a cutar sankarar mahaifa cewa tana fama da wahala tun kafin shekarar 1883. Da farko, an binne ta a makabartar Adina, da ke Iria Flavia, don daga baya ta fito da gawarta a ranar 15 ga Mayu, 1891 don a kai ta Santiago de Compostela, inda aka sake binne ta a mausoleum din wanda aka tsara mata musamman ta hanyar mai sassaka Jesús Landeira, wanda yake a cikin Chapel of the Visitation of Santo Domingo de Bonaval Convent, a cikin Pantheon of Illustrious Galicians na yanzu. Wuri, mafi kyau ba tare da wata shakka ba, ga Bataliyar da ta ba da komai don ƙasarta.

Caricature na Rosalía de Castro

Ginin gini

Aikinsa, kamar na Gustavo Adolfo Becquer, bangare ne na m shayari daga rabi na biyu na karni na XNUMX, wanda yake sama da duka ta hanyar sauƙi da madaidaiciyar sautin da ke ba da sabon, mafi sahihanci da ingantaccen numfashi ga motsi na Romantican Mutanen Espanya Romanticism.

An san aikinsa na adabi a sama da duka saboda shi waƙoƙi, wanda ya ƙunshi ayyukan bugawa 3: Wakokin Galizia, Kuna fuck novas y A bankunan SarLittattafan farko guda biyu an rubuta su ne cikin yaren Galilanci, kuma "A kan bankunan na Sar", aikin waƙarta a cikin Sifaniyanci, ta gabatar da wata magana wacce ke tattare da jin daɗin mutum da rikice-rikicen cikin gida waɗanda muka ambata a sama, na marubucin: kadaici, ciwo da kuma zurfin zurfin tunani a lokacin baya sune mahimman sakamako na saduwa da mawakin murya tare da wuraren ƙuruciyarsa.

Har ila yau, a cikin aikin "A kan bankunan na Sar", wasu daga cikin dalilan da suka kasance a cikin abubuwan da ya gabata a cikin Galician sun bayyana: "inuwa", gaban mamatan, ko "masu baƙin ciki", mutane da aka ƙaddara azaba da haɗari ta hanyar masifa. Daidai, wahalar ɗan adam da ba za a iya fahimta ba, a gabanin abin da lamirinsa ya yi tawaye, wani lokaci yakan fuskanci addininsa.

Rosalía de Castro ya tsara waƙoƙi wanda ke la'akari da ma'anar rayuwa daga hangen nesa da keɓewar duniya. Wannan hangen nesan yana inganta halaye masu wanzuwa wanda wasu mawallafa ke fahimta kamar su Antonio Machado o Miguel de Unamuno. Ta wannan hanyar ne kuma, a matsayin sautin furcin ta, ƙirƙirar sabon stanzas ko yin amfani da ayar Alexandria (aya ta alan metela goma sha huɗu waɗanda aka haɗa da kalmomi biyu na kalmomi bakwai tare da lafazi a kan kalmomi na shida da na goma sha uku) sun gabatar da halaye na yau da kullun na shayari na zamani.

 

Hoton Rosalía de Castro a cikin Galicia

«Wakokin Galizia»

Su sanannen aiki, wanda aka buga a 1863, an rubuta shi a cikin harshensa na asali, Galician, don la'antar rashin adalcin da aka aikata akan mutane da al'adun Galician gaba ɗaya.

Wannan littafin na wakoki 36, gami da gabatarwa da kuma rubutun, an fara shi ne da muryar wata budurwa da aka gayyata ta rera waka, ta nemi afuwa, haka ma a waka ta karshe, saboda rashin iya waka game da Galicia da kyanta. Rosalía, ta bayyana a cikin su a matsayin wani hali, don haka ya bayyana ƙaunarta ga al'ummar Galician.

A cikin Waƙoƙin Galician, jigogi 4 daban-daban sun bambanta sarai:

  • Taken soyayya: Halaye daban-daban na gari a cikin yanayi da halaye daban-daban, rayuwar soyayya ta hanyoyi daban-daban, gwargwadon sanannen hangen nesa.
  • Taken kasa: A cikin wadannan wakoki an tabbatar da girman kan mutanen Galiziya, an soki cin amanar mazaunanta a kasashen waje saboda hijira an yi suka kuma a karshe, watsi da abin da aka nuna Galicia da ita an nuna rashin amincewa.
  • Costumbrista taken: kwatanci da ruwayoyi sun fi gaban gabatar da imani, aikin hajji, ibada ko halayyar halayyar sananniyar al'adar Galiciya.
  • M taken: Marubuciya ce da kanta, Rosalía, wacce ke bayyana abubuwan da take ji a cikin wasu waƙoƙin.

A cikin "Cantares gallegos" da kuma a cikin "Follas novas", marubucin ya gano abubuwa da yawa na shahararrun shayari da labarin gargajiya na Galician waɗanda aka manta da su ƙarnuka da yawa. Rosalía tana rera waka game da kyawun Galicia a cikin wakokinta kuma tana kai hari ga waɗanda suka far wa mutanenta. Ya nuna goyon baya ga mulkin mallaka da kuma ma'aikata kuma yana ci gaba da yin baƙin ciki game da talauci, ƙaura da matsalolin da hakan ke haifarwa. Wannan misali daga wannan littafin na wakoki yana nuna radadin bakin haure da yayi bankwana da kasarsa:

Barka da ɗaukaka! Barka da farin ciki!

Na bar gidan da aka haife ni

Na bar ƙauyen da na sani

ga duniyar da ban ganta ba.

Na bar abokai ga baƙi 

Na bar kwarin zuwa teku,

A ƙarshe na bar kyawawan abubuwan da nake so ...

Wanene ba zai iya barin ba! ...

«Rubutun kayan gargajiya»

Wannan shi ne littafi na ƙarshe na waƙoƙi da marubucin ya rubuta a cikin Galician, wanda aka buga a 1880. Wannan tarin waƙoƙin ya kasu kashi biyar: Yawo, M yi, Ya bambanta, Da terra e Kamar yadda kuka rayu biyu da rai da kuma yadda kuka rayu matattu biyu, kuma waƙoƙinsa suna cikin lokacin da yake zaune tare da dangin Simancas.

A cikin waɗannan waƙoƙin, Rosalía ya la'anci mayar da mata saniyar ware a wancan lokacin sannan kuma ya shafi tafiyar lokaci, mutuwa, abubuwan da suka gabata a matsayin mafi kyawun lokaci, da sauransu

A matsayin gaskiya mai ban sha'awa, zamu ce a cikin gabatarwarta, marubuciyar ta bayyana niyyarta kada ta sake rubutawa cikin yaren Galician tare da waɗannan layin:

«Alá go, pois, as Follas novas, yadda za su iya kiran kansu vellas, saboda ko sun kasance, kuma na ƙarshe, saboda biyan bashin da ya zama kamar na zama coa miña terra, yana da wahala a gare shi ya rubuta karin baitoci a cikin harshen uwa ».

Fassara, yana faɗi mai zuwa: "Ku tafi, to, sababbin shafuka, wanda za a fi kiransu tsofaffi, saboda sun kasance, kuma na ƙarshe, saboda bashin da kamar na kasance tare da ƙasata an riga an biya, yana da wahala a gare ni in ƙara ƙarin ayoyi a harshen uwa ".

litattafan

Kuma kodayake a cikin makarantun sun sanar da mu wani Rosalía wanda ba shi da ban mamaki a zamaninta kuma mawaki ne kawai, gaskiyar ita ce ita ma ta rubuta karin magana. Gaba, zamu bar ku da sanannun sanannun:

  • "'Yar teku" (1859): An sadaukar da shi gaba ɗaya ga mijinta Manuel Murguía. Hujjar tasa ita ce kamar haka: Ta hanyar abubuwan rayuwar Esperanza, yarinyar da aka ceto daga ruwa a cikin yanayi mai ban mamaki, Teresa, Candora, Angela, Fausto da kuma lalata Ansot, mun shiga cikin sararin samaniyar Rosalian cike da inuwa, rashin nutsuwa da damuwa. Rayuwa tare da hakikanin abin da ke ban al'ajabi, tunanin rashin tsammani na rayuwa, fifikon zafin rai kan farin ciki a rayuwar dan adam, tsananin jin dadi game da shimfidar wuri, kare masu rauni, tabbatar da martabar mata, kukan marayu kuma an watsar da su ... sune maimaita abubuwa a cikin aikin marubucin wanda muka gano tuni a cikin farkon adabin ta, wanda wannan taken kyakkyawan misali ne. Rosalía ba wai kawai muryar melancholic ba ce daga duniyar damuwa da kewar gida wanda ke tsara shahararrun al'adu na tsawon lokaci, amma marubuciya mai kuzari da himma wanda, a cikin farkon shiga cikin labari, ya ba da sanarwar ruhun mai hikima, mace. kafin lokacinta wanda, kamar jaruman ta, suka san yadda ake yin tunanin duniya da idanun hankali na musamman. Kuna iya karanta aikinsa kyauta a cikin wannan mahada.
  • "Flavio" (1861): Rosalía ta ayyana wannan aikin a matsayin "labarin ƙirar labari" tunda abin da ta faɗi a ciki shekarun samartakanta ne. A cikin wannan aikin jigon baƙin ciki na ƙauna yana bayyana lokaci-lokaci.
  • "Mutumin da ke cikin shudayen shuɗi" (1867): A cewar Rosalía de Castro kanta, wannan aikin wani nau'i ne na "baƙon labari" mai cike da tsattsauran ra'ayi, wanda ke haifar da nau'ikan labarai masu ban sha'awa tare da halaye na gargajiya waɗanda ke da niyyar ɓata munafunci da jahilcin al'ummar Madrid. . Duk da ragin da yake, masanan adabi suna ɗaukar saƙo mai ban sha'awa na marubucin Galician.
  • "Conto gallego" (1864), wanda aka rubuta da yaren Galilanci.
  • "Masu karatu" (1866).
  • «The Cadiceño» (1886).
  • "Kufai" (1866).
  • "Mahaukaci na farko" (1881).
  • "Palm Lahadi" (1881).
  • "Padrón da ambaliyar ruwa" (1881).
  • «Kwastomomin Galician» (1881).

Sunan Rosalía de Castro a yau

Gidan Tarihi na Rosalía de CastroA yau, akwai wurare da yawa, haraji da wuraren taron jama'a waɗanda ke tuna sunan Rosalía de Castro, saboda mahimmancin da hakan ke da shi a farfaɗowar harshen Galician a ƙasarmu. Don suna kawai kaɗan:

  • Makaranta a cikin al'ummomin Madrid, Andalusia, Galicia, kamar yadda a wasu yankuna na Spain, da ƙasashen waje. An sami wurare tare da sunan marubucin Galiziya a Rasha, Uruguay da Venezuela.
  • Murabba'ai, wuraren shakatawa, dakunan karatu, tituna, Da dai sauransu
  • Un ruwan inabi tare da sunan asalin Rías Baixas.
  • Un jirgin sama na kamfanin jirgin sama Iberia.
  • Una jirgin sama na ceton teku.
  • Alamar tunawa, sassakawa, hotuna, kyautar waka, zane-zane, tikiti Spanish, da dai sauransu

Kuma kamar yadda kuka sani ya kasance abu na yau da kullun a cikin labarin na, na bar muku da rahoton bidiyo game da marubucin, kimanin minti 50, wanda ke magana game da rayuwarta da aikinta. Cikakke cikakke kuma mai nishaɗi. Na kuma bar muku wasu maganganun da nake so musamman:

  • Game da Wiki mafarkin da ke ciyar da rai:  «Yana farin ciki wanda, mafarki, ya mutu. Bakin ciki wanda ya mutu ba tare da mafarki ba ".
  • Game da Wiki matasa da rashin mutuwa: "Jinin saurayi ya tafasa, zuciya ta daukaka cike da numfashi, kuma mahaukaci ya yi tunanin mafarkai kuma ya yi imanin cewa mutum kamar gumaka ne, ba ya mutuwa."

Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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  1.   Isabel m

    Mai girma