1984

1984.

1984.

1984 shine mafi mashahuri labari na marubucin Burtaniya kuma ɗan jarida Eric Arthur Blair, sananne a duk duniya a ƙarƙashin sunansa, George Orwell. An buga shi a ranar 9 ga Yuni, 1949, ba shine aikin farko da ake ɗaukar dystopian ba, ƙari idan taken ne ya sanya wannan kalmar ta zama ta zamani a duk duniya.

Wannan littafin babbar nasara ce ta kasuwanci tun farkon shigarta a kan kantin sayar da littattafai. Tun daga wannan lokacin, ya dawo tare da wasu abubuwan yau da kullun zuwa saman jadawalin tallace-tallace. Babban sake dawowa ya faru a cikin 2016, lokacin da aka zabi Donald Trump - wanda ya ba mutane da yawa mamaki - a matsayin shugaban 45th na Amurka.

Marubucin

An haifi Eric Arthur Blair a ranar 25 ga Yuni, 1903, a cikin Motihari, wani birni wanda ke cikin manyan yankunan mulkin mallaka na Birtaniyya a Indiya. A lokacin rayuwarsa ya kasance mai tsananin fada da tsarin kama-karya da mulkin mallaka. A lokacin samartakarsa, har ma ya yi tawaye ga nasa gwamnatin a Burma.

Daga baya ya yi tafiya zuwa Spain don shiga cikin kare Jamhuriya game da harin Franco. A zahiri, kusan an harbe shi a cikin Catalonia saboda shi (ya tsere ta mu'ujiza). Duk waɗannan abubuwan, tare da masu adawa da gwamnatocin Nazi da Stalinist, suna cikin yawancin ayyukansa. Wani bayyanannen fasali a cikin 1984, kazalika a cikin wani littafinsa mai suna: Tawaye a gona.

Shekaru na binciken aikin jarida

Orwell, dan jaridar, ya tashi haikan don tattara duk bayanan da ke cikin rubutun na aƙalla shekaru biyar. Wadannan suna wakiltar cikakkun bayanai masu haskakawa ga masu sauraro a tsakiyar karni na XNUMX. Karanta wannan bita na tarihi ya ba mutane da yawa damar fahimtar tarin abubuwan tashin hankali waɗanda suka faru a Turai tun lokacin Yaƙin Babban.

Lakabin 1984 ya sanya makircin a cikin makoma mai nisa, saboda wannan dalilin a lokacin ana ɗaukarsa "tatsuniyar annabci". Kodayake marubucin kansa ya fayyace fiye da sau ɗaya cewa ba kawai zato ba ne game da makomar bil'adama. Ya kasance galibi sake duba abubuwa ne waɗanda suka faru har zuwa farkon rabin karni na XNUMX.

Zuwa 'yan baya

Tawaye a gona an buga shi a 1945; 1984 a 1949… George Orwell ya mutu shekara guda bayan haka, wanda aka kamu da cutar tarin fuka na dogon lokaci. Kamar yawancin manyan masu fasaha na kowane lokaci, ba zai iya jin daɗin nasarar aikinsa ba. Wannan ba ƙaramin hujja bane, tunda ana ɗaukarsa ɗayan marubutan da suka yi tasiri a cikin duka karni na XNUMX.

George Orwell.

George Orwell.

Bugu da ƙari, tasirinsa ya kasance yana aiki sosai cikin sabuwar karni. Menene ƙari, yana bin sifan "Orwellian", kalma a halin yanzu ana amfani da ita don komawa zuwa gwamnatocin kama-karya. Har ila yau, kalmar tana nufin tsarin da ke lalata tarihi da al'adun al'ummomi da gangan don dacewa da bukatunsu.

1984, a takaice

London, 1984. Birnin Ingilishi, tare da sauran tsibiran Birtaniyya, suna cikin yankin Oceania. A zahiri, suna wakiltar ɗayan manyan iko uku waɗanda duniya ta rarrabu ciki. Yankunan wannan babbar ƙasa sun haɗa da Ireland, kudancin Afirka, Amurka gabaɗaya, New Zealand, da Ostiraliya.

Sauran kasashen biyu da ake dasu sune Eurasia - wadanda suka hada da Tarayyar Soviet da sauran kasashen Turai (ban da Iceland - da Gabashin Asiya, wani yanki ne tsakanin China, Japan da Korea. Wadannan kungiyoyi koyaushe suna cikin yaki (Abu mafi mahimmanci tattalin arziki, sabili da haka, dole ne ya kasance cikin ruwa a kowane farashi). A lokaci guda, rikice-rikicen yaƙi hanya ce cikakke don sarrafa yawan jama'a.

Yan wasa

Winston Smith shine jarumi kuma mai ba da labari. Yi aiki a ɗayan gasa waɗanda aka tsara don ci gaba da mulki a kan mulki: Ma'aikatar Gaskiya. Aikinsa shine sake rubuta tarihi don dacewa da bukatun gwamnati. A wannan lokacin, ba matsala idan ya kamata ku rubuta almara na kimiyya kuma ku warware ainihin bayanan. A saboda wannan dalili, yana ƙyamar tsarin da ke akwai.

Burinsa na canzawa ya sa shi ya shiga hoodungiyar 'Yan Uwa ta Juriya tare da Julia, yarinyar da ya ƙaunace ta kuma suke da ra'ayi iri ɗaya.. Amma ƙungiyar da ake zaton ta juyi ta zama wata hanyar sarrafawa. Duk waɗannan haruffa an kama su, an azabtar da su kuma an tilasta su su yarda da duk bayanan gwamnati ba tare da tambaya ba, koda kuwa "biyu ne da biyu daidai da biyar."

Gumakan

1984 gabatar da cikakkun ra'ayoyi masu kyau da na'urori waɗanda suke yau da kullun. Kalmar farko da aka kirkira itace Big Brother, ya zo hannu da hannu tare da tunanin kasancewar ko'ina a duniya da kuma lura baki daya. Akwai na'urori (allo) wanda aka sanya domin lura da kowane motsi na mutane.

A halin yanzu, muryoyin da suka fi tsattsauran ra'ayi akan Digital Revolution ya nuna cewa Alexa ko Google a yau suna cika sama ko theasa da aikin bibiyar yawan jama'a. A zahiri, yawancin ra'ayoyin maƙarƙashiya na shekarun da suka gabata sun dogara da irin wannan tunanin na Orwellian.

Annabcin kimiyya na annabci?

George Orwell ya faɗi.

George Orwell ya faɗi.

"'Yan sanda masu tunani" wani alama ce ta 1984. Babban burinta shine hada kai, tare da ma'aikatun minista (ban da Ma'aikatar Gaskiya akwai kuma na Soyayya, Yalwa da Zaman Lafiya) tare da kawar da ra'ayin Kai. Sabili da haka, an hana keɓancewa, saboda jama'a dole ne su kasance masu kama da juna ta hanyar tsoro da yaƙi.

Ba tare da kalmomi ba

A gefe guda kuma, sarrafa bayanai yana daga cikin bangarorin da Orwell yake da zurfin zurfafawa a cikin labarinsa, da kuma amfani da sabon harshe. Wannan tsari ne da aka kirkireshi don yanke kalmomi tare da ra'ayin tsallakawa azaman babu komai duk abin da baza ayi tunanin sa ba.

A bayyane yake, kamanceceniya da duniyar yau suna da yawa. A lokutan da akasari ake yada labarai ta hanyar kafofin sada zumunta, ba zai yuwu a tabbatar da tabbatattun iyakoki tsakanin gaskiya da karya ba. Bugu da kari, da Emoji suna ta kara matsowa kusa da barin jama'a marasa magana.

Shin akwai makoma?

Babu niyyar mugayen abokan gāba, ƙulli na 1984 yana da cikakken bege. Rubutun ya ƙare da bayanin sararin samaniya inda mamayewa ba zai yiwu ba. Ta hanyar keɓance wannan damuwa zuwa "rayuwa ta ainihi", shin har yanzu bil'adama suna da hanyar tsira? ... Zai iya zama latti.


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