Littattafan José Saramago

Littattafai daga José Saramago

Littattafai daga José Saramago

Littattafan wallafe-wallafen José Saramago sun rufe fannoni da dama da suka bunkasa a tsawon shekaru 87 na rayuwa. Kodayake masanin daga Fotigal ya dauki lokacinsa don isa ga tsarkakakkiyar sadaukarwa a 1980, yana da shekara 57, ya kai duniya suna yana da shekara 76, bayan ya karbi kyautar Nobel ta Adabi a ranar 16 ga Nuwamba, 1998..

Baya ga fitaccen marubuci, marubucin ɗan Fotigal ya yi fice a matsayin ɗan jarida, marubucin wasan kwaikwayo, marubucin labari, mawaƙi da kuma masanin tarihi. A cewar José Luis Herrera Arciniega (1999), "Kafin Nobel, matsayinsa na marubuci ya wuce fagen adabi kuma ya sanya shi a matsayin mai tattaunawa da manema labarai da shaida da mai sharhi kan al'amuran siyasa ... ".

Littafin tarihin José Saramago

Haihuwa da dangi

An haifi José Saramago a ranar 16 ga Nuwamba, 1922 a Azinhaga, wani ƙauyen ƙauye, wanda ke arewa maso gabashin Portugal. Iyayensa, José de Souza da María da Piedade, ba su da talauci. Sakamakon haka, sun yanke shawarar yin ƙaura zuwa Lisbon a ƙarshen 1925, inda mahaifinsa ya shiga aikin 'yan sanda. Jim kaɗan da isa babban birnin, babban ɗan gidan, Francisco, ya mutu.

Saramago, fitaccen dalibi

Matashi José ya yi fice don kyakkyawan maki a makarantar fasaha ta masana'antu (kodayake horo ya haɗa da batutuwa na ɗan adam). Koyaya, saboda matsalolin kuɗi a cikin danginsa, an tilasta shi barin ajuju don taimakawa da kuɗin gida. Aikinsa na farko shine serialheiro (maƙeri) makanike ne na shekara biyu.

Cinikin José Saramago

Tun daga 1940s, ya gudanar da sana'oi daban-daban: mai karɓar bashi, jami'in kula da lafiyar jama'a da walwala, edita, mai fassara, kuma ɗan jarida. A cikin 1944 Saramago ya auri Ilda Reis kuma ya fara ƙirƙirar Kasar zunubi, littafinsa na farko (wanda aka buga a 1947 ba tare da nasarar edita ba, daidai da haihuwar ɗansa na fari, Violante). Haka kuma, Saramago ya kammala littafinsa na biyu Hasken rana (ba a buga shi ba sai 2012).

Daga baya, ya kasance mai sukar adabi kuma mai sharhi kan al'adu ga mujallar Seara nova. Waɗannan lokutan lokutan takunkumi ne a cikin al'ummar Iberiya. Saboda wannan, an taƙaita ko buga littattafan su a lokuta da yawa, musamman a cikin Labarin diary. A 1966 ya zama memba na kwamitin farko na Writungiyar Marubutan Fotigal - wanda ya shugabanta daga 1985 zuwa 1994 - kuma ya buga Kuna da wakoki.

Danniyar siyasa ga Salazar

Kodayake mulkin kama-karya na Salazar ya dame shi, Saramago cikin rashin tausayi ya fallasa ra'ayinsa na hagu a cikin labaran siyasa. Haka kuma, ya yi aiki a matsayin darakta da kuma furodusa mai wallafe-wallafe a gidan bugawa tsawon shekaru goma sha biyu. A cikin layi daya, ya yi fassarorin ayyukan na marubuta kamar Baudelaire, Colette, Maupassant da Tolstoi. A cikin 1969 ya shiga Jam'iyyar Kwaminis ta Portugal (sannan ba ta da doka) kuma ya sake Ilda.

Matsayinku a cikin Jaridar Lisbon

Tsakanin 1972 da 1973 ya rike mukamin edita, mai sharhi kan siyasa kuma, ga 'yan watanni, kodinetan labaran al'adu na Jaridar Lisbon. Shekara guda daga baya ya shiga cikin Juyin Halitta wanda ya samar da sauyi zuwa dimokiradiyya a Fotigal. A shekarar 1975 ya kasance mataimakin darakta na Jaridar Labarai kuma daga 1976 Saramago ya kasance a rubuce kawai hanyar tallafi.

Kiwon lafiya yayi Chão da kuma nasarar da aka dade ana jira

Wani sanannen abin da ya faru a aikin adabi na José Saramago shi ne lokacin da aka keɓe shi a ƙarshen 1980, bayan ƙaddamar da shi Kiwon lafiya yayi Chão (Daga daga kasa). Littafin labari ne wanda ya haɗu da gurɓataccen ɗan labari kuma - kusan - labarin waƙa game da ma'aikatan Lavre. Kyawawan bita da aka karɓa, gami da nasarar da aka samu a cikin tallan littafin, ya sa marubucin ɗan Fotigal ya buga kusan ba tsayawa ba tsawon shekaru 30 masu zuwa.

Jose Saramago.

Jose Saramago.

Ko da shaidar waɗanda suke kusa da shi sun nuna cewa ya yi rubutu har zuwa kwanakinsa na ƙarshe. A ƙarshe, José Saramago ya mutu yana da shekara 87 saboda doguwar wahala ta cutar sankarar bargo a ranar 18 ga Yuni, 2010, a gidansa da ke Tías (Lanzarote), Spain. Ya bar gadon da ya wuce littattafai dozin biyu waɗanda aka wallafa a cikin nau'ikan litattafai, jaridu, labarai, gajerun labaru, wasan kwaikwayo da shayari.

Halayen aikin José Saramago

Breadasar duniya da faɗi

Mafi yawan littattafan José Saramago an buga su a wajen ƙasarsa ta Fotigal. Jerin kasashen yana karkashin Spain (a cikin Spanish da Catalan), sai Faransa, Netherlands, Jamus (duka a Jamhuriyar Tarayyar Yamma da Jamhuriyar Demokradiyyar Gabas), Ingila, Girka, Poland, Bulgaria, USSR, Czechoslovakia (a cikin Czech da Slovak), Norway, Finland, Denmark, Sweden, Isra’ila, Romania, Hungary, da Switzerland.

Ya kuma samu nasarar ƙaddamar da littattafai a ƙasashen Japan, Amurka, Mexico, Colombia, Ajantina, da Brazil. Shahararrun marubutansa (the Littattafan rubutu daga Lanzarote), da kuma litattafan nasa sun sami shahara mai yawa tsakanin masu magana da Sifen. Wataƙila, ƙananan sanannun ayyukansa sun dace da wasan kwaikwayo da shayari.

Saramago kuma babu irin salo na musamman

A cewar masu nazarin adabi kamar su Martín Vivaldi ko Eduardo Miranda Arrieta, yana da matukar wahala a lissafa aikin José Saramago saboda tsayi da bambancinsa. A wannan ma'anar, iyakoki tsakanin wani jinsi zuwa wani kusan babu shi a cikin abubuwan da marubucin ɗan Fotigal ya ƙirƙiro, wanda ya zaɓi yin aiki a ƙarƙashin takamaiman salon wallafe-wallafe dangane da abin da saƙonsa yake so.

Game da wannan, Herrera Arciniega ya ce: “Shawarar ko za a rubuta labari ko gajeren labari, ko rubuta shayari, ko ƙirƙirar wasa, ko gudanar da tarihin ko zaɓar rubutun, yana da alaƙa da an bayyana. Ee, magana ce ta dabaru da salo, haka nan horo, amma kuma niyya akan me za'a rubuta… ”.

Arziki da bayyanawa

José Saramago ya haɗu da damar da kowane nau'i ke bayarwa don ƙayyade hanyoyin bayyana su. A cikin shafukanta akwai wurare da yawa inda rikice rikice yake kan aiki. Wannan yanayin ya bayyana sosai a cikin litattafansa Bishara bisa ga Yesu Kiristi (1991) y Muqala kan makanta (sha tara da tasa'in da biyar); dukansu labaru ne masu yawa tare da abubuwan tarihi.

Amfani da shi

Bugu da kari, kirkirar wallafe-wallafensa ya nuna matukar iya rubutu a matsayin marubuci, duk da - a cikin kalmomin Saramago - bayan da ya jaddada yin litattafai da yawa. A yawancin tarihinsa (kafin a tsarkake shi) ana ganin bayyanar rubuce rubucen sa da kuma aikin sa na jarida mai tsawo. Saboda haka, a cikin Kayan matafiya (1973) misalan da aka yi amfani da su suna nuna ma'anar karanta labari.

Kyakkyawan amfani da harshe da kyawawan takardu

A lokaci guda, Saramago bai yi zagi da yawan zafin rai ba ko kuma leɓe; Akasin haka, ya yi amfani da sandare a matsayin matattara mai tasiri yayin bayyana ra'ayoyi a taƙaice kuma a sarari. Watau ma'anar sa, salon sa ya hade ganyayyakin bangaren adabin sa tare da takaitaccen bayanin dan jaridar. Kowane ɗayan halaye an sanya shi cikin layin da ya dace, don ɗaukaka shi ko kuma ƙunshe da magana.

José Saramago, ɗan tarihi kuma ɗan siyasa

Tunaninsa na hagu an ambace shi a cikin tushen akidar jam'iyyun siyasa marasa kima a Latin Amurka (MAS a Venezuela ko Jam'iyyar Ma'aikata a Brazil, misali). José Saramago ya rubuta daga akasarin ra'ayin ɗan adam kuma a cikin tambayoyinsa (alal misali, a cikin Ni kwaminisancin kwaminisanci ne, tare da Jorge Halperín - 2002) akwai bayyananniyar taken adawa da mulkin mallaka.

Koyaya, koda lokacin da ya zargi Amurka da kasancewa sanadin mafi yawan cututtukan duniya na shekarun da suka gabata, Saramago koyaushe yana riƙe da matsayi mai mahimmanci game da rashin zurfin zurfin da haɗuwar Latin Amurka. Ko da a cikin hira (2002) tare da Eduardo Miranda Arrieta ya ce “Hagu na yau shi ne rashin ra'ayoyi. Kuma babu yiwuwar canza abubuwa ba tare da tunani ba ”.

Kalaman José Saramago.

Kalaman José Saramago.

Daya daga cikin sanannun jimlolin da ake dangantawa da Saramago yana cewa "Idan mutum ya samu yanayi ta hanyar yanayi, to dole ne a samar da yanayi ta mutum." Kuma ya kara da cewa, “Magana jari-hujja ba ta yin hakan, ba a haife shi ba don hakan. Kuma zai fi kyau idan muka gane cewa gurguzu bai ma aikata shi ba ... yanayin da miliyoyin mutane ke fuskanta ba mutane ba ne, ba su taɓa faruwa ba kuma komai yana nuna cewa ba za su kasance ba ”.

A wasu sabbin labaran nasa -Kogon dutse (2000), Mutumin da aka maimaita (2002), Muqala kan lucidity (2004) y katsewar mutuwa (2005) - José Saramago yayi nazarin batutuwa kamar su cinikin mabukaci, asarar ainihi a cikin jama'a, iyakokin dimokiradiyya da haɓaka aikin jahilci a matsayin tsarin mamaye.

Littattafai daga José Saramago

Da ke ƙasa akwai jerin ayyukan Saramago, da yawa daga cikinsu sun cancanci kasancewa a cikinsu mafi kyawun littattafai 100.

Novelas

  • Kasar zunubi (1947).
  • Manual na zane da zane (1977).
  • Daga daga kasa (1980).
  • Tunawa da gidan zuhudu (1982).
  • Shekarar rasuwar Ricardo Reis (1984).
  • Dutsen dutse (1986).
  • Tarihin kawanyar Lisbon (1989).
  • Injila bisa ga yesu Almasihu (1991).
  • Muqala kan makanta (1995).
  • Duk sunaye (1997).
  • Kogon dutse (2000).
  • Mutumin da aka maimaita (2004).
  • Kundin kan Lucidity (2004).
  • katsewar mutuwa (2005).
  • Tafiyar giwa (2008).
  • Kayinu (2009).
  • Hasken rana; rubuta a 1953, an buga shi a 2011 bayan rasuwarsa.

Mawaƙa

  • Wakoki masu yuwuwa (1966).
  • Wataƙila farin ciki (1970).
  • Shekarar 1993 (1975).

Labarun

  • Kusan abu (1978).
  • Labarin tsibiri da ba a sani ba (1998).

tafiya

  • Tafiya zuwa portugal (1981).

Diaries

  • Littattafan rubutu na Lanzarote 1993-1995 (1997).
  • Littattafan rubutu na Lanzarote II 1996-1997 (2002).
  • Littafin rubutu (2009).
  • Littafin rubutu na karshe (2011).
  • Littafin littafin Nobel na shekara (2018).

Littattafan yara - yara

  • fure mafi girma a duniya (2001).
  • Shirun ruwa (2011).
  • Mai kada (2016).

Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

Kasance na farko don yin sharhi

Bar tsokaci

Your email address ba za a buga.

*

*

  1. Mai alhakin bayanan: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Dalilin bayanan: Gudanar da SPAM, gudanar da sharhi.
  3. Halacci: Yarda da yarda
  4. Sadarwar bayanan: Ba za a sanar da wasu bayanan ga wasu kamfanoni ba sai ta hanyar wajibcin doka.
  5. Ajiye bayanai: Bayanin yanar gizo wanda Occentus Networks (EU) suka dauki nauyi
  6. Hakkoki: A kowane lokaci zaka iyakance, dawo da share bayanan ka.

bool (gaskiya)