Marianela

Marianela.

Marianela.

Marianela (1878) ɗayan mahimman ayyuka ne na marubucin Sifen Benito Pérez Galdós (1843 - 1920). Pieceungiyar ta yi fice don ƙwarewar wannan marubucin wajen ƙirƙirar haruffan mata, halayen da masana tarihi da masana suka yaba wa waɗanda suka sadaukar da kansu don nazarin shi. Zurfin tunani na fitaccen jarumin littafin ya kururuta wannan ingancin marubucin. Wannan taken shine ɗayan litattafan karatun sa na ƙarshe, waɗanda suka gabace shi a rayuwar marubutan Spain.

Koyaushe kai tsaye, haƙiƙa, ban dariya, mai tunani kuma tare da ingantaccen tattaunawa, Marianela yana nuna duk wasu halaye na marubuta da gadon da ba zai misaltu ba. Ba abin mamaki bane, Galdós memba ne na Royal Academy tun 1898 kuma ɗan takarar Nobel Prize for Literature in 1912. A halin yanzu, an san shi a matsayin babban marubuci a cikin harshen Sifen, bayan Cervantes.

Marubucin

Anyi masa baftisma da sunan Benito María de los Dolores Pérez Galdós, an haife shi a 10 Mayu, 1843, a Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain. Kodayake a matakai daban-daban na rayuwarsa ya yi fice a matsayin ɗan siyasa, marubucin wasan kwaikwayo da marubuta, rubuce-rubuce shine fuskokin da yake da mahimmanci. Don aikinsa ya zama alama ta almara na ainihin ƙarnin Mutanen Espanya na ƙarni na XNUMX.

Yara da samartaka

Benito wani ɓangare ne na babban iyali. Shi ne ɗa na goma na auren tsakanin Kanar Sebastián Pérez Macías da Dolores Galdós Madina. Tun yana karami mahaifinsa ya sanya shi son labaran tarihi kuma ya ba da labarin abubuwan soji marasa iyaka wadanda shi kansa ya yi yaƙi.

Ya yi karatun karatu na asali a Colegio San Agustín a garinsu, wata cibiya da ke da mahimman makarantu a lokacinta. Yayin samartakarsa ya yi aiki tare (ta hanyar rubuce-rubuce, waƙoƙin ban dariya da labarai) tare da jaridar cikin gida, Bas din. A 1862 ya kammala karatun digiri na farko a Cibiyar La Laguna da ke Tenerife.

Tasirin adabi, wallafe-wallafe na farko

A watan Satumba 1862 ya koma Madrid kuma ya shiga jami'a don yin karatun shari'a. Kodayake, a cikin kalmomin Galdós kansa a ciki Tunawa da mai mantuwa (1915), ɗalibi ne mai warwatse, mai saurin rashi. A cikin babban birni Ya kasance na yau da kullun a "taron Canarian" da kuma laccoci a Athenaeum, inda ya sadu da abokinsa da suka daɗe, Leopoldo Alas, Clarín.

ma, a cikin Fornos da Suizo cafes ɗin matasa Galdós ya yi musayar ra'ayoyi tare da masu hankali da zane-zane na wancan lokacin. Daga cikin su, Francisco Giner de los Ríos —Founder of the Institución de Libre Enseñanza - ya ƙarfafa shi ya rubuta kuma ya gabatar da shi ga Krausism, halin da ake ciki a cikin wallafe-wallafensa na gaba.

Ayyukan aikin jarida, tafiye-tafiye zuwa ƙasashen waje da wallafe-wallafen farko

Daga 1865 ya fara rubuta wa kafofin yada labarai kamar La Nación, Muhawara El y Jaridar Motsa Ilimin Bature. Shekaru biyu bayan haka ya yi tafiyarsa ta farko zuwa Paris a matsayin mai ba da rahoto a baje kolin Duniya. Bayan dawowarsa ya binciko ayyukan Balzac da Dickens, daga ƙarshen ya fassara Takardun Bayan Mutuwa na Pinungiyar Pinwick (buga a La Nación).

Benito Perez Galdos.

Benito Perez Galdos.

Bayan dawowa daga tafiyarsa ta biyu zuwa ƙasashen waje a 1868, ya yi aiki a kan labarai masu faɗi game da kafa sabon Tsarin Mulki bayan kifar da Elizabeth II. Littafinsa na farko, Maɓuɓɓugar Zinare (1870), zai zama gabatarwa ga Trafalgar (1873) littafin farko na Wasannin Kasa. Tare da wannan jerin, ya shiga cikin tarihin haruffa Mutanen Espanya a matsayin "marubucin tarihin Spain."

Labari mai dangantaka:
Ina Benito Pérez Galdós?

Aikin Galdós

Galdós ɗayan marubuta ne mafi shahara a tarihi a cikin harshen Sifan. Sai kawai Wasannin Kasa (1873 - 1912) sun kawo sauye sau 46, bugawa a cikin jerin biyar na kundin goma kowane. Gabaɗaya, masanin Canarian ya kammala kusan litattafai ɗari, ya zarce wasan kwaikwayo ashirin, da kuma labarai, labarai da ayyuka daban-daban.

Duk cikin yanayin shi ya samo asali ne ta hanyoyi daban-daban ko nau'ikan adabi (a cikin kowannensu ya bar manyan take), ya game:

  • Litattafan rubutun (1870 - 1878). Litattafai 7; daga cikin mashahuran mutane akwai Cikakkiyar Lady (1876) y Marianela.
  • Litattafan zamani - zagayen kwayoyin halitta (1881 - 1889). Littattafai 11; tsaye a tsakanin su Likita Centeno y Fortunata da Jacinta (1886-87).
  • Litattafan zamani - tsarin ruhaniya (1890 - 1905). Littattafai 11; kasancewa Rahama (1987) mafi yawan yabo a cikin waɗannan.
  • Litattafan tatsuniyoyi (1909 da 1915). 2 litattafai.

Ayyukan

A cikin aikin Galdós, kyawawan halaye masu kyan gani waɗanda aka samo asali daga madaidaiciya da salon halitta sun bayyana, mahimmanci a cikin maganganun wahayi na gargajiya. Daidai, (mafi yawa) harshen magana yana yarda da wasu wurare tare da kalmomin al'ada, a tsakiyar labaran da suka bar wuri don dariya da ban dariya.

A gefe guda, matsayi mai ƙarfi game da malamai ya bayyana zuwa mafi girma ko ƙarami a cikin rubuce-rubucen Galdós. A zahiri, wannan tunanin ya haifar masa da ƙiyayya ga ɓangarorin Katolika masu ra'ayin mazan jiya, waɗanda suka sami nasarar ɓarnatar da nadin nasa na kyautar Nobel.

Marianela  da kuma zurfin haruffa

Mai ba da labari na mutum na uku yana ƙarfafa sha'awar halayyar mutum game da kowane membobin aikin. Musamman, Matan Galdós suna nuna kyau da rikitarwa na duniya, a cikin yanayi wanda koyaushe ke sanya mutuncin kowane mutum da gwajin sa. Dangane da wannan, mai nuna alamar Marianela ya ƙunshi soyayya da yanayin ɗabi'a (a cikin yarinyar da ba ta da sha'awa amma mai girman zuciya).

Har ila yau, makasudin kawo rahoto shine manufa don isar da tunanin marubuci game da bambance-bambance tsakanin azuzuwan zamantakewa da kuma yarda da halaye na lokacin. Hakanan, akwai cikakken dacewa tsakanin halayen halayen halayensa tare da cikakken wakilcin yanayin yanayi da shimfidar wurare.

Analysis of Marianela

Kuna iya siyan labari anan: Marianela

Littafin labari ya kunshi surori 22, wadanda taken su ke nuna salon Galicas na 'picaresque' (wanda ya sa labaran sa shahara sosai). Misali, "VII: Karin maganar banza"; "VII: Maganar banza ta ci gaba" ... Tare, gabaɗaya tsarin rubutu ya kasu kashi biyu zuwa gabatarwa, matsakaici, ƙuduri da kuma tatsuniyoyi.

Synopsis

Labarin ya fara ne da bayanin shimfidar shimfidar wuri kan hanyar zuwa hakar Socrates, kusa da Aldercoba, a arewacin Spain. Can, Teodoro Golfín — wani likita ne da ya kware a ido - ya zagaya wurin don neman ɗan’uwansa Carlos, mai kula da ma’adinan. Ya iso ba tare da ɓacewa ba saboda Pablo, jagora wanda, duk da makaho, ya kwatanta shimfidar ƙasa daki-daki.

Bayyana ta Benito Pérez Galdós.

Bayyana ta Benito Pérez Galdós.

Pablo ya san wurin sosai saboda mai yi masa jagora, Nela, marayu 'yar shekara 16 Tare da bayyanar da yara irin na kyawawan halaye. Ta yi rayuwa mai wahala sosai kuma ba ta samun isasshen abinci a da. A lokacin ta dangin Centeno ne suka dauke ta. Ko da hakane, a cikin watannin da suka gabata tana matukar farin ciki da ƙaunatacciyar ta Pablo, wanda takan zagaya filin kowace rana da ita.

Ƙaddamarwa

Don Francisco Penaguilas, Mahaifin Pablo koyaushe yana neman ta'aziya da ingantaccen ilimi ga ɗansa, wanda ya kasance mai juyayi tare da jin dadin Marianela (Nela). Duk da wannan, ta ji tsoro lokacin da ta sami labarin fata (na nesa) cewa idanun Pablo za su warke bayan sa hannun Dakta Golfín. Bayan haka, Francisco ya gaya masa labarin ɗan'uwansa Don Manuel Penáguilas.

Arshen ya yi alkawarin cewa idan aikin ya sami nasara, zai aurar da 'yarsa Florentyna ga ɗan wanta. A lokaci guda, Sha'awar Pablo na ilimi ya sa shi damuwa da tunanin kyakkyawa. Ya gamsu da cewa Nela ita ce siffar kyakkyawa, akasin fahimtar sauran. Da kyau, babu wanda ya yi shakkar kyakkyawar zuciyar Nela, amma sun yi shakku game da rauni da ɓarna.

Baƙin cikin Nela

Jim kaɗan kafin fara aikin, Don Manuel da 'yarsa Florentina, kyakkyawar yarinya kuma mai kirki, sun isa garin. Duk da haka, Pablo ya dage kan son auren Nela. Koyaya, nisan da ke tsakanin su ba makawa bane saboda bayan aikin, dangin Don Francisco sun kasance masu kula da Pablo.

Kwanaki sun shude, kowa a garin yayi magana game da nasarar aikin. Pablo yana gani kuma babban abin da ya fi burgeshi shine ya rarrabe kyawun Nela. Amma yarinyar talakawa ta ji tsoron ƙin yarda da ita kuma ta bar garin tare da Celipín, ƙaramin ɗan gidan Centeno. Koyaya, Florentina ta ba Nela gida na ainihi tare da dangin Penánguilas kuma suka sanar mata da bukatun Pablo.

Sakamakon

Nela ya ƙi irin tayin na Florentyna. Cikin takaici, yarinyar ta fara yin rayuwarta a cikin daji har sai da Teodoro ya same ta a cikin mummunan yanayi kuma ya tilasta mata ta gaya masa dukkan labarinta. Bayan 'yan kwanaki, Florentina tana kula da Nela mai rauni da rikicewa a gidan Penánguilas.

Wata rana, Pablo ya zo ba zato ba tsammani don ziyarta yayin da Florentina ke ɗinki suttura don Nela. Saurayin yayi mamakin kyan dan uwan ​​nasa ya fara yaba mata. Ko da Pablo - yin biris da kasancewar likitan da "wata yarinya" a cikin ɗakin - ya ce ya yi murabus daga son da yake yi wa Nela kuma yanzu yana farin ciki game da auren da zai yi nan gaba tare da Florentina.

Rufewa

Ciwo, rashi mai haɗari da rashi, Nela ta ɓace a cikin fewan mintoci kaɗan har ta mutu. Kafin haka, Pablo ya iya gane ta lokacin da ya iya karban hannunta ya kalli idanunta. Likitan ya ce "Ya mutu ne saboda kauna." A ƙarshe, Florentina ta yanke shawarar yi mata kyakkyawar jana'iza don nuna godiyar ta har abada ga Nela.

Wasu mazauna ƙauyen ma sun ce, "Ta fi kyau yanzu" (cewa ta mutu). Koyaya, bayan 'yan watanni, duk waɗanda ke wurin sun manta da Marianela. Ma'aurata tsofaffi ne kawai suka zo neman kabarin kyakkyawar mace kyakkyawa, Doña Mariquita Manuela Téllez (Nela).


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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