Littattafan Shari'ar Dreyfus

Littattafan shari'ar Dreyfus.

Littattafan shari'ar Dreyfus.

Al’amarin Dreyfus a bayyane yake abin ƙyama ne, wanda ke nuna ƙiyayya da ƙiyayya ga Yahudawa a cikin Turai a ƙarshen XNUMXth da farkon ƙarni na XNUMX. Kyaftin Alfred Dreyfus, an mai da shi cikakken ɗan kwali don rufe gazawar yanayin lalacewa. An kama matashin soja ɗan asalin Bayahude a farkon safiyar 14 ga Oktoba, 1894, ana zarginsa da watsa bayanai zuwa Jamus.

Jordi Corominas daga El Confidencial (2020), ya tabbatar da cewa yanayin kafuwar Jamhuriyar Faransa ta Uku ya samo asali ne daga yanayin rashin adalci. Akwai fushin da yawa a Faransa bayan an rasa yaƙi da Prussia a 1870 da kuma sanarwar Daular Jamus a Versailles. Bugu da ƙari, rikice-rikicen juyin juya halin na Commune wanda bukatun ma'aikata Markisanci ya haifar ya jefa ƙasar cikin mawuyacin hali.

Bayani

Inuwar maido da masarauta gami da cire umarnin addini don ba da damar neman ilimin boko, ya kara yawan tashin hankali. Faransawa sun ɗauki waɗannan abubuwan takaici a hankali, amma suna kasancewa a cikin hankalinsu tare da kewar ɗaukar fansa da ci gaban ƙasa. Hakanan, kafa anti-Semitism na zamani ta Édouard Drumont ya kara dagula lamura.

Shekaru biyu na ƙarshe na ƙarni na XNUMX sun ga lalata ƙazamar halin ɗabi'ar girman kai na Faransa. Na farko, barazanar juyin mulkin da mashahurin Janar Boulanger ya yi ya kasance a fili. Daga baya, badakalar Canal ta Panama ta bankado wata babbar makarkashiyar cin hanci da rashawa da ta shafi 'yan kasuwa,' yan majalisa da 'yan jarida. Takardar da aka samo a cikin kwandon shara a ofishin jakadancin Jamus na nuna babban bam din.

Karin Drey

Alfred Dreyfus shine mafi dacewa da ake zargi don kashe ƙishirwar al'umar Faransa don ɗaukar fansa. Haifaffen garin Alsace a ranar 9 ga Oktoba, 1859, Dreyfus ya ƙaura tare da attajirai yahudawa Yahudawa zuwa Faransa lokacin da Jamus ta mamaye ƙasarsa. Ya yanke shawarar zama ɗan ƙasar Faransa kuma yana son sake shigar da Alsace cikin Faransa. Saboda wannan dalili, ya shiga aikin soja ya shiga cikin École Polytechnique a 1882.

A shekarar 1889 ya kai mukamin kaftin kuma shekara daya daga baya ya shiga kasar yakin. Tun a cikin 1893 yana daga cikin Janar na Ma'aikatar Yakin Faransa. A cikin 1894 an tuhume shi da laifin leken asiri kuma rikicin da ke nuna alama a tarihin adawa da yahudawa ya ɓarke. A tsawon shekaru goma sha biyu tun daga shari'ar (1894 - 1906), al'ummar Faransa ta rabu sosai tsakanin masu goyon baya da masu zagin Dreyfus.

Ofaddamar da rashin adalci na tarihi

Shari'ar Dreyfus ta samar da adadi mai yawa na yau. Yawancin waɗannan ayyukan ba takardu ne na tarihi ba, maimakon haka suna mai da hankali ne a kan takaddama da mahimmancin rubutu. Koyaya, rubututtukan masu amfani ne sosai don fahimtar tsarin zamantakewar batun. Musamman damuwa shine mummunan yanayin yawancin Gallic press akan Dreyfus don al'adun Ibrananci.

Wata kotun soji ta gurfanar da Alfred Dreyfus cikin hanzari bisa laifin cin amanar kasa kuma aka yanke masa hukuncin ɗaurin rai da rai a Tsibirin Iblis (Guyana Faransa). Ba a taɓa jin zargin da ake tuhumar ba kuma ba a ba shi izinin ganin abin da shaidar ta kasance a kansa ba. Madadin haka, an wulakantashi a bainar jama'a kuma an ƙasƙantar da darajojinsa duka na soja.

J'Accuse

J'Accuse (Ina zargi) ta Émilie Zola shine rubutu mafi dacewa wanda aka rubuta yayin tsayin daka na shari'ar Dreyfus. Ya bayyana a shafin farko na jaridar L'Aurore a ranar 13 ga Janairu, 1898 a cikin wata budaddiyar wasika zuwa ga shugaban Faransa, Félix Faure. Zola ya yi ƙoƙari - cikin nasara - don kama shi kuma ya sanya batun "manta" da Dreyfus a gaba kan ra'ayin Faransawa.

Shekaru biyu bayan da Dreyfus ya yanke hukunci, sabon shugaban leken asirin, Georges Picquart, ya gano ainihin mayaudarin a cikin sojojin Faransa. Babban mai laifi shine kwamandan (almajirin Drumont) Ferdinand Walsin Esterházy. Amma an zargi Picquart da gabatar da shaidar karya kuma aka tura shi zuwa kasashen ketare don kar a sake tayar da karar. Tare da J'AccuseZola ya tayar da duk wulakancin da ya faru har zuwa lokacin.

J'accuse na Émilie Zola.

J'accuse na Émilie Zola.

Sakamakon Émile Zola

Zola ya zama gwarzo ga duk mazan kirki da suka sunkuyar da kai dreyfusarde. Daga cikin masu ilimin da ke goyon bayan Dreyfus, Bernard Lazare ya buga a lokacin rubutun 1896 game da rashin daidaiton zargin. Amma Lazare bai sha wahala ba kamar yadda aka kwatanta da Zola. Da kyau, duk 'yan jaridar da ke adawa da yahudawa da masu ra'ayin mazan jiya sun bayyana na karshen a matsayin mutumin da ya saba wa bukatun kasar.

Émilie Zola dole ta tafi gudun hijira a Ingila. Daga nan ya ci gaba da kare Dreyfus da kuma harin da ya kai wa mahalarta wannan fitina: Kanar Paty de Clam, Janar General Mercier da Billot ... A ƙarshe, Zola ya mutu a ranar 29 ga Satumbar, 1902 (wanda ake tsammani) ya mutu bayan da ya toshe hayaƙin gidansa. Kodayake, a cikin littattafan da aka buga a baya game da J'Accuse, sun tayar da ra'ayoyi game da mai kisan kai wanda ya rufe murhun murhu.

Labarin lamarin Dreyfusna Joseph Reinach

Mai hankali dreyfusarde ya fitar da aikinsa cikin mujalladi bakwai tsakanin 1901 da 1911. Ya ƙunshi kyawawan tabbatattun shaidun kimiyya da wasu zato na mutum game da asalin lamarin. Aikin Reinach shine asalin wallafe-wallafen da suka bayyana akan al'amuran Dreyfus daga 1960. Daga cikin su, Harka ba tare da Dreyfus ba (1961) daga Marcel Thomas da Esterházy Enigma na Henri Guillemin (duka daga 1961).

Labarin Dreyfus Affair, na Joseph Reinach.

Labarin Dreyfus Affair, na Joseph Reinach.

Abubuwan kwanan nan

Daya daga cikin littattafan kwanan nan Denis Bon ne ya rubuta shi. Wannan marubucin yana da sha'awar fitattun fitintinu da yawa a cikin tarihin zamani. A cikin shawarwarinsa ya bar tambayoyi domin ya dame mai karatu. Shin batun leken asiri ne ko kuwa ya shafi kasa ne? Shin alama ce ta nuna wariyar launin fata na Yahudanci na al'ummar Faransa a lokacin? Abun Dreyfus (2016) ta Bon, bai bar ƙarshen sako-sako ba.

Hakazalika, a cikin Littafin laifi Daga aa. VV. (2018), yana ba da kyakkyawan yanayin hangen nesa ga ɗalibai na shari'a da masu aikata laifi. Shari'ar Dreyfus (tare da wasu) an bayyana ta ta hanyar nazarin halayyar dan Adam game da masu aikata laifukan nasa tare da hadin gwiwar tsarin shari'a na son zuciya. Kari akan hakan, yana gabatar da cikakken bincike na takardu da kuma zane-zane da yawa wadanda suka bunkasa labarin.

Yanke hukuncin shari'ar

Walsin Esterházy ya yi ikirarin aikata laifukansa shekaru da yawa bayan sasantawar wata shari'ar da ta zama ta kasance mai laka da amincewa ta 1899. Kotun soja ta biyu - in babu wanda ake tuhumar - ta same shi da laifi a karkashin "yanayi na musamman." Sabon shugaban Faransa, Émilie Loubet, ya yi afuwa ga Dreyfus (don tsabtace sunansa da na jam’iyyarsa ta siyasa). Amma yarjejeniyar ta kasance wulakanci: Dreyfus bai iya da'awar rashin laifinsa ba.

Alfred Dreyfus ya yarda da tayin saboda kawai yana son komawa ga danginsa. Ya koma Faransa kewaye da cikakken sirri. Dole ne ya jira har zuwa watan Yulin 1906 don kotu ta wanke shi kuma ta gyara shi. Duk da cewa babu wata kotun soja da ta same shi ta wanke shi, amma an dawo da matsayinsa na soja a daidai inda aka zare masa takobi da kayan sawa.

Shekarun ƙarshe na Alfred Dreyfus da gadon shari'arsa

Abun Dreyfus na Denis Bon.

Abun Dreyfus na Denis Bon.

Alfred Dreyfus ya kasance mai aiki a lokacin Yaƙin Duniya na ɗaya a matsayin mai mukamin Laftanar kanar a wata ƙungiya da aka nema. A karshen yakin, ya yi ritaya na dindindin har zuwa mutuwarsa a Faris, ran 12 ga Yulin 1935; yana da shekaru 75. A wannan lokacin, tsananin ƙiyayya da yahudawa wanda ƙungiyoyin farkisanci ke tallafawa a cikin Nazi Jamus da kuma Mussolini na Italiya sun riga sun shaida.

Shi kansa Alfred Dreyfus ya sha fama da yunƙurin kisan gilla a cikin Pantheon na Faransa a cikin 1908. Hakan ya faru ne yayin bikin miƙa ragowar Émile Zola, lokacin da Louis Gregori ya ji masa rauni da harbi a hannu. An wanke mai laifin bayan da ya bayyana cewa bai yi yunƙurin cin zarafin mutumin ba, amma a kan dalilin. Taron ya kasance tsinkayen zaluncin da aka yiwa yahudawa ne har zuwa tsakiyar karni na XNUMX.


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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