Marubutan Chile na zamani

Mahimmanci a cikin shayari na Gabriela Mistral.

Mahimmanci a cikin shayari na Gabriela Mistral.

Yawancin marubutan Chile na yanzu sun bar mahimmin alama a adabin duniya. A cikin ƙarni biyu da suka gabata, wannan ƙasar Latin Amurka ta ga haihuwar manyan marubuta, waɗanda aka yarda da su sosai a duniya. Da yawa daga cikinsu sun sami mahimman lambobin yabo, kamar su Nobel Prize, wanda Gabriela Mistral da Pablo Neruda suka samu karbuwa.

Ta hanyar nau'ikan adabi daban-daban, Wadannan marubutan sun sami nasarar damke miliyoyin masu karatu a duniya. Aiki kamar: Masu binciken daji (Roberto Bolaño) y Wakokin soyayya guda ashirin da wata waqa mai sosa rai (Pablo Neruda) kawai wani yanki ne daga cikin kundin tarihin babbar kyauta. Na gaba, za a nuna wani ɓangare na abin da ake ɗaukar marubutan Chilean da ke da tasirin gaske a duniya.

Gabriela Mistral

Lucila de María del Perpetuo Socorro Godoy Alcayaga an haife shi ne a ranar 7 ga Afrilu, 1889 a cikin garin Vicuña (lardin Elqui, Chile). Ya fito ne daga dangi mai ƙasƙantar da kai, tare da asalin asalin Sifen da Basque. Ya kasance yarinta a wurare daban-daban a lardin Elqui, kodayake Montegrande ne wanda yayi la'akari da garinsu.

Duk da cewa ba shi da ilimin sana'a, tun daga 1904 ya yi aiki a matsayin malami, na farko a Escuela de la Compañía Baja, sannan a La Cantera da Los Cerritos.. A cikin 1910 ingantaccen ilimin su da gogewar su ta hanyar Normal School No. 1 ta Santiago, inda ta samu mukamin Farfesa na Jiha.

Ya yi daidai da aikin koyarwarsa, ya rubuta wa jaridu Coquimbo da kuma cikin Muryar Elqui na Vicuña. Daga shekara ta 1908 ya fara amfani da sunan suna Gabriela Mistral, amfani da farko a cikin waka "The Past". Babban fitowar sa ta farko yazo dashi Sonnets na mutuwa, wanda da shi marubucin ɗan Chile ya karɓi kyautar Wasannin Fure (1914).

A cikin yanayin sa, Mistral ya ƙirƙiri ɗaruruwan waƙoƙi, waɗanda ke tattare da tarin abubuwa daban-daban. Wadannan sun hada da: Hallaka (1922), Tala (1938) y Winery (1954). Hakanan, an rarrabe marubuci da mahimman laurera, kamar su: Nobel Prize for Literature (1945) da National Prize for Literature of Chile (1951). Mistral ya mutu a New York na cutar sankara a ranar 10 ga Janairu, 1957.

Pablo Neruda

Ricardo Eliécer Neftalí Reyes Basoalto ya zo wannan duniyar ne a ranar 12 ga Yuli, 1904. Garin da ya kasance Parral, a yankin Maule, Chile. Shi ɗa ne ga José del Carmen Reyes Morales da Rosa Neftalí Basoalto Opazo. Mahaifiyarsa ta mutu da cutar tarin fuka wata ɗaya bayan ta haifi mawaki. Pablo Neruda —Kamar yadda zai kira kansa daga baya- Ya zauna a Temuco tun daga yarinta har zuwa samartaka. A wannan garin ya yi karatunsa na farko, kuma wannan, daga baya, shine wahayi ga yawancin waƙoƙin sa na waƙoƙi.

Labari na farko, Himma da jajircewa (1917), an buga shi a cikin jaridar Washegari na Temuco. Shekaru biyu bayan haka, ya sadu da mawaƙi Gabriela Mistral, wanda ya gabatar da shi ga karatu kuma ya ƙarfafa shi ya ciyar da kansa da ayyukan sanannun marubutan Rasha. Tun 1921 ya sanya hannu kan ayyukansa kamar Pablo Neruda, kodayake har zuwa 1946 lokacin da aka ayyana wannan a matsayin sunansa na doka.

A cikin 1924 ya wallafa tarin waƙoƙin da suka ƙaddamar da shi zuwa shahara: Wakokin soyayya guda ashirin da wata waqa mai sosa rai. Daga can, Ya gabatar da ayyuka sama da 40 yayin da yake raye kuma yana da ayyuka 20 waɗanda suka mutu. A cikin aikinsa, an ba Neruda kyauta a lokuta da dama, daga cikinsu akwai abubuwan da suka bambanta: Kyautar National na Wallafe-wallafe ta Chile (1945), Lenin Peace Prize (1966) da Nobel Prize for Literature (1971).

In ji Pablo Neruda.

In ji Pablo Neruda.

Neruda tayi aure sau uku. Yarinyarsa tilo ta haife shi daga auren sa na farko, Malva Marina Trinidad, wacce ta mutu tana da shekaru 8 kacal a duniya sakamakon cutar hydrocephalus. Kwanakin karshe na rayuwar Pablo Neruda sun kasance a Santiago, inda ya mutu a ranar 23 ga Satumba, 1973. daga cutar kansa ta prostate.

Roberto Bolaño

An haifi Roberto Bolaño a ranar 28 ga Afrilu, 1953 a Santiago de Chile. Yaro ya wuce tsakanin Valparaíso, Viña del Mar da garin Los Ángeles, inda ya kammala karatunsa na farko. A 15 ya koma tare da iyalinsa zuwa Mexico. A cikin kasar Aztec ya ci gaba da karatun sakandare, wanda ya bari bayan shekara guda don sadaukar da kansa kawai ga karatu da rubutu.

A cikin Mexico City, Bolaño ya sadu da mawaƙi Mario Santiago da sauran matasa marubuta. Sharedungiyar ta raba abubuwan sha'awar wallafe-wallafe da yawa, don haka kaɗan kaɗan sai suka zama kusa. Daga wannan abota aka haife shi da waƙar motsi na rashin gaskiya, wanda aka kafa a 1975. Shekara guda bayan haka, Roberto ya wallafa aikin Sanya soyayya. Wannan tarin wakoki shi ne na farko daga cikin shida da ya gabatar a tsawon rayuwarsa, gami da bugu biyu da ya mutu. Littattafansa sun hada da: Karnuka masu soyayya (1993), suna Três (2000) y Jami'ar da ba a san ta ba (2007).

Littafinsa na farko, Nasiha daga dalibin Morrison zuwa ga Joyce fan (1984), aka ba shi lambar yabo a Fannin Adabi. Koyaya, duk da dogon aikinsa, aikin da ya jefa marubucin nan cikin shahara shi ne bugawa ta shida: Masu binciken daji (1998). Wannan labarin ya sanya shi ya ci kyautar Herralde de Novela (1998) -ɗan Chile na farko da ya karɓe shi- da Rómulo Gallegos Award (1999).

Roberto Bolaño ya mutu yana da shekara 50 a Barcelona (Spain), a ranar 15 ga Yulin 2003, bayan fama da ciwon hanta na dogon lokaci. Marubucin ɗan ƙasar Chile ya bar littattafai da yawa da ba a kammala su ba, waɗanda aka buga su shekaru da yawa bayan mutuwarsa. Wani gwaninta ya fito daga wannan tattarawa, littafin labari 2666 (2004), wanda ya ci manyan kyaututtuka tare da su kamar: Salambó, Ciudad de Barcelona da Altazor.

Alejandra Costamagna

Alejandra Costamagna Crivell ya zo duniya ne a ranar 23 ga Maris, 1970, a Santiago de Chile. Tun tana karama take son yin rubutu, amma har sai da samartakarta ta dauki aikin da mahimmanci. Malaminsa Guillermo Gómez yana da alaƙa da wannan sha'awar. A wancan matakin rayuwarsa ya fara karanta Mistral, Neruda, Shakespeare da Nicanor Parra; duk sun kasance masu tasiri a gare ta.

Costamagna ya karanci aikin jarida a jami'ar Diego Portales. Wani lokaci daga baya, ya kammala digiri na biyu a fannin adabi a wannan makarantar. A duk tsawon lokacin da take aiki ta sadaukar da kanta ga bayar da tarurrukan bita na adabi, bugu da kari, ta yi aiki a matsayin edita, mai sharhi kan wasan kwaikwayo da kuma marubuci a mujallu da yawa.

A matsayinta na marubuciya, ta gabatar da aikinta na farko a shekarar 1996, Cikin nutsuwa, wanda ya sami kyakkyawar tsokaci kuma ya ci kyautar Gabriela Mistral Literary Games (1996). Costamagna ya gabatar da littattafan nasara, kamar: Mummunan dare (2000), Gobara ta ƙarshe (2005), da kuma Dabbobin gida (2011). Yawancin masu sukar sun haɗa da wasu ayyukansa a cikin abin da ake kira Littattafan yara.

Alberto fuguet

Santiago de Chile ya ga haihuwar Alberto Felipe Fuguet de Goyeneche a ranar 7 ga Maris, 1964. Ya kasance yarinta a Amurka, kuma sai a shekarar 1975 ya dawo kasarsa ta asali. Iyakantaccen yare, marubucin nan gaba ya fara karatun littattafai a cikin Sifaniyanci don sanin kansa da harshen mahaifinsa. Yarda da cewa Littattafan rubutu by Marcela Paz ya kasance mai tasiri sosai a kansa, wanda za'a iya gani a cikin littafinsa na farko.

Yayi karatu a Jami'ar Chile. Farkon abin da ya zaba shi ne aiki a fannin ilimin halayyar dan Adam, wanda ya karanta tsawon shekara guda, amma daga baya ya koma aikin jarida, inda daga nan ne ya kammala karatunsa kuma ya zama daya daga cikin abubuwan da yake so. Baya ga aikinsa na marubuci, ya gina sanannen aiki a matsayin marubuci, marubuci, marubucin allo, mawaki kuma mai sukar fim. An san shi ne saboda tasirin sa a kan marubutan zamani, don yin fare akan ingantaccen wallafe-wallafen birni.

A 1990 ya gabatar da labarin sa na farko, Doara yawan aiki, wanda ya sami lambar yabo ta Municipal for Literature na Santiago. A shekara mai zuwa ya wallafa littafin da ya kai shi ga nasara: Mara kyau kalaman. Har ila yau, aikinsa ya nuna: Ja tawada, littafin da aka shirya shi don sinima a shekarar 2000. Shekaru uku bayan haka, ya fito da wani ɗan tarihin rayuwa wanda ake kira Fina-Finan rayuwata, sabbin litattafan sa sune: Ba almara ba (2015) y Gumi (2016).


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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