Ramón del Valle-Inclán, tarihin rayuwa da ayyuka

Ramón del Valle-Inclan.

Ramón del Valle-Inclan.

Ramón José Simón Valle y Peña ya kasance shahararren ɗan wasan Sipaniya, marubuci kuma marubuci. Ya kasance ɗayan mashahuran mutane ne na adabin Mutanen Espanya na ƙarni na 98, ya kasance wani ɓangare na halin yanzu da ake kira Modernism kuma yana ɗaya daga cikin mashahuran marubutan Zamani na XNUMX. A lokuta daban-daban na rayuwarsa ya kuma yi aikin ɗan jarida, gajere marubucin labari da kuma marubuci.

A zahiri, karatun jami'a yana cikin doka - aikin da ba ya jin daɗin rayuwa da shi.. Sakamakon haka, ya daina zuwa makaranta bayan rasuwar mahaifinsa a farkon 1890. Zai zama farkon kasancewar rayuwar Bohemian, mai da hankali kan adabi da cike da tafiye-tafiye waɗanda suka haɗa da tatsuniyoyi masu yawa irin su ziyarar gaban Faransa a lokacin Babban Yaƙi. Ko asarar hannu a cikin faɗa.

Tarihin Rayuwa

Tarihin Valle-Inclán ya cancanci yin fim.

Haihuwa, yarinta da samartaka

Cikakken sunansa, Ramón José Simón Valle y Peña, ya bayyana ne kawai a kan takardar shaidar baftisma. An haife shi a cikin dangi masu daraja a ranar 28 ga Oktoba 1866, a Villanueva de Arosa (Lardin Pontevedra). Shi ne ɗa na biyu daga aure na biyu na Ramón del Valle Bermúdez tare da Dolores de la Peña y Montenegro, dukansu magada ne na kaddarori da yawa waɗanda ke taɓarɓarewa saboda barnar mahaifin.

An sanya Little Ramón a matsayin mai kula da Carlos Pérez Noal, malamin daga Puebla del Deán. A cikin 1877 ya shiga Cibiyar Santiago de Compostela a matsayin ɗalibi mai kyauta.A can, ya yi karatun sakandare har ya kai shekara 19 ba tare da nuna sha'awa sosai ba. Koyaya, a wannan lokacin tasirin Jesús Muruáis yana da matukar dacewa don horarwar adabin da ya samu daga baya.

Matasa, tasiri da karatu

A watan Satumba na 1885 - a kan tilasta mahaifinsa - ya fara karatun aikin lauya a Jami'ar Santiago tare da ɗan'uwansa Carlos.. A cikin Compostela rashin son karatun ya bayyana sosai, ba haka ba ga wasu halaye marasa amfani kamar wasannin sa'a da tarurrukan zamantakewar al'umma inda ya kulla abota tare da masu zurfin ilimin Galician, daga cikin su Vázquez de Mella, Enrique Labarta, González Besada da Camilo Bargiela.

Son sha'awar harshen Italiyanci da shinge

Ya kuma koyi wasan zinare da Italiyanci saboda kusancin dangantakarsa da Florentine Attilio Pontarani. A cikin 1877 aka cire shi daga aikin soja. Bayan shekara guda sai ya shiga cikin Makarantar Arts da Crafts a cikin kwalliyar Zane da Figureauna, ya zama ɗayan mashahuran ɗalibai.

Rubutun farko

A wancan lokacin ya buga rubuce-rubucensa na farko a cikin mujallar Kofi tare da saukad da na Santiago de Compostela kuma ya fara shiga a dama da shi a aikin jarida a yankin. Ziyarcin José Zorrilla mai tsarkakakku zuwa Jami'ar Santiago ya bar saurayi Ramón “kwaron” aikin karatun adabi fiye da kowane lokaci… lokaci ne kawai. A 1890 mahaifinsa ya mutu kuma ya sami 'yanci daga wajibai na iyali.

Komawa zuwa Pontevedra kuma ka koma Madrid

Bayan shekaru biyar na ɗan gajeren karatun da ba a kammala ba, ya koma Pontevedra kafin ya zauna na shekara biyu a Madrid (tare da taƙaitaccen ziyara zuwa Italiya). A cikin babban birnin Spain ya zama sananne a cikin taron babban cafe na Puerta del Sol saboda yawan ɗabi'unsa da wayo.

A wancan lokacin, har yanzu bai gina kyakkyawan suna a matsayin marubuci ba. Tare da ƙoƙari sosai, ya sami damar shiga cikin wasu haɗin gwiwar aikin jarida har zuwa ƙarshen 1891 don jaridu kamar su Ballon y Hasken Iberiya, wanda ya sanya hannu a karo na farko a ƙarƙashin sunan "Ramón del Valle-Inclán". Sunan mahaifinsa na fasaha ya samo asali ne daga Francisco del Valle-Inclán, ɗayan kakannin mahaifinsa.

Tafiya zuwa Mexico

Amma kudin shigar da aka samu bai isa ya tabbatar da dorewar tattalin arzikin ba. Saboda wannan dalili, Valle-Inclán ya yanke shawarar tafiya zuwa Mexico don neman sabbin damar. Ya sauka a Veracruz a ranar 8 ga Afrilu, 1892; mako guda daga baya ya zauna a cikin garin Mexico City kuma ya fara aiki a matsayin mai fassara ga Italiyanci da Faransanci don jaridu kamar su Jaridar Spanish, El Universal y Mai zaman kansa Veracruz.

Lokaci ne na kasada da mahimmancin ci gaba a cikin matsin lamba da takunkumi da Shugaba Porfirio Díaz ya sanya. Daga abokantakarsa da Sóstenes Rocha ya sami cikakken bayyani game da siyasar Mexico kuma yawancin labaran da aka ba da labarin daga baya sun bayyana shi Mace. Valle-Inclán ya rufe farkon zaman sa a ƙasar Aztec a ƙarshen 1892, lokacin da ya tashi zuwa Cuba.

Da farko wallafe-wallafe

A lokacin bazara na 1893, mai tarihi, gemu da gashi Valle-Inclán ya dawo zuwa Pontevedra. A can, ya kafa ƙawancen abokantaka tare da Jesús Muruáis da René Ghil. A cikin 1894 ya buga littafinsa na farko, Mace (Labaran soyayya shida). A yanzu, saurayi Ramón ya fara ɗaukar aikinsa a matsayin marubuci. Daga wannan lokacin dukkan rayuwarsa ta ta'allaka ne da adabi da zane-zane.

Kalmomin daga Ramón del Valle-Inclán.

Kalmomin daga Ramón del Valle-Inclán.

Komawa Madrid da sauran wallafe-wallafe

A 1895 ya koma Madrid; Ya yi aiki a matsayin jami’in gwamnati a Ma’aikatar koyar da Jama’a da Ingantaccen Fasaha. Ya zama sananne a yawancin cafes ɗin Madrid na wancan lokacin saboda irin lafazin da yake da shi, ikonsa na mamaye tattaunawa, lalata suna da halaye masu fashewa, wanda ya kai shi ga tattaunawa mai zafi da mutane irin su Pío Baroja ko Miguel de Unamuno.

A lokacin 1897 an sake littafinsa na biyu, Epitalamio (Labaran soyayya), cikakken gazawar edita. Hukuncin ya kasance da kyau sosai cewa Valle-Inclán ya binciko zaɓi na canza ayyukan da zama mai fassara. A cikin 1898 da 1899 ya taka rawa daban-daban a ayyukan wasan kwaikwayo Abin dariya na dabbobi ta Jacinto Benavente kuma a ciki Sarakunan zaman talala by Alejandro Sawa, bi da bi.

Ganawa tare da Rubén Darío da wahalar sa a ƙarshen ƙarni

A lokacin bazara na 1899 matsalolin tattalin arziki a bayyane suke, har ma ya ji yunwa. Duk da haka, Valle-Inclán har yanzu yana da rikici a wasu ra'ayoyi (don neman 'yancin Cuba, alal misali). Don rayuwa, yana buƙatar dogaro ga abokansa na kusa, Rubén Darío yana ɗaya daga cikin mawuyacin halinsa.

A lokacin rani na wannan shekarar akwai wani muhimmin abu da ya faru a Café de la Montaña, inda ya ji rauni a kai da hannu bayan jayayya da marubuci Manuel Bueno. Ramón ya yi watsi da raunin, saboda haka, ya zama mummunan gangrene da yanke ƙashin ƙafarsa ta hagu.

Sau ɗaya a wani lokaci yi fassarori da karbuwa ga ƙasar Sifen (Fuskar allah daga Arniches, misali) don samun kuɗi. A cikin 1901 ba da gangan ya harbe kansa a ƙafa yayin tafiya zuwa La Mancha. Haɗuwa, an yi wahayi zuwa ga halitta Kaka Sonata, wanda aka buga a 1902 azaman buɗewar Memoirs na Marquis na Bradomín, a cikin mako-mako Litinin da ba a nuna bambanci.

Balaga da aure

Tun daga wannan lokacin ya ɗauki tsarin dabarun edita dangane da ci gaba a cikin sakin labarai har zuwa ƙarshen kwanakinsa kafin ƙaddamar da littattafansa.. A cikin shekaru masu zuwa ya buga Lokacin bazara Sonata (1903), Guguwar sonata (1904) y Lokacin hunturu sonata (1905), wanda aka sadaukar domin matarsa ​​ta gaba, 'yar wasan kwaikwayo Josefa María Ángela Blanco Tejerina. A waccan lokacin an rigaya an san shi a matsayin babban wakilin Wakilin Mutanen Espanya na Zamani.

Marquis na Bradomín a ƙarshe an fara shi a gidan wasan kwaikwayo na Gimbiya (1906), yana haifar da babbar sha'awa tsakanin jama'a da 'yan jaridu. A cikin 1907 ya gabatar da wasan kwaikwayo na farko na dabbanci a Barcelona, Blazon Mikiya. Ya kuma fito da littattafai da dama: Turare na labari, Ayoyi don yabon tsarkakakkiyar mata, Marquis na Bradomín - Tattaunawar soyayya y Romance na Wolves.

Ya auri Josefa Blanco a watan Agusta 1907, tare da ita ya haifi yara shida: María de la Concepción (1907), Joaquín María (1919 - ya mutu 'yan watanni bayan haihuwa), Carlos Luis Baltasar (1917), María de la Encarnación Beatriz Baltasara (1919), Jaime Baltasar Clemente (1922) da Ana María Antonia Baltasara (1924). Kodayake ma'auratan sun yi ƙoƙari su zauna a Galicia, amma sun share kusan shekaru goma sha biyar a Madrid.

Ramón da matarsa ​​sun fara rangadin watanni shida na Sifen-Amurka a cikin 1910 tare da kamfanin wasan kwaikwayo na Francisco Ortega García. ta kasashen Argentina, Chile, Bolivia, Paraguay da kuma Uruguay. Hakanan, Valle-Inclán ya ci gaba da ƙaddamar da wasan kwaikwayo a Spain, kamar su Isharar muryoyi (1911), Marigayiyar Rosalinda. Sentimental da kuma grotesque farce (1913) y Al'ajabi fitila. Darasi na ruhaniya (1915, farko girma na Opera Omnia).

Kasancewa cikin Yaƙin Duniya na ɗaya

Mutuwar a Nicaragua yayin 1916 na babban abokinsa Rubén Darío ya shafi Valle-Inclán ƙwarai da gaske. A waccan shekarar Babban Yaƙin yana da ɗayan manyan maki. Kodayake ra'ayoyi a Madrid sun rarrabu, Valle-Inclán ya bayyana matsayinsa a sarari a cikin < >. Ta wannan rubutun ne gwamnatin Faransa ta gayyace shi ya ziyarci fagen fama na Alsace, Flanders, Vosges da Verdun.

Hakazalika, Tsakanin Afrilu 27 da Yuni 28, 1916 Ramón Valle-Inclán yayi aiki a matsayin mai ba da rahoto game da yaƙi Rashin Rashin Gaskiya, inda ya buga jerin rubuce-rubucen Tsakar dare Tsakar dare (Oktoba - Disamba 2016) da Da rana (Janairu - Fabrairu 1917). Ari ga haka, ya riƙe matsayin farfesa a fannin ilimin fasaha na Fine Arts a Makarantar Musamman ta Zane da Zane-zanen Madrid daga shekara ta 1916.

The "grotesque", matsalolin lafiya da tafiya ta biyu zuwa Mexico

A cikin 1919 ya fitar da littafin waƙa na biyu, Bututun Kif y Tragicauyen masifa (jaridar sanarwa) Rana). A lokacin 1920 Ramón ya gabatar da rubutu na uku na waƙoƙi, Fasinjan, Kalaman Allah y Bohemian fitilu, na farko "baƙar magana" da aka buga tsakanin Yuli zuwa Oktoba (jerin ƙasidu guda goma sha uku) a cikin mujallar España. Na biyu mai ban tsoro, Horahonin Don Frijolera, ya bayyana a Alƙalami tsakanin Afrilu da Agusta 1921.

A cewar Javier Serrano daga Jami'ar Santiago, “Wannan maganar ta nuna alama ce mafi muhimmanci a lokacin ƙirar fasaha ta Valle-Inclán, kuma yana wakiltar mafi rikitarwa da nasara mataki na adabin Mutanen Espanya a cikin aikin Turai na sabunta adabi na karni na XNUMX. Girman magana an tsara shi azaman tsattsauran tsari na fassara gaskiya, wanda kirkirarren labari ne a hukumance, don wargaza hoton karya wanda mutum yake da shi existence ”.

Kalmomin daga Ramón del Valle-Inclán.

Kalmomin daga Ramón del Valle-Inclán.

Valle-Inclán da kansa ya bayyana cewa babban abin da ya sa shi ƙirƙirar maganganun shine "Binciko ɓangaren ban dariya a cikin bala'in rayuwa". Wataƙila, yanayin lafiyar sa yana da tasiri sosai akan asalin wannan ƙirƙirar adabin, tunda yana buƙatar sa hannun tiyata don cire kumburi a cikin mafitsararsa (zai zama yanayin da zai kasance tare da shi har zuwa mutuwarsa).

A farkon bazarar 1921 Ramón Valle-Inclán ya yi tafiya zuwa Mexico, wanda Shugaba Álvaro Obregón ya gayyata, saboda bikin cika shekaru dari da samun 'yanci. Bayan ajanda mai cike da ayyukan al'adu, ya zauna na sati biyu a Havana da wasu biyu a New York, kafin ya dawo ƙasashen Galician a watan Disamba 1922.

Saki, fatarar kuɗi da ayyukan ƙarshe

An fara daga 1923, Valle-Inclán ya karɓi yabo da yawa a cikin kafofin watsa labarai daban-daban a cikin Spain da Latin Amurka. A wannan lokacin ya fara rubuta manyan abubuwa biyu: Tutar Azzalumai (bugun da aka kammala a shekarar 1926) da kuma jerin Wheafafun Iberiya (1926-1931). A cikin 1928 ya sanya hannu kan wata yarjejeniya mai kyau tare da Kamfanin buga takardu na Ibero-American Publications (CIAP), wanda ya ba shi ɗan kwanciyar hankali na tattalin arziki na ɗan lokaci.

Pero CIAP tayi fatarar kuɗi a cikin 1931. Valle-Inclán kusan yana kan titi, kusan a cikin yanayin talauci. A ƙarshe ya yarda ya yi aiki a matsayin babban mai kula da Taskar Fasaha ta (asa (tare da iyakantaccen aiki). Don ƙara cin mutunci ga rauni, a ƙarshen wannan shekarar karar ƙararrakin saki da Josefina Blanco ta gabatar ya wadatu (Ta riƙe 'yar ƙarama kawai, Ramón ta riƙe sauran ukun).

A farkon 1933 dole ne a sake sarrafa shi a Madrid. Bayan 'yan watanni sai ya fara aiki a matsayin darakta a Kwalejin Fasaha ta Fasaha a Rome, duk da cewa ya yi saurin karaya saboda yanayin lalacewar ginin ma'aikatar hade da dumbin hanyoyin gudanar da aikin gwamnati da suka dace don sauya lamarin.

A cikin 1935 matsalolin mafitsararsa sun ta'azzara. Saboda haka, ya yanke shawarar komawa Galicia don magani, kazalika ya kewaye kansa da masu sha'awar, dangi da abokai. Ya sake yin ƙoƙari ya sake rubutawa (tsawon shekaru biyu bai fito da wani sabon abu ba), amma ya riga ya yi rauni sosai. Ramón Valle-Inclán ya mutu a kan Janairu 5, 1936, ya bar babbar gad huge wanda ya sanya shi cancanta da ofididdiga masu tarin yawa da aka yi har zuwa yau.


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