Madam Dalloway

Madam Dalloway.

Madam Dalloway.

Madam Dalloway ta Virginia Woolf tana wakiltar mafi girman bayanin Ingilishi na lokacin rikici. An buga shi a cikin 1925 kuma an saita shi a waɗannan kwanakin. Lokacin da raunukan zub da jini wanda Babban Yaƙin ya bari har yanzu a buɗe yake a tituna da cikin gidaje. A wancan lokacin babu wani a cikin babban birnin Ingilishi da ya yi tsammanin fara wani rikici da makami tare da tasirin duniya.

Bayan abubuwan firgitarwa, har ila yau babbar al'umma ta London ba ta mai da hankali sosai ga wannan gaskiyar ba a bayan yanayin rayuwarta na jin daɗi da walwala. Saboda haka, a cikin rubutun wannan aikin ya ƙunshi zargi mai ƙarfi a cikin wannan hanyar banzan ganin duniya.

Hoton bayan yakin London, "yaji" tare da bayanan tarihin rayuwa

Virginia Woolf ta sami sunanta a cikin jerin marubutan duniya. Ishara ce ta wajibi a cikin gaba-garde da zamanin Anglo-Saxon. Daga cikin waɗancan abubuwa, ya yi fice don sauƙin cika labaransa da yawa waɗanda ke cike da nassoshi na gaske tare da baitoci da shayari.

Madam Dalloway shine mafi mahimmancin ƙirƙirar aikinsa a cikin wasiƙu. Masu sukar ra'ayi sun fara ɗaukarta da matukar godiya ga salon asali, mai wahalar kwaikwaya. A gefe guda, ɗayan siffofin wannan aikin, da kuma "hanyoyin" marubucinsa: magana game da abubuwa da yawa, ba tare da (a cikin labarin) komai ya faru ba.

Labarin wata rana

Aya daga cikin keɓaɓɓun rubutun shi ne hujjarsa, tunda yana faruwa a cikin yini ɗaya. Kodayake tsalle na lokaci yana da yawa a cikin haɓakarsa, waɗannan kawai suna faruwa ne a cikin haruffa. Wannan yana nuna halaye masu mahimmanci na Madam Dalloway da kuma wani bangare da ke da nauyin takamaiman nauyi a cikin zancen: kusanci.

Ba kamar yawancin litattafan da ke wannan kwatancen ba, masu karatu ba kawai suna da damar yin amfani da tunanin jarumai da masu adawa da su ba ne. Duk haruffan da ke fareti a cikin makircin suna jin daɗin lokacin hangen nesan su. Binciken "kai tsaye" na yadda suke ganin duniya da kuma abin da suke tsammani daga wasu. A lokuta da yawa, gaskata dalilin ayyukansu.

Takaitaccen bayani game da makircin

"Rana a Rayuwar Uwargida Clarissa Dalloway" zai kasance, ba tare da wata shakka ba, hanya ce mai sauƙi ta taƙaita makircin wannan littafin. A lokacin da ake magana - a tsakiyar lokacin zafi na Landan - wannan baiwar da ke da damar zuwa manyan masu iko ta yanke shawarar yin wata liyafa.

Virginia Woolf

Virginia Woolf

Manufar: kula da facade

Taron da Ms Dalloway ta shirya yabo ne ga mijinta, dan majalisar mai ra'ayin mazan jiya. Ba ta da farin ciki tare da shi, saboda haka, ba ta da ƙauna a gare shi. Amma wannan ba batun bane, muhimmin abu shi ne matsayi hakan yana baka. Duk waɗanda ke wurin nishaɗin suna yin bimbini a kan jigogi da yawa; rantsuwa, banal ko wanzu, ba ya haɗa da baƙi kawai.

Adadin gaske na ma'auni mai nauyi shine Septimus Warren Smith. Wata gogaggen yakin da "jarumar" ta tarihi ba ta san shi ba, wanda rayuwarta da mutuwarsa ta koya albarkacin bayanan wadanda suka halarci bikin. Daidai Septimus yana adana yawancin bayanan tarihin rayuwar wanda Woolf ya goge aikinsa.

Labari game da raunin rayuwa da ƙarfin zuciyar mutuwa

Septimus Warren Smith ya kasance mai yawan damuwa, mai son sauraren tsuntsaye, yana rera waka cikin Girkanci kuma wanda ya ƙare rayuwarsa ta hanyar jefa kansa ta taga. Ba karamin bayani bane; A lokacin wallafawa, marubucin ya riga ya sami yunkurin kashe kansa bin wannan hanyar.

Waɗannan ba su ne kawai halayen da ke tsakanin marubucin da halayenta ba. Tattaunawa game da mata da yin luwadi shima ɓangare ne na makircin. Haka kuma, littafin yayi bayani game da son zuciya na al'umma dangane da tabin hankali (da yadda ake yanke hukunci akan "mahaukata").

Aiki tare da ingantaccen zamantakewar jama'a

Mafi fice a tsakanin manyan batutuwan da aka rufe a ciki Madam Dalloway shine sukar da aka yi wa al'ummar London. Bayyanar jiki, matsayin jama'a, iko, da sha'awar da yake motsawa. A cikin almara, waɗannan ra'ayoyin sune injunan duniya.

Mallaka mulkin mallaka wani ra'ayi ne da marubucin ya bayyana tare da rabonsa na nazari (kuma hakan ya kasance ya buge). Koyaya, don ɗaukar irin waɗannan tsattsauran ra'ayi na lokacin Woolf yayi amfani da roƙo "tsakanin layin". Inda ayyuka da maganganun haruffan suka cika daidai.

Salon Woolf

Ba littafi bane mai sauki. Rasa duk wata niyya ko ɓata hanya ga masu karatu. Daga cikin waɗanda ba sa jin Turanci, bisa ga fassarar da suke da damar zuwa, matsalolin bin labarin na iya zama mafi girma. Yanayi mai rikitarwa saboda rashin dacewar amfani da alamun rubutu daga wasu masu fassarar rikicewa.

Wuce waƙafi da lokaci, Ulu da gangan karya tare da "ya zama." Mayar da hankali daga labarin yana wucewa daga wani hali zuwa wani, ba tare da "sanarwa ta farko" ba game da wannan canja wurin.. Wani lokaci labarin yakan canza rai daga mutum na farko zuwa na uku daga sakin layi daya zuwa wani kai tsaye. Babu dabara ko dabara.

Wani babi na musamman

Quote daga Virginia Woolf.

Quote daga Virginia Woolf.

Don ƙara rikitarwa: rashin iyakoki ko ɓangarori a cikin rubutu. Wato, marubucin - da gangan - bayarwa tare da tsarin babin gargajiya. Sakamakon haka, morean shafuka fiye da 300 waɗanda labarin ya ƙunsa, ya rasa "rarrabuwa tsarin aiki".

Littafin da babu abin da ya faru a ciki?

Yawancin lokaci, ƙirar labarin kirkirarren labari ne ke motsa shi ta hanyar ƙarfin da mai kishi ke bi don cimma wata manufa. Haka kuma, zaren mahawara yana dauke da adawar mai adawa, wanda ke yin ƙoƙari don ƙetare abubuwan da aka fara ko jin daɗin babban halayyar. Kunnawa Madam Dalloway babu ɗayan wannan.

Labarin ya ci gaba saboda sa’o’i suna wucewa. Kuma haruffan suna tafiya zuwa abubuwan da suka gabata yayin "rayuwa" yanayi da yawa. Amma komai yana cikin kawunansu, cikin tunaninsu, cikin lamirinsu. Matakan juyawa —Kodayake ba bayyane suke ba, akwai - an warware su ta hanyar maganganun cikin gida. Wannan yanayin labari ana kiransa kwararar labarin sani.

Mahimmin karatu

Karatun Uwargida Dalloway na daukar lokaci. Keɓe sarari a kan ajanda don kewaya raƙuman ruwanta ba tare da garaje ba, tare da haƙuri, ba tare da shagala ba. Ba makawa littafi ne ga kowane marubuci ko kuma masu burin samun wannan taken. Kafin fara kasada, shirya don komawa duk lokacin da ya zama dole. Batarwa abu ne mai sauki, amma kaiwa karshen ya cancanci hakan.

Ga waɗanda suka ayyana kansu a matsayin "masu karatu masu ilimi" (ko ta kowane irin abu), yana wakiltar gwajin gwaji na gaskiya. Hakanan littafi ne wanda yakamata a karɓa ba tare da matsi ba. Idan lokacin yayi, ana jin dadinsa. Idan kuwa ba haka ba, to koyaushe za a sami 'yancin ƙiyayya da shi.


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

Kasance na farko don yin sharhi

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