Mai kamawa a cikin hatsin rai

Kamawa a cikin Rye.

Kamawa a cikin Rye.

Mai kamawa a cikin hatsin rai labari ne daga marubucin Ba'amurke JD Salinger. Asalinta na asali cikin Turanci, The catcher a hatsin rai, Hakanan za'a iya fassara shi azaman "Mai tsaro a filin alkama." Kodayake wasu masu wallafe-wallafen Ba'amurke-Amurka sun fassara sunan littafin a matsayin "Mafarautan ɓoye." Wannan daga cikin mafi kyawun littattafan adabin Amurka.

Buga shi a cikin 1951 ya haifar da ɗan rikice-rikice a cikin Amurka saboda yarenta bayyananne game da jima'i da kuma halin damuwa na samari. Har yanzu dai, littafin ya samu karbuwa daga mafi yawan masu sukar adabin, da kuma sauran jama'a. Ba abin mamaki bane, har zuwa yau an sayar da kwafi fiye da miliyan 65 na wannan aikin.

Game da marubucin, JD Salinger

An haifi Jerome David Salinger a New York a ranar 1 ga Janairu, 1919. Shi ne ƙarami a cikin yara biyu na aure tsakanin Sol da Miriam Salinger. Kakan mahaifinsa ya kasance rabbi ne wanda ke da shahararren kasuwancin shigo da cuku da naman alade. Mahaifiyarsa haifaffiyar Scotland ta ɓoye asalin Katolika sosai a lokacin da ba a yi la'akari da auratayya ba.

Ba har sai da matashi Jerome ya bar mitzvah ya san addinin mahaifiyarsa. A gefe guda kuma, Salinger - wanda ake wa lakabi da Sonny daga danginsa - ya halarci Makarantar McBurley, kusa da gidansa a Upper West Side na NY. Duk da halayen ilimi, amma bai kasance dalibi mai kyau ba. Saboda haka, iyayensa sun yanke shawarar shigar da shi makarantar koyon aikin soja ta Valley Forge a Wayne, Pennsylvania, da nufin ladabtar da shi.

Ilimi mafi girma

Bayan kammala karatunsa daga Valley Forge, Salinger ya shiga Jami'ar New York. A shekara mai zuwa, mahaifinsa ya yanke shawarar tura shi zuwa Turai tsawon watanni tara. Dalilin wannan tafiya ta transatlantic shine don koyan wasu yarukan da kuma alaƙar kasuwanci. Amma Jerome ya fifita koyon yare a sama da kasuwanci.

Komawa Amurka, Salinger yayi jarabawa a Kwalejin Ursinus a Pennsylvania kafin yayi karatun yamma a Jami'ar Columbia. A can, Farfesa Whit Burnett zai canza rayuwarsa saboda matsayinsa na edita a mujallar Labari. Burnett ya hango kwarewar kirkirar Salinger kuma ya sauƙaƙa abubuwan da yake bugawa na farko, ba kawai a ciki ba Labari, kuma a cikin mashahuran kafofin watsa labarai kamar Collie's y Asabar Maraice Post.

Aikin soja

Salinger yayi aiki a cikin Sojan Amurka daga 1942-1944. A lokacin ɗan gajeren aikinsa na soja ya kasance wani ɓangare na manyan tarihin tarihi na yaƙi: mamayewar Normandy da Yaƙin Bulge. Koyaya, bai taɓa daina rubutu ba, musamman game da babban halayen sabon labari: wani yaro mai suna Holden Caulfield.

JD Salinger.

JD Salinger.

Yakin ya haifar masa da mummunan tashin hankali. Yayin zaman sa a asibiti ya hadu da wata Bajamushiya, Sylvia, wacce ta yi aure tsawon watanni takwas kacal. Salinger ya yi aure karo na biyu a cikin 1955 zuwa Claire Douglas, diyar fitaccen mai sukar fasahar Biritaniya Robert Langdon Douglas. Sakamakon aurensa na biyu (wanda ya ɗan wuce sama da shekaru goma), an haifi 'ya'yansa Margaret da Matthew.

Bugawa na Mai kamawa a cikin hatsin rai

Tun 1946 Salinger yake kokarin buga littafin da ya rubuta lokacin da yake aikin soja, karshe, a 1951 The catcher a hatsin rai an sake shi. Littafin ya samu kyakkyawar fahimta, kodayake wasu muryoyin sun kira jarumar (Holden Caulfield) "mai tallata munafunci" na lalata. Koyaya, bayan lokaci aikin ya zama wani ɓangare na abubuwan adabin Amurka.

Mai kamawa a cikin hatsin rai ya kasance batun karatun adadi mai yawa a duk duniya game da alamomin da Salinger ya fallasa a cikin wannan aikin. Daga cikin su, Jana Šojdelová daga Jami'ar Jihočeská (Czech Republic) a cikin littafinta Symbolism a cikin Kamawa a cikin Rye na JD Salinger (2014). Musamman, Šojdelová ya haskaka wajan Holden na "ceton ɗan cikin sa daga ramin girma da haɗari na balaga."

Yanayi na musamman

Shekaru biyu bayan wallafa aikin, marubucin ya koma wata kadada 90 a cikin Cornish, New Hampshire. Manufarsa ita ce ya jagoranci salon rayuwa ba tare da raini ba ga jama'a. Duk da wannan, rayuwar Salinger ta kasance cikin mawuyacin hali saboda halin sa da yanayin ikon sa. A saboda wannan dalili, matarsa ​​ta biyu, Claire Douglas, ta aika da saki a cikin 1966.

Shekaru shida bayan haka, Salinger ya fara soyayya da Joyce Maynard. Wane ne zai yi tunanina wulakantaccen rikicewar rikicewar watanni 10 na zaman tare a cikin Cornish, a cikin The New York Times Mujalla (1998). Margaret ('yarsa) ta bayyana kanta a wata hanya makamancin haka a shekarar 2000. Daga baya, JD Salinger ya auri wata mara lafiya mai suna Colleen O'Neil, wacce ta kasance tare da shi har zuwa rasuwarsa, wanda ya faru a ranar 27 ga Janairun 2010.

Makirci da manyan haruffa na Mai kamawa a cikin hatsin rai

Makircin ya ta'allaka ne da jigogi guda huɗu masu mahimmanci: rabuwa, rarrabuwa, keɓewa da sulhu. A cewar masanan kasar Sin Jing Jing da Jing Xia, Salinger ya tona asirin halin da ake ciki kamar yadda ba a yi tsokaci a kansa a lokacin ba. Labari ne game da sabani tsakanin rashin ruhaniya a cikin jama'ar Amurka da buƙatar kafa tsarin ɗabi'a.

Saboda haka, babban halayen hoto ne na marubucin da kansa da kuma gaskiyar samarin Amurka yayin 50s. Manufofin mai nuna karfi suna tilasta shi koyaushe gudu daga wani mahalli mara kyau zuwa wani yayin da ƙaryar waɗancan wuraren ke ƙaruwa. Da farko, ya rabu da muhallin Pencey Preep sakamakon kin amincewa da wadanda ba a so - a mahangar sa - Stradlater da Lackey.

Tafiya ta Holden Caulfield

Yayin tserewarsa zuwa New York, yana tunanin hanyoyin da zai haɗu da manya, amma sai ya ji baƙonsa da shawarar da ya yanke. Sakamakon haka, Holden mai rikitarwa yana ƙin ginin ginin kansa, da ma yanayin da yake ciki. A cikin kaɗaici, Caulfield ya yi imanin cewa ba zai iya rayuwa ba kuma ya yanke shawarar keɓe kansa a cikin kyakkyawar duniyarsa. Da kyau, yanayin waje ba zai taba dacewa da tsammanin ku ba.

Don haka Holden yayi kamar dai rayuwa wasa ce tare da dokoki, masu nasara da masu hasara. Sabili da haka, mafi mahimmanci shine a yaba rayuwa a matsayin canji na yau da kullun inda kowa ke wucewa. Sai lokacin da halin halaye na kansa ya shafi ƙaunatacciyar Phoebe sai ya yarda da haɓakarta. Daga qarshe, Holden ya fahimci cewa nauyin "manyan mutane" ba ya unshi lalata tsarkaka ko rashin laifi na cikin cikin.

Phoebe caulfield

Kafin Phoebe Caulfield ta shiga wurin, jarumar tana da cikakkiyar fahimta game da duniya da kuma fifikon manya. A bayyane yake an haɗu da yanayin a cikin rikice-rikice tsakanin duniyar mai daɗi ta ƙuruciya (inda Holden ke son zama) da mummunan munafunci na girma. Amma Phoebe ta rikita batun Holden, duk da cewa tana tausaya wa ra'ayinsa na rashin son girma.

'Yar'uwar -' yar shekaru shida - tana ganin girma a matsayin wani ɓangare na tsarin halitta. Tana zama amintacciyar shaida ga masu karatu saboda ta san ɗan'uwanta sosai. Yanayin labarin ya bayyana raunin mai labarin. A zuciya, Holden ɗan saurayi ne mai baƙin ciki da rashin tsaro, mai tsananin buƙatar kauna da goyan baya. Nassin da ke cikin gidan kayan tarihin a karshen littafin ya tabbatar da wani zato: kamar yana bukatar ta fiye da yadda take bukatarsa.

Mista Antolini

Ya kasance balagagge tare da halayyar da ta fi kusa da manufa ta Holden saboda halayensa na al'ada. Mista Antolini baya magana da Holden da ikon malami, kamar yadda Mr. Spencer yake yi. Akasin haka, yana yarda da kiransa a tsakar dare kuma ba ya tsawata wa yaron saboda bugu ko shan sigari, yana ganin shi ya bambanta da sauran ɗalibai. Sabili da haka, wani juyayi ya taso

Mista Antolini ya ɗauki Holden zuwa gidansa mara kyau, inda ya gabatar da tsohuwar matarsa ​​kuma ya bayyana matsalolin shansa. A can - a cikin wani aiki da aka fassara da farko azaman lalata da magana - Mista Antolini ya taɓa goshin Holden yayin da yaron ke barci. Amma daga baya (a babi na 19) Holden ba shi da kwanciyar hankali sosai tare da yiwuwar masu luwadi ... ya damu da ra'ayin zama ɗan luwaɗi.

Motifs da alamu Mai kamawa a cikin hatsin rai

Son zuciya da kuma yawan tunanin jima'i

Da farko daga tserewarsa daga Pencey, Holden yana da yawan tunanin jima'i. A daya daga cikin hanyoyin, Holden ya ji kunya lokacin da Sunny ta cire rigarta ta zauna a cinyarta. Ko da lokacin da 'yar'uwarsa ƙaunatacciya ta rungume shi sosai, ya faɗi cewa wataƙila a wasu lokuta tana da ƙauna sosai. Canjin tunanin Holden ya kai wani muhimmin lokaci lokacin da ya yi makoki saboda yanke hukunci da gangan da ya yi wa Mista Antolini.

Wannan kuskuren yana da matukar mahimmanci a gare shi, sabili da haka, ya fara tambayar kansa al'adarsa ta saurin yanke hukunci ga wasu. Holden ta fahimci cewa koda Mista Antolini dan luwadi ne, rashin adalci ne a "kore shi", kamar yadda farfesa ma ya kasance mai kirki da karimci. A ƙarshe, Holden yana lura da rikitarwa na Mr. Antolini ... sauran mutane suma suna da ji.

Waƙar Comin 'Thro da Rye

Sunan littafin ya samo asali ne daga mummunar fassarar da waƙar ta yi wa Holden Comin 'Thro da Rye. Yana ji (ba daidai ba) "idan jiki ya kama jiki zai tafi hatsin rai", lokacin cikin gaskiya yana cewa "idan jiki ya sami jiki zuwa rye". Wato, Holden ba daidai bane ya tsinkayar da waƙar a matsayin fassarar magana wanda ke magana akan "tarkon yarinta a gefen" na canji.

A zahiri, waƙar tana nunawa ne kan ko ya dace mutane biyu su haɗu da soyayya a filin, ɓoye wa mutane. Hakazalika, kalmomin Comin 'Thro da Rye baya tambaya ko masoyan sun shaku da juna. Sabili da haka, waƙar tana magana ne game da gamuwa da jima'i na yau da kullun, ba game da "kamawa" ƙuruciya ba kafin girmanta kamar yadda Holden ya yi imani.

Jar hular Holden

Yana nuna keɓaɓɓun mutane, da kuma sha'awar mai son ya bambanta da waɗanda suke kewaye da shi. Hakanan, jar hular alama ce ta cibiyar rikice-rikicen cikin gida na Holden: sha'awar keɓe kansa ta fuskar buƙatar buƙatar kamfani. Caulfield bai taba ambaton ma'anar hular tasa ba, kawai yana tsokaci ne game da kamanninta.

Gidan Tarihi na Tarihi na Tarihi da Ducks na Tsakiya

Gidan kayan gargajiya yana nuna Holden abubuwan kamar yadda yake so ya kasance: daskarewa a lokaci, bai canza ba. A gefe guda kuma, sha'awar mai son sanin inda agwagwar ke tafiya a lokacin hunturu ya nuna bangaren yara. Ba karamar hujja bace, hijirar tsuntsayen tana nuna canje-canje kamar yadda ba makawa a al'amuran rayuwa.

JD Salinger ya faɗi.

JD Salinger ya faɗi.

Legacy

A cewar tashar Biography.com, Kamawa a cikin Rye ta sanya sabon darasi a cikin adabin Amurka bayan Yaƙin Duniya na II. The catcher a hatsin rai sanya JD Salinger ɗaya daga cikin marubutan da suka yi tasiri a ƙarni na XNUMX a cikin Turanci. Mashahurin marubuta kamar Phillip Roth, John Updike da Harold Brodkey, da sauransu, sun ambaci Salinger a matsayin ɗayan manyan nassoshi na adabinsu.


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