Mafi mahimmancin littattafai akan ETA

Jumlar Fernando Aramburu

Jumlar Fernando Aramburu

A yau, ambaton ETA yana haifar da rarrabuwar kawuna a cikin yanayin zamantakewar zamantakewar Mutanen Espanya. Yawancin rigimar da ake yi a yanzu ta ta'allaka ne a kan Dokar Tunawa da Dimokuradiyya da aka kafa kwanan nan, wanda 'yan siyasa masu ci gaba ke goyan bayan da kuma masu ra'ayin mazan jiya. Na karshen ya bayyana dokar da aka ambata a matsayin "mai bita, bangaranci da yarda da 'yan ta'adda."

Lallai, galibin dimokraɗiyya na Yamma da manyan cibiyoyin gwamnati masu tasiri a duniya -UN, OAS, Tarayyar Turai, a tsakanin sauran- sun dauki ETA a matsayin kungiyar masu tsattsauran ra'ayi. A bayyane yake, Ba abu ne mai sauƙi don magance shi ba. A saboda wannan dalili, an gabatar da jerin littattafai masu ra'ayi daban-daban akan haɓaka, tashi da ƙarshen ETA a ƙasa.

Game da ETA

Euskadi Ta Askatasuna wani yunkuri ne mai bayyana kansa "'yancin kai, kishin kasa, gurguzu da juyin juya hali" wanda ya fi aiki a cikin Basque Country (arewacin Spain da Faransa). Babban makasudin kungiyar shi ne inganta asalin tsarin gurguzu mai cikakken 'yanci a Euskal Herria.

Mafi yawan laifukan ETA sun fara ne bayan mutuwar Francisco Franco (1975) har zuwa tsakiyar 1990. Sun hada da fashi, tashin bama-bamai, garkuwa da mutane, safarar makamai, da cin hanci, don haka matsayinsu na ’yan ta’adda. Kungiyar masu tsattsauran ra'ayi ta ma samu nasarar tara kusan dalar Amurka miliyan 120 sakamakon kwacen da ta yi. A cikin 2011, ƙungiyar ta lalata tabbatacce.

ma'aunin ta'addanci

  • Binciken da hukumomin Faransa da Spain suka gudanar ya nuna cewa ETA ta kashe fiye da mutane 860 (ciki har da yara 22);
  • Yawancin wadanda abin ya shafa 'yan asalin Basque ne kuma sun hada da jami’an tsaro (yafi), alkalai, ‘yan siyasa, ‘yan kasuwa, ‘yan jarida da farfesoshi;
  • Tashin bama-bamai ya haifar da mutuwar mutane da dama ga fararen hula, wanda aka ayyana a matsayin "lalacewar hadin gwiwa", a cewar kungiyar.

Takaitaccen bayani na mafi mahimman littattafan ETA

Patria (2016)

Wannan labari yana wakiltar wani ci gaba a cikin aikin adabin Fernando Aramburu. A zahiri, littafin ya sami kyaututtuka da yawa - kamar Kyautar Masu sukar ko lambar yabo ta ƙasa, da sauransu - ga marubuci daga San Sebastian. Bugu da ƙari, a cikin 2017 HBO Spain ta ba da sanarwar cewa za a juya taken zuwa jerin talabijin (an jinkirta farawar sa saboda cutar ta Covid-19).

Fernando Aramburu

Fernando Aramburu

Patria ta gabatar da labarin Bittori, gwauruwar wani ɗan kasuwa da ETA ta kashe a ƙauyen ƙauyen Guipúzcoa. A farkon littafin ta ziyarci kabarin mijinta domin ta shaida masa cewa za ta koma garin da aka yi kisan. Amma, duk da kashe kungiyar ta 'yan ta'adda ta karshe, a wannan kauye akwai tashin hankali da ya lullube da kwanciyar hankali na karya.

ETA da maƙarƙashiyar tabar heroin (2020)

A cikin 1980, ETA ta zargi kasar Spain da gabatar da tabar heroin a matsayin kayan aikin siyasa don kashewa da lalata matasan Basque. Sannan, karkashin wannan hujja, kungiyar masu kishin yankin ta kaddamar abin zargi yaƙin neman zaɓe na yaƙi da fataucin miyagun ƙwayoyi. Amma, a mahangar marubucin Pablo García Varela, "mafia" tatsuniya ce ta ƙungiyar ta'addanci.

Don jayayya da batun ku, Varela -PhD a Tarihin Zamani daga UPV/EHU- Ya yi bincike mai zurfi a kan lamarin. Sakamakon rubutu ne wanda ke fayyace tare da bayanai da shaida yadda ainihin manufar ETA ita ce ta haɗa kayan aikinta. Har ila yau, marubucin ya ba da abubuwan da za su iya haifar da matsalar miyagun ƙwayoyi a cikin Basque Country tare da matsalolin da suka dace.

1980. Ta'addanci a kan Sauyin Mulki (2020)

Tun daga shekara ta 1976, Spain ta fara tafiyar hawainiya da ban tausayi na sauyi daga mulkin kama-karya na Franco zuwa dimokuradiyya. Sama da shekaru shida ne ta'addanci ke wakiltar babbar barazana ga zaman lafiyar kasar da ke cikin rikici. Dalilin aikata laifukan dai shi ne kin amincewa da sauyin da kungiyoyi masu tsattsauran ra'ayi masu ra'ayin siyasa daban-daban suka yi.

Tabbas, duk da bambance-bambancen dabi'un wadannan kungiyoyi ('yan aware, masu ra'ayin rikau, masu ra'ayin ra'ayi ...) duk sun yanke shawarar amfani da ta'addanci don karya gwamnati. A cikin waɗannan shekarun, mafi yawan tashin hankali shine 1980, lokacin da aka yi rajistar hare-hare 395., wanda ya yi sanadiyar mutuwar mutane 132, da jikkata 100 da kuma yin garkuwa da mutane 20.

Fayil

Masu gudanarwa: Gaizka Fernández Soldevilla da María Jiménez Ramos. gabanin magana: Luisa Etxenike.

Masu amfani: Gaizka Fernández Soldevilla, María Jiménez Ramos, Luisa Etxenike, Juan Avilés Farré, Xavier Casals, Florencio Domínguez Iribarren, Inés Gaviria, Laura González Piote, Carmen Lacarra, Rafael Leonisio, Javier Marrodán, Roberto Palestine, Roberto Péroz, Roberto Morez, Borezloz, Irela. Matteo Re, Barbara Van der Leeuw.

Editorial: Fasaha.

Labarin ta'addanci (2020)

Antonio Rivera da Antonio Mateo Santamaría ne suka gyara. Wannan littafi ya tattara ra'ayoyin marubuta 20 tsakanin masana tarihi, falsafa, ilimin zamantakewa, da sadarwa. Musamman ma, marubuta sun bincika ƙarshen ayyukan aikata laifuka da kuma rushewar ETA. Hakazalika, rubutun ya shiga cikin halin da ake ciki na ta'addanci tare da daidaita shi a kowane nau'i na kafofin watsa labaru na al'adu.

Saboda haka, zalunci ya mamaye jama'a ta hanyar jaridu, sinima, adabi da talabijin. Ganin irin wannan yaduwar, marubutan sun yi tambaya kan yadda ake ba da labari ga sababbin tsararraki. Sun yi gargadin cewa babban haɗari shi ne cewa labari na son zuciya zai iya zuwa don tabbatar da tashin hankalin ta'addanci kuma ya yi watsi da wahalar da wadanda abin ya shafa.

LABARI...
LABARI...
Babu sake dubawa

Fernando Buesa, tarihin siyasa. Bai cancanci kisa ko a mutu ba (2020)

A ranar 22 ga Fabrairu, 2000, ETA ta kashe ɗan siyasar gurguzu Fernando Buesa - tare da rakiyansa, Jorge Díez Elorza. Marigayin da ake magana a kai ya fuskanci barazana daga kungiyar ta'addanci saboda adawar sa na kishin kasa na jam'iyyun da ke da alaƙa da ETA. Wannan dabi'ar ra'ayin ballewa ta yi tasiri sosai a cikin jam'iyyar PNV (Basque Nationalist Party) da wasu bangarori na PSE (Jam'iyyar Socialist ta Euskadi).

Dangane da littafin, Mikel Buesa, ɗan'uwan Fernando Buesa, ya bayyana wa Libertad Digital cewa rubutun ya gaza danganta wasu mahimman abubuwan tarihin rayuwa. na wadanda aka kashe Duk da haka, littafin da ɗan tarihi Antonio Rivera da Eduardo Mateo suka buga -wakili a Gidauniyar Fernando Buesa - ya ba da cikakkun bayanai game da gwagwarmayar cikin gida a cikin zamantakewar Alava.

Ciwo da ƙwaƙwalwa (2021)

Wannan wasan ban dariya da Aurora Cuadrado Fernández ya rubuta kuma Saure ya buga yana gabatar da labarai goma game da wahala, kaɗaici, watsi da tsoro da mutuwa.. Halayensa kamar "al'ada", domin babu ɗayansu da ya so ya zama jarumi. Duk da haka, an tilasta wa kowa ya bi hanya mai wuyar juriya don jimre wa wahala da kuma rungumar gaba.

Mutane ne da ke da al'adu daban-daban, amma tare da abu ɗaya: an canza rayuwarsu ta hanyar ta'addanci. Don tattara labaran, marubucin ya yi amfani da shaidar waɗanda abin ya shafa da dangin da abin ya shafa ta kungiyoyin masu tsattsauran ra'ayi irin su ETA, GRAPO ko ta'addancin Musulunci (11-M). Babban masu zane-zane na wasan kwaikwayo sune Daniel Rodríguez, Carlos Cecilia, Alfonso Pinedo da Fran Tapias.


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

Kasance na farko don yin sharhi

Bar tsokaci

Your email address ba za a buga. Bukata filayen suna alama da *

*

*

  1. Mai alhakin bayanan: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Dalilin bayanan: Gudanar da SPAM, gudanar da sharhi.
  3. Halacci: Yarda da yarda
  4. Sadarwar bayanan: Ba za a sanar da wasu bayanan ga wasu kamfanoni ba sai ta hanyar wajibcin doka.
  5. Ajiye bayanai: Bayanin yanar gizo wanda Occentus Networks (EU) suka dauki nauyi
  6. Hakkoki: A kowane lokaci zaka iyakance, dawo da share bayanan ka.