Mafi kyawun littafi a duniya

Menene littafi mafi kyau a duniya? Wataƙila, ga mai yin addini, amsar a bayyane ita ce Baibul, Attaura, ko Kur'ani. Kodayake rubutu ne na dindindin kuma suna cike da ingantattun labarai, zaɓin ɗayansu ne kawai ke haifar da bahasin tauhidi (ba dole bane). Saboda haka - sosai daga mahangar nazarin adabi - ba za su iya zama 'yan takarar irin wannan bambancin ba.

Hakanan, ɗaga rubutu a matsayin "lamba ta ɗaya" na dukkan bil'adama batu ne - tabbas - na zahiri. (Sai dai idan lamari ne na ƙididdiga, misali: adadin kwafin da aka sayar). Saboda wadannan dalilai, A cikin wannan labarin, an gabatar da taken sarauta da yawa dangane da mahimmancinsu na tarihi da kuma dacewa a cikin adabin duniya.

Don Quijote na La Mancha (1605), na Miguel de Cervantes

Kiran rayuwar marubucin

Cervantes An haife shi a Alcalá de Henares, Spain, a 1547. Tun yana ƙarami ya nuna sha'awar Adabi, ya fara a cikin waƙa. Daga baya, A shahararriyar tafiya zuwa Italiya, ya karanta wasu waƙoƙin chivalric waɗanda suka rinjayi abubuwan da aka tsara a baya Yanke. Marubucin ya kuma yi aiki a Yaƙin Lepanto a cikin sojojin Kirista, gaskiyar da ke kuma motsa alƙalaminsa.

Bayan ya koma Spain an kama shi a Algiers a 1575. Duk da yake an tsare shi, ya sha wahala iri iri. Bayan fitowar sa, ya dukufa ga sana'oi daban-daban ya kuma rubuta Da galatea, babban aikinsa na farko. Daga baya, an sake daure shi a shekarar 1597.

A wannan kurkuku na biyu, Cervantes ya ɗauki cikin Yanke, master operarsa. Ya mutu a Madrid a 1616 yana da shekara 68.

Daidaita aikin

Enwararren Mutumin Kirki Don Quijote na La Mancha, wanda aka buga ɓangaren farko a cikin 1605, ana ɗaukarsa a matsayin aikin farko na littafin zamani. Wannan saboda yanayin haɗari ne da sabon salon magana, wadanda suka hada da labarai, "litattafai" da hada wasu nau'ikan halittu a cikin babban filin.

ma, Don Quijote na La Mancha ya zama mafi mahimman tarihin al'adu don haɓaka harshen Sifen; wato harshen wata sabuwar kasa. Kasancewar a karni na XNUMX sarakunan Spain suka sami nasarar korar musulmai kuma aka gano Amurka, hakan yasa ya zama da sauki Don Quixote daga baya ya zama babban mawallafin adabin Castilian.

Menene Don Quixote game da?

Hidalgo daga La Mancha ya haukace daga karanta littattafan chivalric sosai, har yakai kanshi kayan sawa a matsayin jarumi mara kirki, duk da cewa irin wannan ofishi tuni ya ɓace. Don haka, Alonso Quijano ya zama Don Quixote kuma ya "canza" maƙwabta biyu. Isayan ana yin sa ne ta hanyar saƙwansa - Sancho Panza - wani kuma daga kuyanginsa, - Aldonza Lorenzo, wanda ya haɓaka Dulcinea del Toboso.

Ta wannan hanyar, jarumi da dan wasan sa ke fita neman kyawawan kasada domin Dulcinea “nasa” ta iya koyon darajar Don Quixote. Don haka, yi tsokaci game da kowane irin abubuwa na mahaukaci, da samun izgili da ƙin yarda, amma nace akan abubuwan da ba su dace ba har sai an sami ceto daga dangi da abokai. A ƙarshe, an ɗauke shi zuwa gida, ya fahimci cewa abin da ya faru ya samo asali ne daga tunaninsa, yana baƙin ciki kuma ya mutu.

Siyarwa Don Quijote na La Mancha ...

Allah Mai Ban Dariya (1304 da 1321), na Dante Alighieri

Dante, mawaki na kwarai

Anyi la'akari da babban mawaƙin Italiyanci a kowane lokaci, an haifi Dante a Florence a 1265. A lokacin yarinta wata yarinya mai suna Beatrice za ta ba da himma ga fitaccen mai wasan kwaikwayon nasa. Yayinda yake saurayi, ya fahimci karfin ikon sa, da kuma fasahar zane. Ya kuma yi jawabi game da zane-zane da makamai.

ma, wahayi game da mutuwar Beatriz, ƙaunarta mara yiwuwa, ta rubuta Vita nuova. Daga baya, Dante ya karanci ilimin Latin da falsafar Latin, ya yi aure, kuma ya tsunduma cikin siyasa. Daga baya, an yanke masa hukuncin ƙaura kuma, a cikin 1302, a ƙona shi da rai idan ya koma Florence. A saboda wannan dalili, ya fara rayuwar yawo cikin biranen Italiya, har ya sauka a Ravenna, inda ya mutu a ranar 14 ga Satumba, 1321.

Abinda ke da La Allah Mai Ban Dariya

Tasirin sa a kan zane-zane kamar adabi, zane-zane, sassaka, kiɗa da ma kan al'adun gargajiya masu zuwa da ke zuwa babu shakku.. A cikin gajeren lokaci, zamu iya magana game da ganowar wannan yanki akan Romanism. Hakazalika, a cikin zane da zane, daga Doré zuwa Blake; a cikin kiɗa, Frankz Liszt; a cikin sassaka, Auguste Rodin ...

,Ari, Babban darajar Dantesque Comedy yana cikin halayen duniya kuma yana da inganci ƙarni bakwai bayan haka. Dangane da wannan, TS Elliot ya ce "Tunanin na iya zama duhu, amma kalmar tana da amfani" ... saboda haka ana iya karanta ta. A takaice, yanki ne wanda za a iya karanta shi a cikin aya ko karin magana, ta hanyar kwararrun jama'a ko a'a, cike da kwatancen kwatankwacin hankali.

Game da aiki

Allah Mai Ban Dariya waƙa ce a cikin Italiyanci zuwa gida uku: Jahannama, A'araf da Aljanna, tare da jimlar baitoci 14.333 da za a iya saukar da su. Yana ba da labarin tafiyar mawaƙi Dante, tare da kamfanin Virgil, ta cikin lahira a lokacin sassan farko. Daga baya, tare da ƙaunataccen Beatriz, sun zagaya kashi na uku, Aljanna.

Dante ya fara ba da labarin tafiyarsa ta hanyar Jahannama kuma ya bayyana haruffa a matsayin malamin farko. Nan da nan, sai su tafi Purgatory, wurin tsarkake rayukan da Allah ya gafarta. A ƙarshe, mai gabatarwa ya bar Virgilio don tafiya cikin Aljanna tare da Beatriz. A can, kewaye da haske da kyawawan waƙoƙi, ya sami farin ciki a gaban Triniti Mai Tsarki.

Siyarwa Comedy na Allah (13/20)
Comedy na Allah (13/20)
Babu sake dubawa

alƙarya (1601), na William Shakespeare

Rayuwar Shakespeare, a takaice

An haife shi a watan Afrilu 1564 a Ingila, William Shakespeare ana ɗaukarsa ɗayan mahimman marubutan adabin duniya. Duk da haka, kadan an san shi da yarinta da ƙuruciya, baya ga cewa shi ɗa ne ga ɗan kasuwa na gari kuma ɗan siyasa daga dangin Katolika. Haka kuma, an san cewa aikinsa na ɗan wasa da marubucin wasan kwaikwayo ya fara ne lokacin da ya tafi London a 1590.

A lokacin samartakarsa ya fara aiki a kamfanin wasan kwaikwayo na Lord Chamberlain; a can ya zama abokin tarayya (kuma shahararsa ta ƙaru). Ara zuwa wannan, Shakespeare ya rubuta kyawawan waƙoƙi, amma an fi saninsa da mummunan labarinsa (alƙarya o Macbeth, misali). Ya mutu a ranar 23 ga Afrilu, 1616.

Tasirin na alƙarya

Ana iya faɗi ba tare da ƙari ba cewa duka gidan wasan kwaikwayon na Shakespearean yana yanke hukunci a cikin wallafe-wallafe na gaba. (har yanzu a halin yanzu yana da mahimmanci). Saboda haka, yana da wuya a tantance ko alƙarya Ya fi muhimmanci fiye da Macbeth mece Romeo y Julieta. Koyaya, a cikin alƙarya kuna da wakilci na gaske na duk abubuwan Shakespearean.

Don wannan, a cikin alƙarya Za a iya nuna mahimmancin mahimmanci a cikin tunanin gama gari na duniya, a cikin yare da al'adu daban-daban, misali. A kan wannan aka ƙara, wata baiwa da ba za a iya sokewa ba don ƙirƙirar haruffan ɗan adam da gaske wanda mai karatu zai iya gano su. Har ila yau, Wajibi ne a nuna haskaka musamman na fasaha da salo na marubucin, kasancewa abin tunani ga tsararraki har zuwa yau.

Takaita wannan bala'in

A Elsinor, Denmark, sarkin ya mutu. Sakamakon haka, ɗan'uwansa Claudio ya auri sarauniya, Gertrude, yayin da yariman ya bayyana da damuwa. Menene ƙari, barazanar mamayewar da Norway ta yi a ƙarƙashin umarnin Fortimbrás, ya bayyana a matsayin babban yanki ga masifar gama gari. Don haka, fatalwar sarki ta bayyana wa Hamlet cewa ɗan'uwansa ya kashe shi kuma ya nemi ɗaukar fansa.

Na gaba, fushi gabaɗaya ya yanke hukuncin mai yanke hukunci, wanda ya kashe Polonio bisa kuskure kuma ya ƙare da fuskantar duel tare da Laertes (don makircin Claudio). A cikin bayanin, sarauniyar ba da gangan ta sha guba, yayin da Hamlet da Laertes suka faɗi daga takobi mai guba.. Kodayake basarake ya cika fansarsa kafin ya mutu.

Siyarwa Hamlet (Na gargajiya)
Hamlet (Na gargajiya)
Babu sake dubawa

Sauran littattafan duniya

-         Laifi da Hukunci (1866), na Fyodor Dostoevsky

-         Miserables (1862), daga Víctor Hugo

-         Maɗaukakiby Johann Goethe

-         Ubangiji na zobba (1954), JRR Tolkien


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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  1. Mai alhakin bayanan: Miguel Ángel Gatón
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  3. Halacci: Yarda da yarda
  4. Sadarwar bayanan: Ba za a sanar da wasu bayanan ga wasu kamfanoni ba sai ta hanyar wajibcin doka.
  5. Ajiye bayanai: Bayanin yanar gizo wanda Occentus Networks (EU) suka dauki nauyi
  6. Hakkoki: A kowane lokaci zaka iyakance, dawo da share bayanan ka.

  1.   Leopoldo Alberto Trcka Sasia m

    Barka da yamma. A matsayina na mai ilimin tauhidi da kuma dalibin tiyoloji na 7, babu wata muhawara da ba ta zama dole a wurina ba, kuma ko da kuwa tauhidin ne, amma idan gaskiya ne, yana da matukar wahala a san wanne ne littafi mafi kyau, kodayake babu makawa, idan mafi karanta shi fahimta da mafi kyawu, shine littafi mai tsarki da zamani.

    Babu wani musamman

    Na aiko muku da runguma

    ALLAH YA ALBARKACE KA
    Gaisuwa atte.

    Leopoldo Alberto Trcka Sasia

  2.   Marcelo m

    Duk waɗanda aka ambata suna da kyau kuma zan ƙara "Dare dubu da ɗaya."

    gaisuwa

  3.   Alejandro Torres Diaz m

    Caramba!
    Isasshen faɗi cewa Cervantes ne ya rubuta Don Quixote!
    Shi kawai ya buga shi, ba wani abu ba

    1.    Sara m

      Kuna da gaskiya amma kawai a wani bangare, asalin ra'ayin ba nasa bane, asalin ya shafi balarabe ne (sunansa quihat, yi hakuri idan ban rubuta shi da kyau ba) wanda ya ɓace a cikin hamada kuma yana da ƙishirwa (kuma ba littattafai ba ) hakan ya sanya shi rasa tunaninsa kuma, kamar Alonso Quijano, ya rikita duk abin da ya gani da abubuwan da suka kawo masa hari da sauransu ... Ka lura cewa shi (Cervantes) bai taɓa ɓoyewa cewa ra'ayin ba nasa ba ne, daga baya ne, ka sani, uba.… Kudi, wanda yake so ya zama ya zama nasu gaba daya. Duk da cewa ban iya karanta ɗayan ba, amma na kasance tare da Don Quixote, da alama ya fi ... Ban sani ba, daban ... Gaisuwa

  4.   Hernando Varela ne adam wata m

    Barka dai. Duk manyan ayyuka ne waɗanda suka nuna alamun mihimmi kuma har ma sun inganta yaren a wasu lokuta ... Taken mafi kyawun littafi a duniya? Ba na son yadda yake sauti. Akwai da yawa da suka ɓace cewa jerin zasu zama marasa iyaka. Borges, Hesse, Goette, Joyce, da sauran dubunnan ... Gaisuwa kuma idan Allah bai albarkace ku ba kada ku damu cewa babu abin da ya faru.

  5.   Ignacio m

    Abubuwa na Euclid, Principia mathematica

bool (gaskiya)