Mun ɗan bincika aikin «Romancero gitano» na FG Lorca

Federico García Lorca, mashahurin mawaƙin Sifen

Nemo cikin rayuwa da aikin marubucin haifaffen Granada Federico Garcia Lorca Abin mamaki ne kwarai da gaske, saboda sabon abu koyaushe ana gano shi. A yau mun zo ne don yin hakan daidai: zurfafawa, zurfafa zurfin zurfin zurfin zurfin ɗayan ɗayan sanannun ayyukan sa. Mun ɗan bincika aikin "Gypsy romance" daga FG Lorca, za ku zauna tare da mu?

"Gypsy romance"

Aikin waka "Gypsy romance" an rubuta kuma wanda mawaki Federico García Lorca ya wallafa a cikin shekara 1928 kuma abu ne wanda ya kunshi jimla guda 18 na soyayya, wadanda jigoginsu suka ta'allaka ne da duniyar tatsuniya ta gypsies, ma'amala da jigogi kamar na duniya a matsayin makoma mai ban takaici wanda yake tare da mu duk a wani lokaci a rayuwar mu, takaicin abubuwan da ake so amma ba a samu ba , laifi don ji da aikata wasu abubuwa, da dai sauransu.

Maganganun waƙa a cikin wannan aikin yana nuna ma'anar sanannen ƙarni na '27, inda hanyoyin da manufofin mutum suka haɗu da maganganu na gaba-garde, gami da cewa ba wani abu ba ne na mawaƙin Granada, kamar nasu alamomin sararin samaniya.

Kuma idan kuna son karanta wannan kyakkyawan aikin ba da daɗewa ba, muna ba da shawarar cewa kada ku ci gaba da karatu a yanzu. Ba ma son bayyana muku komai! Ka dawo nan idan ka gama karantawa. Koyaya, idan kun riga kun karanta shi kuma kuna son ci gaba da nazarin shi tare da mu, ci gaba da karantawa.

Mutuwar Antoñito, el Camborio

A cikin wannan sanannen aikin, gypsies suna da girman almara: suna wakiltar ilhami 'yanci Yaki da tsayayyun ka'idoji da makoma. Lorca, yana mai da hankalin dukkan halayen ɗan adam a cikinsu (masu martaba, ƙarfi, da dai sauransu) don yin tawaye don haka su fuskanci mummunan makoma wannan yana cikin tanadi a gare shi, wanda har yanzu ya ci nasara kuma ya ci nasara da mutuwar da ba makawa.

A wannan gaba, zamu ga halin Antoñito, da Camborio kamar yadda tsohuwar tsaran gypsy tsarkakakke.

"Romance na azabar baƙi"

Daga rikici tsakanin sha'awar 'yanci da mutuwa, babban damuwa yana faruwa wanda gypsies ke kira "Bakar fanareti". Wannan bincike da bayanin jin dirin da aka yi na "bakar azaba" ana jin ta a cikin littafinta na wani Soledad Montoya, kuma za mu iya jin wahalarta a cikin waɗannan ayoyin da muka saka a ƙasa:

_Soledad: wanke jikinka

tare da ruwan tsami,

kuma ka bar zuciyar ka

cikin aminci, Soledad Montoya.

Kasan kogin yana waka: 

flyer na sama da ganye.

Tare da furannin kabewa

sabon haske yaji.

Oh kunya akan Gypsies!

Tsabtace hukunci kuma koyaushe shi kadai.

Oh, ɓoyayyen kogi

kuma wayewar gari!

Jigogin da Gypsy Ballads ke hulɗa da su

Kodayake Gypsy Ballads sanannen magana ne game da batun da ba a ɗan amfani da shi ba kamar duniyar gypsy, gaskiyar ita ce Ba shine kawai batun wanda marubucin yake ba, Federico García Lorca, ya aikata. A zahiri, duk cikin roman roman 18 waɗanda suka haɗu da Romanro za mu iya samun batutuwa daban-daban waɗanda ya kamata a sani.

Babban na hakika shine danniya, zalunci da rayuwar gypsies, mutanen da a koyaushe suke kan iyakokin al'umma kuma hakan ya saɓa da cancanta da munanan halaye marasa kyau don salon rayuwarsu.

Saboda wannan dalili, Lorca yana aiki a kan jigogi daban-daban a cikin waƙoƙinsa, yana danganta su da su, kamar gaskiyar a gwagwarmaya akai-akai tare da ikon danniya, adawa, zamantakewar yan kasuwa, da dai sauransu. Duk waɗannan sun mai da hankali kan ba da rai da murya ga ɗan sanannun sanannen al'umma da aka ƙi mutunci kamar su gypsies. Gaskiyar magana ita ce marubucin da kansa yayi magana game da yadda akwai manyan sunaye a cikin fasaha waɗanda ke cikin ƙabilar gypsy.

Koyaya, wani abu da veryan kaɗan ke yawan yin sharhi shine, ban da batun batun gypsies, Lorca Hakanan yana sanya sarari ga mata a cikin aikin sa. Halin da ke wakiltar ta a wannan yanayin shine Soledad Montoya, wanda aka fi sani da «gypsy nun», kuma ita ce abin da za a iya bayyana a matsayin «ainihin mace» don gypsies.

Tabbas, a duk cikin soyayyar, akwai manyan jigogi da yawa, kamar soyayya, mutuwa, bambance-bambance ... Duk wannan ana yin sa ne ta hanyar gypsies, amma a zahirin gaskiya marubucin na da ikon sakewa da shi zuwa wasu al'ummomin.

Rabe-raben soyayya: jigogi daban daban

El Romancero Gitano yana ɗaya daga cikin littattafan Lorca da ya fara rubutawa a 1924 kuma aka buga shi a 1928. Muna iya magana game da kasancewa ɗayan mahimman ayyukan marubucin, tare da harshe wanda ya dogara da kwatanci, alama, da labarai. Tabbas, ya yi fice don sanar da gipi da al'adun Andalusiya, ba tare da yin watsi da sauran batutuwa ba.

Lorca yana aiki a cikin kwalliyar kwalliyar sa a bayan sa jagororin soyayyar gargajiya, ma'ana, amfani da hirarraki ba tare da gabatar da kalmomin aiki ko faɗin wanda ke magana ba. Kari kan haka, labarin da aka bayar ba shi da wani karin magana, wani abu ne da yake farawa ba zato ba tsammani kuma zai iya haifar da da-na-sani game da labarin. Don haka, duk soyayyar Lorca ana amfani da ita ta amfani da dabarun labari na yau da kullun, anaphora, maimaitawa da kuma alamar da mawaƙin yake so sosai.

Kamar yadda muka fada a baya, ya kunshi soyayya 18. Amma duk waɗannan ba gaba ɗaya suke juyawa ba game da duniyar gypsy, amma dai ana iya samun nau'ikan soyayya iri biyu daban da abin da Lorca ke so ya faɗi game da su.

Don haka, kuna da:

1auna 15 zuwa XNUMX

Wadannan su ne mayar da hankali kai tsaye a kan gypsies. Amma a cikin su akwai wasu mahimman abubuwa masu mahimmanci kamar mutuwa, mata, da dai sauransu. A zahiri, biyar daga cikin wannan ƙungiyar waƙoƙin suna kan mata. Muna magana game da: Daraja da iska; Soyayyar Baccin Bacci, Gypsy Nun; gidan rashin amana; da kuma Soyayya na baƙin azaba. Kowannensu yana ba da hangen nesa na batun kamar soyayya, sha'awar, damuwa ko baƙin ciki.

A lokaci guda, akwai wasu soyayyar soyayya wadanda tarihinsu na gypsies ne wadanda suke da mummunan karshe, kamar Mutuwar Antoñito el Camborio; Jayayya; o Soyayyar Sojojin Sifen na Sifen.

A ƙarshe, zaku sami soyayyar soyayya guda uku waɗanda marubucin ya sadaukar da su zuwa garuruwan Andalus guda uku. Su ne: Granada (tare da San Miguel); Seville (tare da San Gabriel); da Córdoba (tare da San Rafael).

16auna 18 zuwa XNUMX

Romauna uku na ƙarshe na Gypsy Ballads ba su da alaƙa da gypsies, amma dai Suna magana game da adadi na tarihi. Misali, na Martirio de Santa Olalla, yayi magana akan Roman Andalusia, kuma yayi mu'amala da rayuwar Santa Eulalia de Mérida.

A nasa bangare, Mock Don Pedro a kan doki, ya sake dawo da mu zuwa Tsararru na Zamani, inda yake magana game da soyayya, rashinta, da kuma mahayan da suka manta.

A ƙarshe, Thamar da Amnon suna ba da labarin wani littafi ne mai tsarki da kuma ƙaunatacciyar soyayya da sha'awar brothersan uwan ​​biyu.

Ana iya cewa, kodayake suna ma'amala da jigogin da aka gani a cikin soyayyar da ta gabata, ya bambanta da yawa daga abin da ake ma'amala a cikin littafin Lorca kuma kamar dai na sanya soyayyar soyayya guda uku wanda, ta wata hanya, ba su da alaƙa da abubuwan da ke sama (duk da cewa, kamar yadda muke faɗa, suna magance matsaloli iri ɗaya).

Symbology a cikin Gypsy Ballads

A ƙarshe, mun bar ku anan menene alamar da kuka samu a cikin Gypsy Ballads da ma'anar da mawaƙin ya ba wa waɗannan alamun. Ana amfani da wasu daga cikinsu a wasu ayyukan, amma akwai wasu waɗanda ke da irin wannan.

Daga cikinsu akwai:

Gypsy

Gypsy na iya zama fassara a matsayin hanyar rayuwa, da yadda take karo da "al'ada" da al'adar al'ada. Duk da yunƙurin daidaitawa da waccan al'umma da zama lafiya da su, ya faskara kuma ya sa makomar sa ta ƙare.

La luna

Ga Lorca, wata yana da ma'anoni da yawa, amma gaskiyar ita ce a wannan yanayin mafi halayyar abu shine alamar mutuwa.

Bijimin

Kodayake bijimi alama ne na ƙarfi, na ƙarfi, na ƙarfin zuciya. Babban burin wannan shine mutuwa kuma ba abu bane na al'ada, amma dole ne yayi gwagwarmaya don rayuwa, a ƙarshe, duk abin da yayi, ya shuɗe.

Saboda haka, ga Lorca, yana da alama mai ban tsoro. Kamar dai an cire bijimin ne ransa. Kuma wannan shine yadda yake wakiltar shi a cikin soyayyarsa.

Doki

Dokin ya kasance a cikin ayyuka da yawa ta Federico García Lorca

Doki yana ɗaya daga cikin alamun da Federico García Lorca ya fi amfani da su a yawancin ayyukansa. Kuma a wannan yanayin yana magana ne game da doki daga namiji, virile, ra'ayi mai ƙarfi, cike da so.

Wannan shine yadda yake wakilta, amma kuma cewa wannan sha'awar koyaushe tana haifar da mutuwa, zuwa ƙarshen bala'i wanda ya ƙare ba tare da cimma abin da yake ɗoki ba.

Wuka, diga, wukake

Duk cikin Gypsy Ballads, ana ambatar wasu karafa kamar wukake, adda, da dai sauransu. Dukkanin su abubuwa ne masu alamar mutuwa ga marubucin. Ka tuna cewa muna magana ne game da wani abu wanda ke haifar da ciwo kuma wannan na iya zama kisa.

Koyaya, akwai wasu kuma karafa kamar azurfa ko zinariya, da tagulla ko tagulla. Biyun farko alamu ne masu kyau ga Lorca; a daya bangaren, sauran biyun, suna ba su wata ma’ana ta daban, tunda yana amfani da su ne don nuna irin fatar da mutum (ko rukuni) yake da ita.

Idan kana son karanta wani abu mai kyau game da García Lorca, muna ba da shawarar sosai karanta wannan «Romancero Gitano», ɗayan mafi kyau daga marubucin haifaffen Granada.


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