Moby Dick

Daga Moby.

Daga Moby.

Moby Dick, na Herman Melville, labari ne na wani mutum da ya damu da farautar wata hatsari mai wuyar ganewa kuma farin jini sperm whale. Mutumin da ake magana a kansa, Kyaftin Ahab, yana son ɗaukar fansa a kan dabbar da ke tsiron ne saboda ta cire masa ƙafa a lokacin bin sa shekaru da suka gabata. Shi ne ke jagorantar jirgin ruwa Pequod da kuma jirgin ruwan sa.

Ismael, wani matashin jirgin ruwa ne ya ruwaito littafin. Sauran membobin jirgin sune Starbuck, Stubb da Flash (kwamanda na farko, na biyu da na uku, bi da bi); mawaƙa, Queequeg, Tashtego da Dagoo. Dukansu sun yarda su hau kan kasuwancin da ake tsammani. Amma lokacin da al'amuran suka rikitarwa, Ahab ya sa manufar manufa ta bayyana: fansa.

Mawallafin Bio, Herman Melville

Haihuwa, dangi da yarinta

An haifi Herman Melville a cikin New York, Amurka, a ranar 1 ga Agusta, 1819, cikin dangin da suka fito daga masarautar Scotland. Shi ne ɗa na biyu tsakanin Allan da Maria Ganservoort Melvill (na biyu "e" a cikin sunan mahaifi an ƙara shi bayan mutuwar mahaifinsa a 1832). Herman ya girma a ƙarƙashin inuwar ɗan'uwansa, a zahiri, yana da shekara bakwai mahaifiyarsa ta ɗauke shi "mai saurin magana da jinkirin fahimta."

Melvills sun so ilimin yaran duniya domin darajar danginsu. Mahaifin Mariya an dauke shi mutumin da ya fi kowa kudi a Albany, New York, kuma gwarzo ne na Yakin Juyin Juya Hali. A gefe guda kuma, Allan Melvill memba ne na Jam'iyyar Tea Party ta Boston, koyaushe yana ƙoƙari ya kiyaye bayyanar da matsayin dangi.

Matasa da horo

Kasuwancin dangi ya zama mai rikitarwa har Allan Melvill ya mutu a watan Janairu 1832, cike da damuwa da manyan bashi. Maria ta kasance bazawara tare da yara maza huɗu da mata huɗu. Sakamakon haka, manyan sonsa sonsan hada hadan biyu sun yi aiki. Yarinyar Herman tayi aiki a matsayin mai karɓar banki har zuwa 1935 sannan kuma a cikin shagon dangi yayin shiga Makarantar Albany Classical.

Abubuwan da ya fara samu a cikin teku

A cikin 1837 ya fara tsallakawa zuwa Liverpool. Bayan shekara guda, sai ya dawo Amurka don aiki a matsayin malami. A cikin 1941 ya hau kan shekara ɗaya da rabi a kan mashin a ƙetaren Tekun Kudancin. Hadarin ya ƙare a cikin wata ɗaya tsakanin masu cin naman mutane a Tsibirin Marquesas. Ya sami damar tserewa a cikin jirgin ruwan kasuwanci na Australiya, amma sai da ya kwashe makonni da yawa a kurkuku bayan ya sauka a Tahiti.

A cikin 1943, Herman Melville ya shiga cikin Honolulu (Hawaii) a matsayin wani ɓangare na ma'aikatan jirgin ruwan Navy na Amurka. Irin wadatar abubuwan da ya samu a lokacin da yake sojan ruwa da soja sun ba shi kwarin gwiwar rubutawa da kuma buga litattafansa na farko. Ta wannan hanyar, suna bayyana Rubuta (1846), omoo (1847), Mardi (1849), jan wuta (1849) y Farar yaƙi (1850).

Rashin daidaito na edita na Moby Dick

A farkon 1850s ya zauna a gidan gonar ƙasar Massachusetts. A can ya kulla abota ta kud da kud da marubucin Nathaniel Hawthorne, ga wanda ya sadaukar da fitacciyar sa: Moby Dick (1851). Koyaya, littafin farin kifi whale bai sami tallace-tallace da yawa ba. A zahiri, kimanta aikin Melville ya zo ne bayan mutuwarsa. Menene ƙari, post ɗin sa na gaba, Pierre (1852), ya kasance rashin nasara mai ban mamaki.

Bayan wasu shekaru, Herman Melville ya fito da littafin tattara labarai mafi kyawu a cikin Tatsuniyoyi daga Piazza (1856), wanda ya hada da takaitaccen bita game da Tsibirin Galapagos. Abun takaici, saida litattafan sa basu wakilci kudin shiga ba wanda ya bashi damar tallafawa kansa kawai daga rubutu. Saboda haka, yayi aiki a matsayin mai kula da kwastan a New York tsakanin 1866 da 1885.

Sabbin sakonnin sa

Duk da ayyukan tashar jiragen ruwa, Herman Melville ya sami damar yin post Batutuwan yakin (1866) y Clarel (1876). Sabon littafinsa, Billy Budd, mai jirgin ruwa (1924), ya kammala shi watanni kafin mutuwarsa, wanda ya faru a New York a ranar 28 ga Satumba, 1891. A yau, ana san Melville a matsayin ɗayan manyan marubutan Amurka na kowane lokaci.

Analysis of Moby Dick

Halin halin lokacin

Theofar PSHschool.com (Yuli 2015) ta lura: "A lokacin Melville, kyaftin ɗin jirgin yana da iko marar iyaka." Duk wanda ke cikin jirgin ya san wannan kuma idan ba a sami sabani ba sai su guji yin fito na fito kai tsaye da kyaftin. In ba haka ba, rashin kula da umarninsu ya haifar da wulakanci da / ko azaba mai tsanani.

Herman Melville ne adam wata.

Herman Melville ne adam wata.

A ƙarƙashin waɗannan layin ƙarfe na umarnin ma'amala da haruffa Moby Dick. A wannan ma'anar, Veronica Faller ta bayyana a cikin rubutun ta (2013) don taron karawa juna sani "Whale" dabi'un "mutuntaka da abokantaka" suna iya bayyana a cikin aikin. Hakanan, Faller ya fahimci cewa “rashin mata a Moby Dick”Ya samo asali ne daga dalilai guda biyu takamamme:“ buƙatar karɓuwa da buƙatar mamayar ”.

Symbology

Likitoci, Meenakshi Sharma Yadav (Jami'ar King Khalid) da Manoj Kumar Yadav (masu zaman kansu), sun bayyana alamun da ke cikin aikin sosai. A cikin sakon nasa na Jaridar Duniya ta Lissafi, Adabi da Fassara (2019), masu binciken sunyi bayanin cewa farin launi yana nuna tsarki da kyawun mala'iku.

Amma fararen fata na iya zama maɓallin wariyar launin fata, nuna bambanci, ƙima da kowane kyakkyawan wakilcin dokokin yanayi. A ƙarshe, farin farin kifin whale bai yi nasara ba saboda kasancewar fushin Allah. A'a, Moby Dick ya yi nasara saboda fifikon da yake da shi a kan sauran halittun kasar (maza) wadanda suke nuna kamar sun kalubalance shi a teku.

Kira na Moby Dick

Inicio

Abun da ya faru ne ya ruwaito labarin daga mai jirgin ruwa Ismael a cikin mutum na farko, wanda ke bayanin zamansa a tsibirin Nantucked, a gabar gabashin Amurka. A farkon yana bayyana kwalliyarta wanda ba zai iya daidaitawa zuwa ga teku ba yayin gabatar da biyu daga cikin jaruman littafin: marubutan kidan kwayoyi Queequeg da Mapple. Tare da tsohon ya kulla kawance sosai kuma ya hau kan karami, lusivean ƙaramin kyaftin whaler wanda ba shi da tabbas

Da zarar sun tashi, Ismael da Queequeg sun haɗu da sauran ma'aikatan: Petty Officer Starbuck, Sailor Stubb na biyu, da Flash Jami'in na Uku. Bugu da ƙari, da karami Tana da mawaƙa guda biyu: Tashtego (na Arewacin Amurka Aquinnah Wampanoag ƙabila) da kuma Dagoo “ɗan Afirka”. Ana ganin kyaftin Ahab da alama yana fuskantar haɗari da rashin kwanciyar hankali ne kawai bayan kwanaki da yawa a cikin teku.

Herman Melville ya faɗi.

Herman Melville ya faɗi.

Babban buri

Ahab ya bi maƙasudinsa na ban mamaki da irin wannan sha'awar - ko kuma, haɗuwa - har ya kawo ƙarshen cutar da ɗaukacin ma'aikatan. Labari ne game da shahararren Moby Dick, wanda Queequeg ya gani da sauran maharba. A wannan lokacin, Ahab ya bayyana wa mutanensa manufa ta gaskiya da ta gaske ta balaguron: kashe farin maniyyi.

Starbuck ne kawai ya kasance mai hankali saboda ya san asalin kyaftin (rama ƙarar hagu da ya ɓace) da kuma tsoron mutuncin abokan aikin sa. Don ɓoye dalilansa, Ahab ya umarci ma'aikatan jirgin da su ba da rahoton duk wani abu da ya gani. Babban abin birgewa game da lamarin shi ne yadda aka gano wasu ɓoyayyun ƙungiya waɗanda ke kan hanyar wucewa tare da sauran waɗanda Fedallah na Farisa ya jagoranta.

Shagala da mummunan sa'a

Ahab ya ba sauran ma'aikatan jirgin mamaki karami lokacin da shi da kansa ya hau ɗaya daga cikin jiragen harpoon a tsakiyar masassarar zazzabin kifaye. Daga baya, an cimma nasarar balaguron tare da wani jirgin ruwan, Albatross, amma bayanin da suka bayar game da farin kifin whale ba shi da fahimta. Koyaya, Ahab da masu jirgin ruwan sa sun sami cikakken bayani ... amma sai ya zama katuwar dorinar ruwa.

Kasancewar babbar mollusk an fassara ta a matsayin kyakkyawar alama ta Queequeg, wanda ke haɗa cephalopods tare da masu farautar su: sperm whales. Madadin haka, don Starbuck yana nuna mummunan hango nesa. A tsakiyar kisan gillar da ya makantar da kusan dukkan ma'aikatan jirgin karami, suna farautar wata babbar whale baƙar fata. Ana ɗaukar naman odontocete a gefen jirgin.

Camfi na aljanu ne?

El karami na ɗan lokaci ya canza burinsa don ya bi wata dabba da ke ciki saboda kyakkyawan fata da ake tsammani daga Fedallah. Ya ƙunshi haɗa ragowar kifin whale da whale boreal zuwa ɓangaren jirgin. Saboda wannan dalili, da gangan Ahab ya yi biris da shawarar kyaftin Jerobeam, wanda ya tsawata masa kada ya yi rikici da Moby Dick.

Zuwa yanzu, Stubb da Flash suna zargin cewa asalin Farisa hakika shaidan ne da kansa (wanda ya sayi ran Ahab). A kwanakin da suka biyo baya, munanan alamomin basu daina maimaita kansu ba: wani mahaukacin da aka lalata a tsakiyar farautar, abokan aikin da suka ji rauni da kuma masu tsoratar da jiragen ruwa. A halin yanzu, bambance-bambance tsakanin Starbuck da kyaftin dinta na zama mai jan hankali, saboda da alama Ahab ba ya neman alherin matuƙansa.

Kwana uku na taurin kai mai kisa

Ahab, maimakon ya saurari gargadin da kaftin din wani babban dan Burtaniya ya yi masa (na ni'ima) wanda Moby Dick ya yanke, ya ɗauki labarinsa a matsayin babban abin fahimta. Lallai, jim kadan bayan karami cimma Moby Dick. Nan da nan, jiragen suna shiga cikin ruwa don fara kisan, amma mahaɗan mahaifa ya lalata jirgin Ahab, wanda da kyar ya sami damar ceton kansa saboda Stubb. Ranar ta kara kwana biyu.

Koda lokacin da Moby Dick ya fasa kafar Ahab, sai kyaftin din bai ga dalili ba. A rana ta uku, Ahab ya sarrafa hargitsi game da kifin whale, to, mai cutar zafin nama ya lalata aikin gaban Ubangiji karami, wanda ya fara nutsewa. A ƙarshe, Ahab ya tuka mashi mai kisa zuwa Moby Dick, amma sai ya zama mai lafa a cikin garayar hargo kuma ya nutsar da shi. Mutum daya da ya rage ya ba da labarin abubuwan da suka faru: Ismael, wanda aka sake tayar da shi saboda akwatin gawa da Queequeg ya yi wa kansa kuma wani mahauci ya cece shi.


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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